Index of Keywords

In: Islam in South Asia
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Jamal Malik
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Index of Keywords

Abbasid(s) 14, 48, 52, 54–56, 62, 69, 78, 81, 88, 107, 107n3, 108, 116, 122, 125, 131, 154 ( Caliphate )
adab 13, 64–66, 90, 117, 226, 383, 383n31, 413
afaqis 168, 179
Afghans 118, 156, 181, 204, 208, 220, 239, 295, 300, 302, 380
ahimsa 438
ahl al-dhimma 47–48 ( dhimma, dhimmis )
ahl al-kitab 36
Ahl al-Sunna wa’l-Jamaʿa 399 ( Barelwi, Barelwis )
Ahl-e Hadith 397–401, 412, 440–441, 483, 485–486, 493, 554, 559, 579n15, 586, 591, 595, 602, 610
Ahl-e Qurʾan 404, 485, 491
Ahmadiyya, Ahmadis 483–485, 488, 521, 521n, 550, 592
Ahrar Party (Sunni Majlis-e Ahrar, Majlis-e Ahrar-e Islam) 452, 484, 521
ʿajam 16, 35, 116, 118, 186, 408, 631
ajlaf 140, 181–182, 182n9, 184, 517, 635
akhbar 61, 66, 200, 225, 340, 386
akhlaq(i) 14, 17, 64, 179, 217, 218, 222, 226, 403, 427–428
al-ghaiba al-kubra 130
al-ghaiba al-sughra 130
Aligarh movement 382, 405, 407, 446
All-India Muslim Majlis-e Mushawarat (AIMMM) 593
All-India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) 593, 595–596
al-salaf al-salih 536
amsar (sg. misr) 35
anjuman(s) 363–364, 396, 412, 441, 441n18, 484
ansar 186
ʿaql 65
Arabic language 62, 122, 590
Arabisation 596
Arabs 13, 29n2, 33–35, 37, 37n23, 39–40, 43–44, 46, 50, 52, 55, 58, 75, 77, 95, 148, 161, 168, 186, 344, 421, 428, 430, 439, 491, 586, 630–631
ardhal 140, 179, 182, 185, 202, 233, 302n19, 306, 635 ( ridhalah )
Articles 106, 260 and 20 (Constitution of Pakistan) 484, 485n3
Article 370 (Constitution of India) 635
Arya Samaj 435, 462, 487n8
asceticism, ascetic(s) 95, 144, 158, 196, 199, 233, 274, 288, 489n13, 669
Ashʿariyya 179
ashraf 84, 140, 162, 178–179, 181–182, 182n9, 184–185, 202, 208, 224, 233, 251, 262, 267, 296, 300, 301, 306, 309, 362, 396, 398, 401, 455, 517, 596, 608, 635 ( sharif )
atheists 13, 53, 597n
avatar 15, 110, 185, 632
Awami League 517, 521, 523, 526–527, 527n24–25, 530–531
awliyaʾ 93, 277 ( wali )
Baghdad Pact 522, 522n14
Bahmani Kingdom, Bahmanis 167, 169
baiʿa, baiʿat 87, 471
balance of power 309, 357, 451, 455
Barelwi, Barelwis 399–402, 412, 437, 441, 443, 483, 485, 520, 538, 549, 554, 562n, 567, 591–592, 595, 598, 602, 610 ( Ahl al-Sunna wa’l-Jamaʿat )
Begum(s) 207, 397, 414, 440, 478
Bengali language 239, 241, 340, 383, 434, 516–517, 517n5, 529
Bengalis 434, 471, 517, 521, 523n15, 529
Bhadralok 309–310, 434
Bhagavad Gita 32, 248
bhakti 132
Bharatiyya Janata Party (BJP) 464–468, 594–595, 599–600, 602–604, 621, 627–628
bidʿa, bidʿah 253–254, 339, 397, 401, 488n, 551
Bohras 120n52, 131–132, 374, 525
boundaries 2, 8, 10–11, 22, 30n3, 37, 114, 172, 179, 210, 216, 218, 222, 261, 300, 305, 338, 521, 533, 535–536, 538–539, 587, 592, 603, 611, 614–615, 632
Brahma, Barhma 250
Brahman(s) 42, 73, 127, 142, 147, 149–150, 158, 182–183, 185, 232–233, 365, 461, 466n23
Brahmo Samaj 344
British 3, 4n7, 19, 22, 24, 29, 109, 134, 174, 232, 295, 297, 299, 304–312, 315–316, 328–335, 338–339, 342–345, 349, 358, 359n9, 360–372, 374–375, 380–382, 385, 385n1, 387, 389, 392, 402–405, 407, 409, 411–412, 414–415, 423, 429, 434–440, 443, 445–449, 452, 454, 458–461, 465, 471, 473–476, 478, 492, 502–504, 540, 596
Buddha 57
Buddhism 57, 177n69, 461
Buddhist(s) 13, 31, 41–42 45–47, 50, 57, 73, 182n9, 233, 446, 542–543, 585, 630
Byzantine(s) 29, 29n2, 34, 37–38
Caliphate, caliph(s) 29, 29n2, 34, 36, 42–43, 44n61, 47–48, 52–55, 69, 78n5, 81, 87, 97–98, 107–108, 111, 116, 122–123, 125, 129, 131, 154–155, 161–162, 189, 220, 299, 299n6, 336, 339, 357, 408, 413, 438–439, 441, 445–446, 470–471, 497, 503, 533, 537, 569, 616 ( Abbasids, Fatimids, Ottomans, Umayyads )
capitalism 85, 299, 408, 467
