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Constantin Ardeleanu
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Index

Aali Pasha 70, 149
Abdülaziz I, Sultan 127, 129
Abélès, Marc 13
Abramovitz, banker in Galați 160
Accounting Service 173, 201
Additional Article to the Public Act (1881) 242, 245, 257
administrative palaces 82–83, 297, 307, 321
Adour 130
Adrianople, Treaty of (1829) 31, 35, 61, 274
Aegean Sea 235
Africa 190
African colonies 263
African rivers 329
Aix-la-Chapelle, Congress of (1818) 258
Alexander II, Emperor 62, 232, 234
Alexandria 84, 192, 194
Allied Maritime Transport Council 4
Alsace-Lorraine 5
ambassadors in Istanbul 105–106, 150, 152, 171
America , United States of America
American Geographical Society 5
Amezaga, Carlo de 218
anachronism (the Commission as an ‘anachronical’ and ‘parasitical’ institution) 19–20, 309, 314–316
Anapa 98
anarchy in the Danube Delta area 30, 32, 40, 42, 47, 89, 111, 113, 191, 213, 271, 273, 275, 277, 325, 330
Anderson, Andrew Lockhart 32
Antipa, Grigore 20, 137
Arendt, Johannes 218
Argagni shoal 138
Arntz, Egide Rodolphe Nicolas 229
Arsachi, Apostol 128
Artvin, province 98
Asia Minor 189
atlas 131–133
audits 107, 150, 153, 165, 202, 243
Austria (Austria-Hungary) 17, 19, 28, 35, 37, 39, 44, 52–61, 65–76, 83, 89–90, 102, 105, 112–113, 129, 140, 160, 162–163, 174, 185–188, 191, 194, 197, 206, 208, 231, 233, 235, 237–239, 248–252, 254, 256–263, 268, 271–275, 277, 283–284, 292–293, 310–311, 322, 326–328
Austrian occupation of the Principalities and Danube Delta 61, 66, 89, 113, 274
Austrian shipping ( DDSG and Österreichischer Lloyd ) 35, 94, 126, 209
Baku 8
Balkans 7, 54, 171, 235, 240
wars in the Balkans 142, 178, 230–231, 291, 309
ballast, throwing of 221–222, 267, 288, 330
Balta Liman, Treaty of (1838) 34
banditry in the Danube Delta area 30, 39–42, 212, 271
Baracioglu, Spiru 294
Barbatis, Nicolas 294
Barcelona Conference (1920) 312–313
Barkley, John Trevor 172
Barnett, Michael N. 11, 197, 330–331
Barrère, Camille 255–257
Barrow-in-Furness 135
Bart, Jean , Botez, Eugeniu P.
Barth, Volker 334
bathymetric measurements 131
Baumrucker, Major 272
Bavaria 53–54, 56, 65
Bălăceanu, Ion 92, 235
Beatty-Kingston, W. 298
Becke, Franz Karl von 84, 88, 90, 102, 105, 121, 127–129, 149, 162, 191, 208
Belgium 112, 129, 228, 231, 292
Belgorod, river branch 102–103
Belgrade 72, 90, 255
Belgrade Danubian Conference (1948) 306, 319–320
Bell, George 32
Berlin 148, 163, 230, 249, 253, 318
Congress and Treaty of Berlin (1878) 3, 80, 104, 165, 206, 222, 229, 236–242, 250–252, 257–258, 265, 279, 285, 308, 316
Colonial Conference of Berlin (1884– 1885) 25, 110, 263, 329
Bern 200
Bessarabia 31, 39, 41, 61–63, 75, 97, 99, 104, 143, 177–178, 189, 193, 232–242, 248, 266, 317, 328
Bigg-Wither, Alice 294
Bigg-Wither, Harris 294
Bischoffheim and Goldschmidt, bankers in London 148, 163
Bismarck, Otto von 84, 148, 237–239, 241, 260, 264
Bitter, Karl Hermann 80, 84, 88, 90, 118, 121, 149–150, 173, 191
Black Sea 14, 30–33, 41, 44, 52, 62–63, 68–69, 72, 80, 102–103, 124, 127, 138, 143–144, 152, 171–172, 176, 187–188, 191, 222, 225, 234, 247, 273, 277–278, 285, 288, 294, 296, 300, 305, 311–312, 321–322
navigation in the Black Sea 35, 154, 240, 243, 285, 290, 310
ports of the Black Sea 36, 177, 181, 270, 280
Blackbourn, David 114
Blumfeld, François Serafin 65
Boerescu, Vasile 254–255
Bologna 21
Bonn 249
borderland (the Lower Danube as a borderland) 10, 36, 42, 96, 124, 136, 141, 152, 247, 252, 327
border changes in the Lower Danube region 61–62, 76, 98–104, 189, 230–231, 236–238
Borhek, Victor de 140
Bosporus 52, 277 Commission of the Straits, Dardanelles, Straits
Botez, Eugeniu P. 20, 267–268, 290, 292, 307
Bourgeois, Émile 6
Bourqueney, François-Adolphe de 70
Bowman, Isaiah 5
Brake 283
Bratislava 318
Brăila 35–38, 40, 46–47, 49, 80, 138, 173, 175, 178, 181, 212, 217, 232, 270, 280, 285–286, 288–290, 310–311, 318, 325
as the limit of the Commission’s jurisdiction 108, 256, 258, 314
Brătianu, Dimitrie 247
Brătianu, Ion C. 237, 241, 255, 260
Brătianu, Vintilă 20
Bremen 112, 283
Bremerhaven 283
Brindisi 147
Brockhaus, F.A. 131
Brussels 229
Bucharest 65, 87, 90, 108, 126, 186, 232–233, 235–236, 239, 244, 247–250, 252, 255, 259–261, 282
as headquarters of the International Health Council 245, 301
Danubian Conferences of Bucharest (1940, 1942) 318
Treaty of Bucharest (1918) 311
Budapest 125, 150, 233, 250–251, 261
as headquarters of the Danube Commission 19, 28, 268, 321
Convention of Budapest (1877) 233
budget of the commission 111, 134, 136, 148, 151, 154, 157, 164–165, 185, 194, 201, 218, 265, 290, 301, 305, 310, 332
Bulgaria 96, 231, 235–236, 250–251, 253, 255–256, 258–259, 265, 319–320, 332
Bulwer, Henry 101
Bunsen, Theodor von 263
Buol, Karl Ferdinand von 58–59, 69, 71
buoys 140–141, 204, 222, 272
bureaucrats 2, 11, 13, 16–17, 22, 27, 81, 89, 93, 105, 112, 150, 152, 157, 167, 186, 191, 193–194, 196–200, 204, 207, 209, 216–217, 227, 291–293, 306, 310, 316, 325, 329–331, 333
Burgas 146
Bușilă, Constantin D. 308, 315
Buxton, Noel 7
Calafat 286
Calcutta 193
California—the Danubian lands and Sulina as a ‘California’ 36, 273
Callimachi-Catargiu, Nicolae 254–255
Campbell, Forbes 171
Cannon, Cavendish 320
Cantacuzino, Alexandru 102
capitulations 93, 95, 207–208, 292
Captain of the Port of Sulina 106, 205, 208, 211, 213, 221, 267, 311
Carnegie, Alexander 287
Carol I , Charles I
Carp, Petre P. 249, 264, 266
Carpathian Mountains 136
Carse, Ashley 136
Cash Office 89, 107–108, 153, 198–200, 218
Caucasus 8, 236
Ceaușescu, Nicolae 176, 306
Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine 11–12, 19, 49, 67, 72, 79, 84–85, 106, 110, 191, 200, 208, 215, 262, 266, 312, 326, 331
Central Office 82, 198, 200
Central Powers 19, 176, 310–311
Cernavodă 172, 175, 193
Ceylon 193
Chamberlain, Joseph P. 6
Charles I, Prince and King of Romania 136, 177–178, 228, 230, 233, 241, 248, 250, 254
‘Charles I’ Port 177–178
Chatham 85, 169, 191
Chilia, branch and mouth 81, 100, 102–104, 117, 121, 137, 143–144, 179, 239, 259, 266, 321
China 189, 293
Cioc, Mark 116
Circassia 31–33
Clancarty, Lord 60
Clarendon, Earl of 45, 58
Clemenceau, Georges 260
Clyde 130
Coblenz 118
Cold War 19–20, 22, 28, 319, 321–322
collissions 69, 94–95, 209, 224–226
commercial houses 32, 181, 183–184, 286, 297
commercial uncertainty 9–10, 26, 30, 49
Commission of the Straits 7 Bosporus, Dardanelles, Straits
community of experts 12, 79, 84, 87, 194
Concert of Powers 3, 7, 14–15, 52, 70, 72, 75, 93, 96, 110, 113, 124, 152, 197, 229, 237–243, 247, 251–253, 256–259, 263, 265, 308, 324, 327–329, 332, 334
Congo Colonial Conference (1884–1885) , Berlin
Congo river 263–264
conspiracies 29, 31, 34, 45, 48, 326
Constantinople , Istanbul
Constanța 97, 146, 172–176, 178, 182, 193, 252, 290
consular authorities 90, 94, 106, 119, 127, 155, 182, 208, 280–281, 292–293, 297
Consular Courts 95
Copenhagen 283
Corfu 147
Coronini-Cronberg, Johann Baptist 272
Corsanego, Angelo 218
Cotlaru, Grigore 22
courts of law 94–95, 111, 189, 208–210 Mixed Courts
Covurlui county 102
Cowley, Lord 74
Cracow 284
Crete 284
Crimea 55, 96–97, 189
Crimean War 27, 45, 49–53, 55, 68, 80, 90, 96, 109, 116, 169, 171, 182–183, 189, 231, 239, 272, 274, 277, 280, 326, 333
Cunningham, Charles 47, 119
Curchod, Charles Louis 200
currents 13, 117, 120, 124, 133, 145, 225
Custine, Astolphe-Louis-Léonor 34
customs regime 65, 68, 99, 103, 111, 243–245, 261, 277, 280–283, 313, 321
cutting works along the Maritime Danube 138–139
Cuxhaven 283
Cuza, Alexandru Ioan 100–101, 108, 127–128, 160, 177, 230
Cvetkovski, Roland 334
Czechoslovakia 320
D’Aste Ricci, Alessandro 87
D’Avril, Adolphe 81, 90, 147, 156, 162–163, 281
Dalmas, Pierre Albert de 163
dam 142
Danube Commission 19, 28, 268, 309, 320–322, 334
Danube Delta passim
Danube Question 6, 9, 18–20, 23–24, 27, 50–52, 54, 64, 74, 169, 187, 230–231, 237–240, 248–250, 254–255, 257, 260–261, 263, 327
Danzig 283–284
Dardanelles 52, 277 Bosporus, Commission of the Straits, Straits
Dașcovici, Nicolae 20, 22
Davoud Oghlou, Garabed Artin 66
Daxenberger, François 65
DBSR (‘The Danube and Black Sea Railway and Kustendje Harbour Co.’) 172, 175, 178–179
DDSG (Donau-Dampfschiffahrts-Gesellschaft) 35, 59, 68, 94–95
De Graaf, Beatrice 11, 325–326
decision-making 4, 11–12, 27, 72, 83, 87–88, 93, 113, 167, 197, 200, 330
deltaic systems 130, 133, 329
Demorgny, Gustave 200