Caste 7, 12, 17, 20, 32–33, 48–49, 65, 73, 85, 119, 123, 130–132, 162, 171, 180–187, 202, 218, 230, 232–234, 245, 262, 300, 346, 359–361, 365, 369, 371, 375, 406, 411, 454, 461–462, 466n23, 474, 487, 515n1, 518, 541, 584, 594, 599, 605, 608, 611, 613, 615, 620, 625–628 ( Vaishya )
Chachnama 29n2, 44, 49, 49n78, 51, 77, 94
Chakki-nama 170, 192–193, 291
Charkha-nama 170, 192–195, 291
Cheras 32 ( Tamils )
chillah 489
Chinese Empire 33
Chishtiyya, Chishti(s) 86, 89, 91–93, 93n53, 101, 116, 124–125, 136, 154, 160, 165, 165n29, 169, 188, 205, 209, 217, 224, 226–227, 233, 251, 263, 271–274, 344, 367, 400, 439
Cholas 32 ( Tamils )
Christianity, Christians 37, 39, 40n37, 47, 70, 174, 177n69, 189, 199, 200–201, 245, 332–334, 336n24, 363, 349, 351, 411, 426, 446, 463n10, 475–476, 484, 489, 509, 519, 581, 606, 616, 627–628
Citizenship Amendment Act 2019 635
coinage, coins 109, 116, 131, 144n15, 154, 163, 166, 204, 212, 244, 246, 305, 324
colonialism 3, 12, 19, 21n, 65, 299, 301n13, 305, 332, 343, 357–358, 362, 414, 453, 533
colonisation 83n24, 118, 221
colonialisation 327, 358
Combined Opposition Party (COP) 526
communalisation 3, 17, 22, 371, 464, 497
communalism 8, 23, 25, 67, 133, 268n38, 309, 329, 361, 371n45, 404, 417, 446n32, 448, 461–464, 466–469, 471, 583, 594, 596, 598, 602, 607–608, 629n, 634,
Congress of Vienna 357
conversion, converts 7, 12–13, 17, 35, 35n16, 45–46, 48, 55, 76, 78, 92, 98, 98n9, 123, 131, 138, 178–179, 182, 182n9, 229–235, 337, 366, 485, 517, 627, 630 ( reconversion )
Council Act 406, 411
currency 38, 178
Dabistan-e Madhahib 222, 242
Dakhanis 168, 179
Dalits 182, 182n9, 232, 411, 620, 626–627
dar al-harb 36, 264, 296, 333, 334n19, 338, 349–352, 442, 470
dar al-hijra 35
dar al-Islam 36, 82, 123, 334, 349–351, 493
dar al-Jihad 259
dar al-sulh 36
dargah(s) 14, 82, 86, 125, 155, 174, 176, 358
dars-e nizami 18, 174, 264–266, 268, 270, 297, 303, 375, 406, 524
daʿwa 53–55, 81, 230, 488–489, 496, 507–508, 559, 567
Daʿwat-e Islami 489n11, 567
Deobandi Islam 65, 160, 266, 398–402, 404, 409–410, 410n30, 412, 435, 437, 440–441, 443, 456, 483, 485, 487, 493, 497, 500, 507, 519, 540, 551, 554, 560, 562–563, 590–593, 595, 602, 610
dharma 84n25, 218
dhikr 86, 225, 274, 353–355, 488, 489
dhimma 35, 47–48
dhimmis 13, 48–49, 119n50, 121, 186, 189–190
diversity 1–3, 8–9, 128, 156n2, 218–219, 222, 228, 274, 337, 366, 445, 452n48, 469, 501, 507, 523, 603, 621
diwan 101, 279, 297, 377, 379n16
diwani 299
Dutch 213, 263, 304–305
East India Company (EIC) 19, 134, 287, 295, 305, 307, 315, 333
economy 2, 17, 19, 44, 56, 83, 121, 128, 132, 173, 207, 265n28, 271, 275, 277, 295, 304, 306–307, 309–310, 319, 328, 335, 345, 362, 372, 459, 462, 467, 492, 515, 517, 525, 530, 534, 549, 555, 564, 584, 608–609, 626, 635
education 19–21, 65, 81–82, 111, 172, 244, 265–266, 300, 315, 319, 332, 344, 362–364, 369, 373–375, 398, 400–403, 406–408, 414–415, 426, 428, 438, 447, 451, 468, 496, 502–503, 510, 530n27, 535, 542–543, 545, 552–554, 558, 560, 584, 586, 589, 590, 603–604, 609–610, 623, 633–634
endowments (religious) 6, 14, 19, 21, 25, 32, 81, 121, 179, 209, 226, 313–318, 375, 408, 437, 493, 523–524, 555, 562, 588, ( waqf )
English 7, 19, 198n12, 232, 240, 295, 304–305, 308, 328, 332, 334, 341n38, 343, 350, 362, 374, 381, 383–386, 390, 398, 401–403, 407, 409, 414, 442, 449, 454, 503n8, 510, 540, 542, 553, 575, 579, 589, 592, 618–619
Enlightenment (European) 4, 65, 292, 327–328, 342, 360
entanglement 2, 5, 11, 60, 111, 131, 175, 287, 331, 630
Europeans 3, 19, 176, 183, 199, 220, 299, 301, 304, 306–308, 310, 312, 327–328, 330–331, 334, 336, 341, 344, 357, 359, 361, 363, 368, 374, 405, 414, 422, 633
Faraʾidiyya, Faraʾidis 167, 343, 362n22
farangi, firingi 290, 335, 368