depth of the Danube 33, 38–43, 47–48, 89, 117, 120, 124, 126, 134–135, 138, 153, 179, 181–182, 212, 285, 288, 326
Dervent, Joseph Mitteser von 273
Desjardins, Antoine Émile Ernest 178–179
Dethier, Charles 209
Disraeli, Benjamin, Lord Beaconsfield 235
Djemil, Mehmed 149
Dnieper 146
Dobrudja 38, 44, 96, 98, 104, 136, 143, 171–172, 176, 178, 204, 234–235, 238, 241, 252, 279, 310
doctors 217, 272, 275, 292, 300–303
Don 129, 146
Don Giovanni, entrepreneur in Sulina 291
Donau-Dampfschiffahrts-Gesellschaft , DDSG
Donici, Panait 65, 186
Donnet, Gaston 200
dredging 38, 43–44, 117, 134–136, 138, 149, 204, 297
Dresden, International Health Conference (1893) 298
Drygalski, Fedor von 195–196, 206, 208
Dudley Stuart 46
Dupuis, Joseph Hutton 276
Durban 146
Duvernoy, Jean 22
Eastern Question 9, 30, 50–52, 54, 59, 62, 200, 240, 328
Egypt 45, 161, 192, 210, 232, 257
Elbe 38, 53, 59, 67, 70–71, 73–74, 125
Emden 283
emigration 96–101, 313
Emin Bey , Malinowski, Oberst von
Eminescu, Mihail 234, 241
employees 18, 78, 83, 111, 128, 150, 152–153, 160, 195–202, 204, 206–207, 214–218, 227, 243–246, 268, 282–285, 300, 302, 304–305, 310, 322, 331–333 staff
Engelhardt, Édouard-Philippe 78, 85, 88, 90, 101–105, 109–112, 127–128, 151, 174, 208, 214, 261, 264, 280–281, 284, 301
engineers 13, 16–17, 24, 27, 38, 116, 118, 121–122, 124–125, 127, 129–131, 135, 142, 144–146, 153, 158, 169–170, 173, 179, 198, 204, 216, 272–273, 275, 293, 317, 329, 331, 333 Hartley, Charles Augustus, Kühl, Charles (Karl) Leopold, Magnussen, Eugene
England 44–45, 73, 108, 128, 135, 182, 184, 286 Great Britain
environmental aspects 9, 14, 115–116, 118, 133, 136–137, 141, 143–145, 178, 303, 323, 325
epistemic communities 12, 47, 122, 190, 229
epizooty 249
European Commission of the Danube passim
European Union (EU) 307, 322
executive agents 106–109, 144, 208, 210, 212, 242, 244
Executive Committee 81–82, 89–90, 93, 198–199, 201, 218, 243
expertise 4, 15, 30, 54, 61, 67, 76, 84–85, 87, 104, 116, 125, 130, 170, 178, 186–187, 190–192, 194, 200, 207, 211, 293, 325, 328, 331, 333
experts 1–2, 5–7, 15, 18, 20–21, 51, 67, 72, 110, 129, 159–161, 164, 169, 191, 193, 200, 228, 262, 293, 316, 334
exports 7, 31, 35, 43, 99, 104, 152, 177–178, 181, 184–185, 232, 248, 252, 272, 280–281, 283, 290, 313
Fahrenholtz, Commission’s accountant 173
Fedorov, General 41
Ferdinand and Marie, princes of Romania 140
financial independence 2, 27, 148, 164, 167, 200, 332
financial resources 54, 76, 129, 160, 165, 170, 328
fines 154, 165, 202, 210
Finnemore, Martha 11, 197, 330–331
Fioretos, Orfeo 10
First World War 1, 18, 26, 134, 176, 187, 199, 202, 259, 265, 268, 284, 290–291, 293, 308–309, 323, 328, 334
fishing 98–104, 137, 209, 238
Fiume 283, 293
flag of the Commission 111, 135, 245
floods 13, 120, 138, 145, 154, 296
Florence 147, 163, 295
Focas, Spiridon G. 24
food security 9, 49, 326
France 5–6, 24, 34, 52, 54–55, 58, 60, 63, 71, 73, 75, 83, 90, 109, 112, 121, 127–128, 139, 162–163, 174, 197, 238, 254, 257, 260, 277, 312, 316, 326–327
Franz Joseph, Emperor 58–59
free navigation 6, 10, 13, 24, 33, 44, 56, 61–62, 65, 70, 72–74, 112, 233–235, 237, 239, 245, 249, 252, 260, 312, 332
free port regime 35, 280, 282–283, 285
free trade 10, 29, 32, 34–35, 50, 74, 127, 280, 282
freedom of the Danube 50, 235, 248–249, 254
Frucht, Richard 23
Fuad Pasha 71, 74
funding 11, 27, 83, 134, 147–148, 151, 160, 167, 175, 332
Galați 35–38, 46–47, 49, 65, 69, 77, 79–90, 93, 95, 101, 106, 110, 119, 126–127, 138, 142, 149, 152, 158, 163, 173, 175, 178–179, 181, 184, 187, 189, 198–201, 204, 207, 209, 212, 214–215, 217, 230, 232, 239, 242, 249–251, 256, 265, 267, 270, 274, 276–278, 280, 285–287, 289–290, 293, 298, 300, 310, 314, 321, 325
Gauvain, August 199–200
Gătejel, Luminița 25, 323
Geestemünde 283
Geneva 179, 314
Genoa 87
Germany 19, 83, 160, 251, 254, 260–261, 283, 316–318, 322
Ghent 228
Ghica, Ion G., General 232
Ghioni, Greek consul to Galați 127
Gibraltar 52, 305
Gibrieni 177–179, 185
Gladstone, William Ewart 236
Gleason, John Howse 34
Gorchakov, Alexander 63, 236–237
Gordon, Charles 188–190
Gordon, Lewis 172
Gorove, Stephen 23, 319
governance 11, 83, 113, 115, 157, 170, 279, 327
governmentality 12, 113
grain trade 27, 35, 40, 43, 80, 158, 170, 173, 175–176, 185, 193, 286, 288, 290, 334
Granville, Lord 187
Great Britain 5–6, 24, 30, 34–35, 37, 45, 52, 54–55, 58, 60, 62–63, 69–71, 73–74, 83, 90, 102, 108, 112, 121, 129, 146, 154–155, 162–163, 169, 187, 197, 231, 235, 254, 260, 277, 286, 292, 294, 312, 316, 320, 322, 326–327 England
Great Powers 2, 4, 14, 24, 27, 57, 76, 78–79, 100–101, 106, 113, 121, 126, 144–145, 149, 167, 175, 192, 214, 229, 235–236, 238, 240–242, 254, 257–258, 260–263, 316, 325, 327–329, 333–334
Greece 52, 112, 235, 265, 292, 322
Grünbühel, Ferdinand Mayerhofer von 39
Haam, Wilhelm 275–276
Habsburg Empire , Austria
Hagi-Stoica, Petrescu 302
Hague, the 247, 315
Hajnal, Henrik (Henri) 21
Hallington, French navy captain 127
Hamburg 50, 159–160, 283
Hamperk, Joseph 150
Hanover 112
Hansford, Robert 118, 131
Harbour Master Office 205, 207, 213, 219, 292
Hartley, Charles Augustus 24, 27, 114–146, 170, 173–175, 177–179, 185, 189–190, 198, 204, 219, 286, 293–294, 296, 298, 300, 304, 329, 333
Hartley, Charles William Steward 24
Haymerle, Heinrich 238, 242
headquarters of the Commission 78–81, 83, 85, 127, 186, 190, 199, 201–202, 242, 246, 268, 297–298, 310
Health Office 202, 301
Herbette, Jules 282
Herodotus 232
Herren, Madeleine 149
Hohenzollern-Sigmarigen, Karl Anton of 241
Holtzendorff, Franz von 229, 262
Hommaire de Hell, Ignace Xavier Morand 185
Hooghly 130, 146