Farangi Mahall(is) 133, 163, 263, 264, 297, 303–304, 316, 338, 340, 364, 409, 441–442
farman(s) 62, 262, 264, 277, 290, 369
farr-e izadi 211
Fatimid(s) 14, 54, 108, 130 ( Caliphate )
fatwa, fatawa 18, 260, 283, 333, 338, 339n29, 349, 352, 366, 385–386, 399–400, 441, 442, 470, 503, 531n30, 562n28, 576, 599
fiqh 9, 56, 66, 127, 136, 147, 179, 262, 283, 351–352, 399, 406, 563 ( Islamic law )
Firdawsiyya, Firdawsis 92, 154
fitna 35–37, 43, 108, 262
Five Year Plans 523, 589
French 295, 299, 304, 306–307, 311–312, 330–331, 341–342, 381, 510
futuh 34–36, 69, 109, 168
ghair muqallid 397
ghar wapsi 604, 628
ghazal 136, 170, 378, 379n16, 380–381, 387, 393, 425
ghazi 73, 78, 78n7, 111, 113, 204, 367
Ghaznawid(s) 14, 77, 80, 88–89, 107–108, 110–113, 244
ghazwa, ghazwat 44, 50, 108, 110, 112, 204
Ghorids 14, 107, 111–112, 114
ghulam (status) 115, 118
Greeks 150
Green Revolution 525, 609
Governor-Generals (of British India) 183, 307–308, 310–311, 328, 331, 361, 364, 370
hadith, pl. ahadith 13, 16, 18, 21, 24, 50, 56–58, 61–62, 66, 83, 120, 129, 133, 136, 163, 198, 225, 225n, 251, 267–269, 283–285, 286n15, 313, 397–399, 404, 428, 431, 485–487, 490, 496, 524, 524n18, 551, 567, 579, 582, 630, 632, 634–635
hakimiyyat-e ilahi 494–495, 536
Harakat al-Ansar 599
Hanafi school of law, Hanafis,
Hanafiyya 13–14, 18, 21, 40, 44n61, 48, 112, 121, 158–159, 179, 186, 225, 260–262, 336, 339, 398, 400, 485–486, 631
Hanafisation 260
Hanbali school of law, Hanbalis 87, 179, 190
Hazara 635
heresy, heretics 71, 120, 123, 127, 140, 247, 263, 346, 521
hijra, hijrah, hijrat 34–35, 82, 212, 246–247, 334, 334n19, 338, 442, 470–471, 489, 491, 503, 514
Hijrat movement 443, 484, 503
Hindawi 76, 146, 377–378
Hindi 377, 381–384, 405, 411, 412n33, 426, 434, 589, 618–619, 621
Hindsa 149–150
Hindu tribes 42 ( Med, Jats )
Hinduisation 55
Hindustani 322, 332, 362, 364, 377, 381, 621
hundi 127, 220
identity, identities 2–3, 8, 10–12, 15–17, 20, 22–24, 26, 34, 37–38, 40n37, 57, 61, 65, 67–68, 76, 78, 81–83, 86, 92, 98, 110, 114–116, 120, 124, 133, 153, 155, 158, 161, 172, 178, 182n9, 183, 203–204, 221, 223, 229–230, 257, 300–301, 313, 327–328, 335, 340, 344, 358, 360–361, 364, 368, 376, 382–384, 397, 401, 408, 409n27, 411, 413, 415–420, 436, 439, 442, 445–446, 451, 454, 461–464, 466n23, 467–468, 494, 494n22, 496–497, 499, 502, 510, 517, 519, 521, 529, 533–536, 542, 554, 557–558, 560, 563–564, 568, 575, 584, 586–587, 592, 594–595, 597, 601–603, 605, 607–608, 611–612, 614, 616, 620–621, 623, 626–627, 631–632
idolatry 49, 109 ( shirk )
ijaza 87, 180
ijmaʿ 133, 261
ijtihad 133, 261–262, 267–269, 397, 450, 486, 536, 587, 587n14, 615, 631, 633
Imamate, Imams 53–54, 129–131, 142, 204, 219
Imperial Legislative Council 316, 411, 438
imperialism 6, 176, 222, 331, 372n49, 404, 405n22, 451, 509
Indian National Congress (INC) 134, 316, 409, 416, 436–437, 440–441, 446, 454, 484, 500–502, 617n
Indianisation 116, 123, 170, 403
Indus Culture 68, 543
industrialisation 372, 583, 613
iqtaʿ 14, 51, 79, 80, 84, 117–118, 120, 123, 125, 156, 179, 213
Iranians 168, 208, 393
islah 551
Islamic Democratic Alliance 556, 561
Islamic law 9, 14, 56, 58n114, 86, 91, 123, 127, 147, 260–261, 266, 267n35, 283, 317, 364, 387, 398, 404, 417n18, 486, 565, 587, 615, 631 ( fiqh, Hanbali, Hanafi, Maliki, Shafiʿi, sciences )
Islamicate 2, 6, 12–14, 23, 26, 38, 46, 56, 64, 81, 83, 86, 105, 114, 153, 167, 176, 180, 202–203, 235, 241, 375, 377, 532, 568, 630–631
Islamicatisation 13, 15, 18, 83, 86, 88, 256, 611–612
Islamisation 3, 13, 15, 18, 25, 38, 50, 153, 162, 178, 230–232, 234, 255–156, 258, 258n7, 275, 415, 490, 495, 520, 530–531, 549, 551–557, 561–562, 564–565, 587, 611
Islamism, Islamists 24, 66, 418, 420, 493, 507, 518, 521, 532–533, 535–539, 557, 559, 562, 623