hospitals 108, 181, 205, 272, 285, 293, 295, 301–304, 306, 310
Hristić, Filip 68
Huber, Valeska 40, 271, 333
Hübner, Baron 74
Hull 69
human resources 11, 79, 83–84, 89, 117, 120, 124–125, 245, 247, 265, 286, 331
Humboldt, Alexander von 230
Hungary 318–321
Hünkâr İskelessi 30, 277
Hussein Bey 205–206
hydraulic works 6, 24, 67, 71, 88, 104, 111, 114–116, 121–122, 124, 126, 151, 158, 165, 191, 194, 204, 239, 259, 314, 330, 332
hydrographers 117, 125, 198, 329
hydro-hegemony 15, 58, 76, 113, 144, 206, 246, 266, 318, 327, 334
hydro-imperialism 250, 265
hydropolitics 10, 23
Iași 310
Ibraila , Brăila
imperial cooperation 25, 148, 167, 190
India 193–195
Indochina 296
infractions 207, 210
Inglessi, George 293
Inquiry, the 1, 5, 8
Inspector General 106, 111, 195, 212–214, 219, 221–222, 244
Institute of International Law (IIL), the 18, 217, 228–229, 262–264, 329
Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE), the 129–130
institutional culture 13, 87
insurances 43, 47, 179, 182, 281, 288
international administration 1–2, 4, 7–8, 90, 105, 167, 227, 239, 308, 334
International Civil Service, the (ICS) 196
international law 1, 5–6, 9–10, 12, 18, 21, 23, 49, 51, 53, 55, 65, 106, 110, 113, 154, 186, 188, 194, 199, 228, 243, 246, 261–262, 320, 329
international relations 1, 8, 11, 23, 26, 48, 52, 78, 200, 229, 239, 261, 325, 327
International Sanitary Councils 2
International Sugar Union, the 2
international system 15, 28, 110, 229–230, 239–240, 257, 261–262, 265, 325, 328, 330
international trade 33, 42, 48, 128, 300
Ionescu, Nicolae 231
Ionian Islands 112, 240
Iordachi, Constantin 323
Ireland 35
Iron Gates 54, 57–58, 188, 238–239, 249–251, 261, 320–321
Isaccea (Isatcha) 56, 108, 206, 244
Ismail Bey 82, 215
Ismail Chatal (Fork) 102, 226
Ismail (city) 47, 175
Istanbul 31, 35–36, 46, 66, 70, 80–81, 95, 101, 105–107, 113, 125–126, 147, 150, 152, 156, 163, 170–171, 173, 175, 181, 187, 191, 195, 225, 231, 240, 270, 277, 300–301
Italy 83, 112, 127, 147, 251, 254, 312, 316, 318, 322
Izmir 36, 287
Jackson, Henri A. 158, 199, 293
Jellinek, doctor in Sulina 300–302
Jellinek, Georg 262
Jervis, Robert 327
juridical powers 189, 207, 247
jurists 5–7, 15, 17–18, 21–23, 55, 228, 263–264
Kaeckenbeeck, Georges 6
Kaffraria 169
Kálnoky, Gustav 260
Kankrin, Egor 39
Kartamishev, Piotr 311
Katharina, Emily Rose 306
Kogălniceanu, Mihail 230–233, 237–238, 241, 254, 256
Krasner, Stephen D. 12, 197
Krehbiel, Edward Benjamin 1–7, 17–18, 122, 334
Kremer, Alfred de 208
Kühl, Charles (Karl) Leopold 130, 134, 136, 140–142, 204, 293–295
Kustendje , Constanța
Lahovary, Alexandru 232
Lambert, shipmaster 209
Lazistan 98
Lederle, Alfred 21
Leipzig 50, 131
Leonard, Hugh 130
Lesseps, Ferdinand de 17, 191–192
Levant 51, 72, 87, 286
Liddell, Charles 172
Liddell, Henry 45
lighterage 39–43, 89, 148, 181–184, 205, 207–208, 213–214, 225, 227, 272–273, 276, 280–281, 285, 288–289, 330 transhipments
lighthouses 63, 153, 182, 205, 207, 212, 216, 219, 222, 239, 272–273, 285, 297, 307
Linz 287
Lloyd, St. Vincent 29, 35, 47, 93
loans 134, 147–148, 151, 153, 158–165, 167, 180, 188, 194, 203, 332
London 6, 16, 31, 34, 36, 38, 40, 62, 71, 73, 85, 96, 125, 129, 135, 148, 150, 159, 162–164, 172, 192, 235, 254, 270, 285, 287, 322
London Convention (1841) 277
London Conference (1871) 144, 165, 187–188, 193, 229, 243
London Conference (1883) 229, 257–260, 263, 265, 314, 329
Lorimer, James 78–79, 271
Lucovich, Andrea 209
Lunéville 230
Lyautey, Hubert 267, 296, 300
Mackay, Donald James (Lord Reay) 229
Madagascar 296
Magheru, Gheorghe 64
Magnussen, Eugene 130, 204, 293, 311
Magris, Claudio 307
Mainz 67, 72, 85
Malinowski, Oberst von 125
Malta 278
Manchester 172
maps and charts 16, 36, 67–68, 101–102, 104, 117, 125, 131, 133, 143–144, 179–180
Maritime Danube Directorate 317
Marseille 36, 179, 181, 270
Martens, Friedrich 228–229, 264
Martone, Georgio 295
Martone, Giulio 295
Mathieu, Henri 128
Maxime Effendi 198–199
Maynard, Henry 160, 163
McGregor, Peter 305
McNally, Raymond T. 34
Mecklenburg 112
Medical Service 205
Mediterranean Sea 36, 52, 277, 285, 305
Menabrea, Luigi Federico 147
Meric, M.L. Dollfus 131
Messageries Impériales 302
Metternich, Chancellor 35
Meyer, inspector 68
memory politics 136
merchants 13, 16, 32, 36–40, 42–43, 46–47, 53, 80, 93, 107, 124, 127, 157, 167, 175, 179, 183, 194, 211, 218, 274–275, 281, 287, 319, 326
Mezes, Sidney 5
Midi Canal 139
Miller, David Hunter 8, 18
Mississippi 126, 146
Mitrany, David 4, 8
Mixed Commission of the Lower Danube (MCLD) 251, 253–254, 256, 258–259, 261–262
Mixed Courts 207–210, 213, 281
Mohler, Edmond 126, 186, 198–199
Mohrenheim, Arthur von 259
Moldavia 31, 36, 54, 64, 75, 82, 89, 99, 103, 150, 181, 234, 274, 310
economic situation of Moldavia 45, 99, 151
member of the Riverain Commission 56, 65, 67–68, 72
occupation of Moldavia 61, 272
political situation of Moldavia 9, 52, 66, 68, 73, 327
ports of Moldavia 36, 80, 325
Principalities
Monroe, William S. 7
Montenegro 235
Montreaux Convention (1936) 315
Moorsom, George and the tonnage measurement system 154, 156
Morozov, Grigoriy 321
Morpurgo, Emilio 21
Moscow 319–321
Mukerji, Chandra 139
Müller, Adolfe 65, 68
Munich 229, 262
Musaki, Dimitri 209
Musura Bay 143
Nanu, Constantin 290
Naples 295
Napoleon III 62, 66, 100
Navigation Chest 155, 158, 200, 202, 293–294
navigation obstacles 17, 30, 43, 54, 56, 65, 75, 115, 142, 145–146, 273, 306, 325–326, 333
navigation regulations 12, 16, 42–43, 54, 56–58, 63, 65, 67–68, 70–72, 81, 88, 93–96, 105, 107–108, 110–111, 141, 144, 153–154, 168, 182, 186, 196, 206–211, 216–217, 219, 225, 227–228, 239, 242–243, 245, 251, 253, 256, 258–259, 268, 274, 276–278, 300–301, 313, 316, 321, 330