Ismaʿiliyya, Ismaʿilis 7, 13, 54–55, 59, 108, 112, 120–121, 130–132, 256, 437n9, 498, 525
isnad 62, 269, 496
Ithna ʿAsharis 7, 132, 336, 349
jagirs, jagirdars 179, 209, 219, 221, 258–259, 276, 324, 358, 364
jahiliyya, jahilis 37, 535
Jajmani-system 184
jamaʿa, jamaʿat 396, 487, 489, 496–497, 536
Jamaʿat-e Islami Hind (JIH) 590–591, 597, 602
Jamaʿat-e Islami 494, 520–521, 524–525, 527, 529–531, 533, 536, 551–552, 554, 579, 587, 590–591, 597, 601
Jamʿiyyat al-Ansar 440
Jamʿiyyat al-ʿUlamaʾ-ye Hind (JUH) 398, 441, 452, 456, 493, 500, 507, 519–520, 591–592, 596
Jamʿiyyat-e ʿUlamaʾ-ye Islam (JUI) 519–520, 525, 551, 560–562, 562n
Jamʿiyyat-e ʿUlamaʾ-ye Pakistan (JUP) 520, 525, 549–550
Jainism, Jain(s) 40, 156, 161, 163, 173, 209, 411, 585
janapadas 31
Jats 42–44, 44n61, 48–49, 276–277, 295, 302, 321
Jesuits 211
jihad, jihadis, jihadist 29n1, 35–37, 44, 108, 113–114, 123, 175, 198–200, 231, 234, 258–260, 299, 334, 338–339, 343–344, 349, 366–369, 386–387, 397, 404, 440, 442, 491, 511, 537, 557–558, 560, 562, 573, 604, 620, 622–623, 628
jital 144, 144n15
jizya 35, 48, 79, 119n50, 127, 160–161, 170, 212–213, 257, 277 ( taxes )
Judaism, Jews 39, 40n37, 47, 70, 189, 487, 489, 500–501, 581
kalam 179, 265, 270, 407, 429
Khalajis 112, 120–121, 126, 173
khalifa(s), khalifat 86–87, 101, 122, 136, 159, 163, 166, 193, 224, 238n8, 337, 485, 494, 547n9
khalisa 79, 118, 221
khanaqah(s) 86, 101, 136, 155–156, 158, 164–165, 179, 233, 272, 314–315, 334, 352, 357–358, 499
Kharijites 53, 53n99, 129
Khilafat movement 22, 134, 344, 382, 407, 434, 438, 440, 443, 445–446, 449, 462, 470, 498, 540, 543, 607
khitat 51
Khoja(s) 120n52, 132, 134, 437, 437n9, 525
Khuda-ye Khidmatgar 452, 490–492, 518
Khurasanians 78
khutbas 55, 108, 156, 204, 207, 334, 439, 442, 623
kotwal 263
Krishna 217, 348
Kshatriya 182
Kubrawiyya, Kubrawis 86, 131, 157–158, 188
labbaik 23, 29, 29n1, 69, 538, 567, 583, 630
Lakshmi 116
Latin 215, 330
Lodhis 112, 128, 154, 156–157, 204, 206, 224 ( Sultanate of Delhi )
Lucknow Pact 437
madad-e maʿash 219, 244, 296
madhhab, pl. madhahib 40, 186, 339, 397, 508
madrasa, pl. madaris 14, 25, 81–83, 85, 116, 122, 154, 156, 159, 164–165, 179, 217, 266, 314, 363, 398–399, 408, 445n27, 471, 509, 524, 530, 550, 552–555, 557–564, 588–590 ( education, Calcutta Madrasa, Madrasa Aliyya Kalkatta, Madrasa Firoziyya, Madrasa Ghazi al-Din, Madrasa Mazahir al-ʿUlum, Madrasa Nizamiyya )
Mahabharata 32
Mahasabha 382, 446, 446n32, 448, 464
Mahdawiyya 17, 160, 169, 223
Mahdi 53, 54, 130, 160, 223, 247, 344, 483
Majlis-e Ahrar organisation 484, 521
maktubat 63, 165, 190, 224, 274
malfuzat 63, 92, 101, 136, 143, 182, 274
Maliki school of law, Malikis 283
Mamluks 117, 166, 168
manaqib 66
Mandal Commission 599
manqulat 15, 57–58, 111, 157, 180, 244, 338, 398 ( sciences )
mansabdar-system 276
Manu Smriti 32
Mappila 175, 231, 343, 344, 443, 445
maʿqulat 15, 57, 111, 122, 157, 180, 264, 266 ( sciences )
Maratha War 18, 258, 258n7, 276
Marathas 164, 168, 172, 257–260, 268, 276–277, 283, 295, 297, 306, 310, 324, 333, 349, 380
Marathi language 269
marjaʿ-e taqlid 511
marthiya 171, 378, 380, 394, 408
masjids 209n16, 314, 393–394 ( mosques )
Mauryans 31
mawas 118, 120
mawali 35, 35n16, 186
Med 42–44
mercantilism 46, 57, 220, 630
merchants 19, 40, 42, 46, 48n72, 69, 82, 131–134, 154, 163, 173, 175, 182, 230, 256, 297, 305, 307, 311, 350, 443, 447, 518, 523n15, 526
millennial, millenarian, millennium 7, 17, 160, 210, 212, 221n48, 222–223, 225–226, 242, 246, 251, 256, 261, 303, 483, 491, 520, 544, 557, 606, 632
mleccha 49, 72, 181
modernisation 20, 21n, 24, 319, 359, 361, 365, 370, 412, 418, 468, 496, 523, 525, 534–535, 566, 569, 589, 634
Mongols 4, 14, 76, 88, 121–123, 148–149, 154, 157, 203
Montagu-Declaration 437
mosques 45, 50, 52, 70, 80, 94–96, 98, 104, 110, 121–122, 158, 161, 165–166, 173, 176, 179, 198, 201, 275, 288, 291–292, 296, 314, 319, 323, 333, 349, 388, 407, 439, 463, 465–466, 471, 485, 488, 499, 558, 561, 591, 599, 599n52, 601, 616 ( masjids, Babri Mosque )
muftis 127, 261–262, 322
Mughals 7, 17–20, 32, 63–64, 77–78, 84, 87, 112, 119, 129, 132–133, 155, 157–160, 162, 164–167, 169–170, 172, 174, 174n59, 176, 179, 202–209, 211–213215, 217, 219–220, 222–224, 226–228, 236, 239, 242, 251, 255–260, 262, 264–266, 270, 272–277, 279, 283, 290, 295, 297–306, 307n26, 310–311, 314, 320, 322, 324, 327, 330–331, 333, 349, 358, 365, 367, 369–370, 378, 396, 399n7, 403, 413n4, 436, 439, 458, 599, 605, 608, 610, 632
muhajirun, muhajir(s) 35, 186, 383, 443, 470, 516–517, 521–522, 525, 529, 543
Muhammadan Path (Tariqah-ye Muhammadi) 269, 337–342, 367, 381, 398, 403
Muharram 133, 409, 602
muhtasib 84, 84n25, 263
Muʿizziya 116 ( madrasa )
mujaddid 223, 483–484
Mujaddidiyya, Mujaddidis 226251, 315, 335, 338, 352–353, 355n20, 403,
mujahid, mujahidin 113, 175, 198, 200, 337–338, 440, 550, 558–559, 561n27, 562, 590
mujtahid 245, 511
muqallid 397
muqtaʿ 80, 115, 125 ( iqtaʿ )
muraʿah al-khilaf 81
murid, muridin 86, 90, 132, 136
murshid 132, 162, 277, 548
mushaʿira 269, 269n40, 379
Muslim Brotherhood 66, 488, 493, 533
Muslim World League 586, 600
Maturidiyya 179
Muʿtazila/Muʿtaziliyya 81, 130, 179
mutiny 365, 368–370, 385, 408, 437 ( revolt 1857 )
muttahida qawmiyyat 441, 493, 500, 592
mysticism, mystics 9, 14–15, 17, 21, 58–59, 83–84, 86–88, 99, 124, 156, 170, 202, 211, 216, 233, 247–248, 267–268, 279, 287, 381, 404–405, 488n, 496, 536, 630 ( Sufism, Qadiriyya, Naqshbandiyya, Kubrawiyya, Suhrawardiyya, Chishtiyya )
nabi 185, 597n47
nabobs 333, 414
Nadwat al-ʿUlamaʾ 66, 179, 398, 406–407, 409, 488, 586
Naqshbandiyya, Naqshbandis 86, 154–155, 160, 175, 188, 205, 221, 224, 226–227, 251, 260, 271–272, 272n45, 274, 335, 336n22, 338, 367, 403, 407, 439, 568
narrative 2–3, 5–6, 8, 11–13, 23, 25, 29, 33, 37, 44, 51, 60–61, 67, 94–95, 107, 109, 167, 170, 204, 227n66, 241, 338n28, 342, 361, 377–379, 461, 446, 464, 478, 483, 516, 527, 529, 584, 591, 596, 603, 607
nasab 129–130, 186
National Awami Party 526, 561 ( Pakistan National Party )
Nationalism 8, 21, 67, 307, 340, 344, 370, 373, 375, 383, 404–405, 409, 411, 434–438, 441, 452, 456n55, 462–463, 466–468, 474–475, 477, 493–494, 497, 500–503, 507, 518, 523, 525–526, 536, 545, 561, 586, 592–594, 608, 620, 623, 627–628
nawaʾit 162, 172, 174
Nawwab(i) 133, 174, 297, 299, 379, 380, 396, 408, 465
Niʿmatullahiyya, Niʿmatullahis 131, 168
nizamat 174
Nomads 33, 37, 112
One Unit 522, 526–527, 540
Orient 4, 20, 84n30, 138, 327–331, 359–360, 360n16, 381, 449, 634
Orientalism 4n5, 6, 183, 329–330, 341, 360, 381
Ottomans 87, 169, 204, 220, 439, 445
Pakhtuns 181, 300, 303, 558, 561
Pakistan National Party (PNP) 526 ( National Awami Party )
Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) 527, 549–550, 556, 566, 571
Pallava 32
Pandyas 32 ( Tamils )
Parsis 39
Pashupata Shaivism 41
patronage 9, 14–15, 17–18, 61, 80n13, 81, 92, 109, 115, 122, 124, 156, 156n2, 160, 163, 165, 168, 171–172, 176, 203n4, 205–206, 224, 230–231, 258, 266–267, 272, 303–304, 314, 378–379, 392, 394, 397, 407–408, 504, 559, 565, 609–610, 631, 633
Pax Mughalica 17, 217, 228, 255, 274
Peace of Paris 307
peasants 37, 82, 179, 182, 184, 262, 308–309, 324, 337, 343, 358, 370, 443, 445, 490, 518, 527n24, 540, 608–609, 612
peasant-warriors 258
Permanent Settlement 1793 308–309, 358, 609
Persian (language) 14, 16, 62, 77–78, 88, 95, 131, 146, 150, 150n22, 156, 169, 180, 208n13, 213, 215–217, 227, 239–240, 260, 270, 302, 362, 377, 379, 381, 510, 631
Persians 37, 40n37, 77, 380, 406
Persianisation 17, 77–78
philosophy, philosophers 49, 57, 65, 67, 72, 123–124, 133, 147, 178, 212, 216–217, 246–248, 250, 265, 267–268, 279, 283, 317, 327, 343, 346, 362, 429–432, 449–450, 494, 509, 512, 536, 541–542,
pilgrimage 82, 85, 108–109, 156, 160, 163, 175, 221, 246, 288, 388, 397
piracy, pirates 29, 40–44, 69, 290
pluralism, plurality, religious 1, 9–13, 26, 40, 58n114, 59–60, 82, 218, 287, 308, 337, 346, 418, 462, 469, 481, 497, 500, 519, 560, 565, 567, 587n14, 585, 594–595, 610, 612, 630, 632
polytheism, polytheists 142–143, 190, 252, 581
Portuguese 170, 175–176, 182, 198–201, 213, 215, 344
proselytism 53, 81, 98, 131, 166, 178, 332, 408, 487–488, 496, 507–508, 533, 567, 587 ( Tablighi Jamaʿat )
Punjab Muslim League 448, 450
Punjabi language 101, 269, 383, 252
purdah 186, 415–416
qadi 84, 123, 145, 159, 165, 190, 314, 351, 561, 578
Qadariyya 53
Qadiriyya, Qadiris 86, 154–156, 162, 170, 170n46, 175, 188, 205n7, 217, 227, 227n64, 256, 263, 274, 400, 439
qanun 81, 261, 263
Qarmatians 54–55
qasbah 6, 14, 19, 80, 83–85, 116, 118, 202, 220, 264, 296, 311, 336, 339, 361, 367, 371–372, 375, 396, 398, 401, 407, 429, 455, 515, 563, 584
qawm (qaum) 183, 454–455, 497, 498, 500–501, 526n21
qayyum 226, 256
Quran 8–9, 34, 34n13, 36, 48, 50, 56–58, 77, 114n24, 119n50, 133, 136, 138, 185, 215, 227, 241, 251–252, 279, 283, 286–289, 340, 348, 354–355, 381, 404, 417n18, 420, 428, 446, 474, 484–487, 491, 494–496, 509–510, 519, 524, 527n25, 531n30, 536, 551, 551n6, 579, 587, 635
Qutbshahi(s) 171–172
Raj 29, 250, 411, 515
Rajput rebellion 257
Rajput(s) 49, 112, 114, 116, 162, 163, 196, 204, 208–209, 212, 258, 276–277, 302, 365, 624
Rangnath Misra Commission 602
Rawshaniyya 17, 223, 242, 303
reconversion, reconverts 132, 230, 448, 462, 487, 604, 628
Regulating Act 308
Rekhta, Rekhti 170, 377–379
Renaissance 17, 204, 206, 213, 216, 309, 361, 503
revolt (1857) 20, 67, 337–338, 364–365, 367–370, 375, 385–387, 411
ridhalah 411 ( ardhal )
Rishis 158
rites 142, 156, 199, 233, 267, 291, 362, 442, 545, 612–613
ritual, religious 7, 49, 73, 82, 170, 173, 183–185, 192, 212, 227, 229, 274n49, 301n14, 365, 370, 400, 520, 612, 634
Roman Empire 31
sabiqa 129, 186
Sabiriyya, Sabiri(s) 159–160, 224, 226, 344, 367
sabk-e hindi 209, 210n17
Sachar Committee 602, 626
sacred 7, 12, 16–17, 35, 57, 83, 86, 99, 124, 147, 155, 161, 174, 178, 204, 209, 211–212, 215, 220n40, 221n48, 222, 242–243, 255, 255n, 262, 268, 272, 274n49, 296, 302n18, 324, 417n52, 458, 465, 486, 560n24, 568, 576, 591n27, 596, 600, 618, 632–633
sadr al-sudur 84, 121, 211, 338–339
Safawid(s) 87, 128, 169–172, 204, 207–209, 213, 220, 271, 303
sain 196–198
saints 63, 66, 82, 89, 93, 100, 141n9–10, 156, 165n29, 190–191, 219, 226, 233–234, 237n3, 246, 256, 333, 342, 346, 400, 520, 572, 588, 612
Salafis 23, 408, 442–443, 470, 494, 499
Saljuqs 81, 107, 111
samaʿ 124, 124n68, 136, 139–140, 144, 225
Samashta Kerala Jamiyyatul Ulama 590
Sammitiyya school of thought 41, 57
sanad 180
Sanskrit 15–16, 55, 109, 116, 156n2, 178, 215, 227, 239, 287, 330, 383n91
Sassanian 62, 78, 119
satyagraha 438, 498
Sayyid 64–66, 88, 122, 143, 156–158, 160, 162, 188, 223, 239, 249, 277, 286–288, 290, 303, 336–339, 349, 397, 402–403, 406–407, 410, 412, 421, 426, 429, 450, 456, 493, 506, 510, 551n6, 586–587, 592, 598 ( Sultanate of Delhi )
sciences 15–18, 21, 52, 57–58, 61, 72, 78, 81, 83, 111, 116, 120, 147–149, 157, 180, 216, 264, 268–269, 283–284, 304, 329–330, 338, 362, 398, 408, 426, 429, 431, 512, 548, 625, 630 ( ʿulamaʾ, manqulat, maʿqulat )
secularism 418, 467–468, 489, 530, 536
sedentarisation 16, 19, 36, 42, 118, 178
Shafiʿi school of law, Shafiʿis 40, 139, 162, 171–172, 175, 179, 186, 198n12, 343,
Shahanshah 78
shahr-e ashob 303, 320–326, 370, 380, 392–395
shaikh 82, 86–88, 91–92, 98, 101, 108, 116, 122, 131, 136–137, 139, 143–145, 158, 162, 165, 188, 205, 223–225, 236, 246, 248–249, 352, 353n18, 458
shariʿa 9, 11, 17, 81, 81n16, 91, 114n24, 116, 121, 130, 141–142, 157–158, 160, 189, 211, 221–222, 224, 226, 234, 251–253, 260–261, 268, 289, 309, 318, 343, 385, 410, 417, 441, 470–471, 507, 511, 538–539, 559–560, 587, 613, 615, 631–632
sharif 396, 401, 411 ( ashraf )
Sharqi(s) 159, 166
Shiʿi Islam, Shiʿa 7, 18, 53, 58, 128–130, 132, 134, 170, 219, 236, 297, 314, 322, 336, 343, 349, 397, 445, 452, 454, 497–499, 511, 551, 553n, 561, 604
shirk 49 ( idolatry )
Shiva, Shivaji 116, 170, 258, 260, 464, 466n23, 594
shrines (dargah) 14, 77, 82, 85–86, 90, 99, 125, 155, 161, 174–176, 179, 233, 272n45, 296, 302n18, 314, 317, 343, 357–358, 368, 400, 412, 440, 445, 489, 499, 568, 588, 612
Shuddhi 462, 487 ( Arya Samaj )
Shudras 182
shura 484, 488, 497, 535
Sikhism, Sikhs 92, 101, 182n9, 219, 276–277, 290–291, 295, 299, 302, 311, 338–339, 344, 367, 411, 435, 464, 490, 498, 585, 593n34
silsila 86–87, 226, 272n46, 353
Sindhi language 101, 269, 286, 383
sira(t), al-Sirat al-Mustaqim 341n38
slave kings 112, 115 ( Sultanate of Delhi, Khalajis, Tughluqs, Mamluks )
slave soldiers 121
slavery, slaves 14–15, 35, 43n54, 44, 56, 71, 95, 97–98, 107–108, 112, 112n20, 114–115, 117–118, 120–123, 128, 144, 166, 190, 194, 463, 500–501
socialism 435, 491, 527, 530, 549–550, 586
Soviets 550, 559, 562, 601
subah 166, 297
Sufism, Sufis 13, 16, 18, 20–21, 23–25, 36, 39, 56, 59, 76–78, 86–91, 93, 98, 100–101, 111, 116–117, 123–125, 131, 133, 136, 143, 155, 158–160, 162–165, 168–169, 170n45, 173–182, 192, 196, 205, 224–226, 233–234, 248–253, 265n28, 266, 270–271, 283, 286–287, 290, 302–303, 314, 332, 342, 358, 397, 400, 402, 438, 440, 442, 491, 496, 499, 524, 526, 539, 548n, 568, 612, 631–632
Suhrawardiyya, Suhrawardis 86, 89–90–91, 131, 154, 205, 217, 233
sulh-e kull 218–219, 228, 256, 632
sultanate, sultans 7, 15, 84, 101, 125, 128, 167, 173, 204, 216, 314, 631
Sultanate of Bengal 128, 165
Sultanate of Bijapur 128
Sultanate of the Deccan 125, 128, 167, 173, 258 ( Bahmani Kingdom )
Sultanate of Delhi 7, 14, 16, 50, 56, 76–77, 79, 91–93, 101, 112, 115, 117–119, 121–122, 126, 128, 132, 136, 140, 153–155, 156n2, 157, 160–161, 165, 202, 274, 543
Sultanate of Golconda 128
Sultanate of Gujarat 128
Sultanate of Jaunpur 128
Sultanate of Kashmir 128, 157
Sultanate of Malwa 128
sunna 18, 20, 56, 226, 253–254, 268–269, 337, 397, 401, 404, 420, 446, 485–487, 490, 496, 519, 524–525, 527n25, 535–536, 551, 567, 579, 633, 635
Sunni Islam, Sunnis 15, 58n114, 99, 107n3, 129–130, 132–135, 168, 336n24, 341, 399, 401, 409, 437, 445, 465, 497, 516, 531, 536, 553n, 563–564, 602, 611
Suris 207
swadesh 434–436, 449, 467
swaraj 434
Syrians 95
Tablighi Jamaʿat 462, 487–489, 493, 551, 586, 588, 602 ( Sufism )
tadhkira 63–64, 380
tafsir, Quran commentary 162, 428, 582
tahdhib al-akhlaq 217, 403, 427–428
tajdid 489, 536
taʿalluq, taʿalluqdar 358, 365, 368, 401, 471
takhallus 269, 269n39
Taliban 559, 559n21, 561n27, 562, 574, 604
Tamilians, Tamil language 173
Taʿmir-e Millat 602
tanka 144, 144n16, 145
taqiyya 131–132, 336
taqlid 265, 267, 338, 397, 400–401, 511
taʾrikh, tarikh 61, 140, 165, 212, 244, 246, 511
tarikh-e alfi 212, 244
tariqa 86–87, 160, 251–252, 272n46, 273–274, 289, 304, 548
tasawwuf 56, 86, 198, 248–249, 401 ( mysticism, Sufism )
taxes 46, 70, 91, 121, 128, 219, 223, 256, 262, 295, 306, 308–309, 315, 343, 358, 361, 393, 439, 517, 527n24, 551n4
tax-farmers 171
temples 41, 47, 50, 55, 70, 98, 110, 164, 173–174, 189, 221n49, 256, 257, 275, 309, 624
Timurids 204–205
tolerance 11, 48, 132, 136, 158, 163, 210, 231, 468–469, 560, 565, 587n14, 618
trade unions 452, 497
trade 2, 13, 19, 29, 31, 37–42, 45–46, 55–56, 80, 84, 92, 107n3, 111, 118, 119n50, 131, 145, 161, 163–164, 166, 169–171, 173–176, 178, 180, 198, 219–220, 223, 258n8, 259, 275–277, 290, 295, 299–300, 305–307, 310–312, 319, 325, 343–344, 361–362, 367–368, 370, 372, 410, 452, 455, 459, 477, 497, 516, 525, 554, 562, 584, 609
traders 2, 13, 17, 32, 39, 42n51, 46, 49, 56, 85, 88, 132, 161, 167, 170–171, 175–176, 179, 202, 221, 230, 268, 270, 275, 308, 310, 336, 343–344, 358, 361, 411, 460, 492, 516, 518, 573, 583, 609 ( merchants )
tradition(s) 1–2, 6–8, 11, 13–14, 16–18, 20–24, 32, 37, 39, 41, 43n54, 44n62, 48, 50, 56–58, 61–62, 64–66, 68, 76, 81–82, 91–92, 98, 100, 109, 114, 125, 127, 129, 143, 153, 158, 163, 167, 171–172, 174, 178, 186, 192, 203–204, 210–212, 215–218, 219n40, 221–222, 224–227, 230, 234, 246, 255–256, 262–265, 269, 273, 287, 290, 301–302, 304, 307–308, 311, 330–331, 335–336, 342, 345, 362, 367, 370, 377–378, 380, 396, 398–403, 406, 410, 414, 418–420, 426, 428, 430–433, 440n15, 461, 461n2, 463–464, 468–469, 471, 475, 483, 485, 486, 490, 492, 494, 496, 499, 501–502, 515–518, 520, 529, 532–536, 537n6, 539, 543, 547, 551, 555, 559, 564, 566, 568–569, 571, 577, 592, 594, 597n, 610–613, 630–634
Treaty of Sevres 439
triple talaq 418, 597, 628
Tughluqs 112, 205
Turanis 213
Turks 55, 73, 93, 112–113, 116, 118, 126, 148, 406
Two Nation Theory 454, 467, 520
ʿulamaʾ 24, 63–64, 78, 92, 114, 123, 130, 133–134, 136–137, 139, 155, 158, 164, 166, 176, 179, 210–211, 256, 260, 262–263, 314, 316–318, 338, 366, 369, 386, 397–398, 402, 405–407, 409, 438, 440–441, 446, 484, 488, 510, 519–520, 525, 539, 551, 553, 556, 558, 560, 562–564, 566, 569, 576, 586, 591 ( sciences )
ʿUmar’s pact 49
Umayyads 29n2, 36, 44, 44n61, 52–53
umma 34, 54, 301, 301n13, 450, 491, 500–501, 535, 581, 587, 623
untouchables 182, 232, 411
urbanisation 57, 121, 319, 606
urbanism 46
Urdu 21, 65, 83n24, 163, 170, 174, 269–270, 320, 330, 332, 338, 340–341, 353n18, 364, 367, 369, 377–384, 387, 398, 403–404, 406–407, 411, 412, 412n33, 415, 415n12, 421, 426, 429, 442, 449, 465, 478, 493, 507, 510, 516–517, 523n15, 556, 575, 579, 586, 595, 620–622, 624
ʿurf 260
ʿurs 82, 101, 196, 400
Vaishya 131, 182 ( caste )
varna 182, 218, 300, 466n23 ( caste )
varna-sankara 218, 369
Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie(VOC) 213
violence 11, 22, 24–25, 178, 243, 276, 283, 368n37, 435, 484, 490 530, 540, 549, 552, 559–560, 565–566, 574–575, 604, 615, 624–625, 629
Vishnu 55, 185, 250
Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) 464, 466, 599–600, 628
wahdat al-shuhud 224–225, 338
wahdat al-wujud 159, 163, 216–217, 224–225, 338, 354
Wahhabiyya, Wahhabis 20, 341–342
waqf, awqaf 14, 19, 81, 84n27, 99, 213n28, 313–319, 375, 399, 408, 417, 437, 524, 552, 555 ( endowments, religious )
warrior-Sufis 36, 234
wasaya 116, 118, 126n
watan 296–297, 361
wilayat, walayat, vilaya 87–88, 91, 120, 124, 132, 159, 165, 179, 209
women 13, 22, 29, 29n2, 43, 43n54, 50–51, 69, 75–76, 97, 117n46, 170, 173, 186, 192, 199, 201, 207, 209n15, 212, 212n22, 220n44, 236–237, 239, 243, 253, 323, 363, 386, 395, 409n29, 413–421, 463, 479, 479n, 489, 499, 508–509, 514, 531, 551, 567–568, 570, 573, 575–577, 592, 595, 597, 604, 613, 625, 628
World War I 416, 437–439, 471
World War II 455, 471, 588
wujudis 159, 223–224, 265
zabt-system 275
zakat 35n16, 313, 441, 551–555, 561, 563
zamindari revolts 219
zamindars 172, 219, 255, 259, 276, 296, 296n3, 308, 311
Zutts 42, 70 ( Jat )
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Islam in South Asia

Revised, Enlarged and Updated Second Edition

Series:  Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 2 South Asia, Volume: 37

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