navigational aids 140–141, 204, 227
Neate, Reginald 218
Negri, Costache 101
Nesselrode, Chancellor 37, 39, 43–45, 62
Netherlands, the 112, 129, 292
neutrality 108, 110, 142, 188, 242–243, 245, 279, 309, 317, 330
New York 5–6
Newcastle 172
Nicholas I, Emperor 31, 39, 42
Nicolić, Alexander 255
Niger 263
Nile 178, 232
Nobiling, Eduard Adolph 118, 121
Nord Deutsche Bank 159–160
Norway 112, 292
Nottingham 172
Novorossiysk 34
O’Brien, Patrick 46, 80
oath of allegiance 111, 195, 206
Oceakov branch 103
Oder 133
Odessa 35, 37, 39, 43, 126, 129, 146, 178, 270, 280, 311
Offenberg, Henrik d’ 87–88, 90, 103–104, 127, 151, 186
Oldenburg 112
Oltenița 286
Ömer Fevzi Pasha 85, 88, 127, 149, 153, 195, 275
organisational culture 13
Orlov, Count 62
Osterhammel, Jürgen 300, 324
Österreichischer Lloyd 35, 126, 209
Ottoman Empire 9, 15, 30–31, 35, 38–39, 42, 55–57, 61, 64, 72, 80, 93, 97, 99–100, 102–108, 111–113, 121, 136, 142, 151, 158, 165, 171, 174, 185, 188, 191, 195, 205, 211, 230–231, 242, 245, 274, 277–278, 285, 291–292, 298, 310, 327 Sublime Porte and Turkey
Ozden, Canay 193
Palmerston, Viscount 33–34, 43–45, 47, 62–63, 235
Panama 136, 146, 157, 192
Pantazzi, Ethel Greening 82
Paris 6, 36, 38, 62, 147, 159, 162, 192, 229, 254, 260, 322
Paris ambassadorial conference (1858) 51, 68, 73–74, 89, 100
Paris ambassadorial conference (1866) 93–94, 96, 108, 161
Paris Peace Congress (1919–1920) 8, 18–19, 293, 308, 312–313, 315
Paris Peace Treaty (1856) 2, 10, 25, 47, 49, 51–52, 54–56, 58–59, 62–66, 70, 72, 74–76, 80, 95, 101, 104, 108–110, 112–113, 119, 149, 152, 154, 167, 174, 181, 184, 186, 194, 206, 232–233, 235–237, 241, 275, 277, 300, 306, 308, 324, 327–329, 332
Paris Peace Treaty (1947) 319
Paris technical conference (1858) 121–122, 125
Parker, Hyde 272
Parrinello, Giacomo 118
Pascali Corte, G. 218
Pasetti, Florian Ritter von 118
Pencovici, Eustațiu 255, 283
pensions 214–215, 331
Petrescu-Comnen, Nicolae 316
Phillipson, Coleman 7
piers / jetties 90, 106, 117–118, 120, 124, 126–127, 129–130, 133–134, 143, 145, 159, 163, 174, 179, 181, 183, 298, 307, 333
pilotage and pilots 40–41, 67–68, 95, 153, 182, 205, 207, 209, 211–212, 214, 216–217, 219, 221–222, 226–227, 245, 272, 276, 294, 303, 316, 330
Piraeus 270
Plevna 231, 233
Plymouth 116
Po 118, 130
Ponsonby, John 30, 34, 109
Popescu, Gheorghe 20
Popper, Otto 314
Port Said 226
Portița Bay 140
Pottenburg, Nicholas Zulauf von 186
Powell, A. L. 158
Powell, Richard A. 272
Principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) 29, 31–33, 35–36, 40–42, 45, 47, 52, 54, 56, 60, 64–66, 68, 73, 76, 80–81, 100–102, 113, 121, 127–128, 151, 154, 171, 175, 181, 221, 230, 240, 272, 280, 327
Princle, Margaret Anna 305
Pritchard, Sara B. 116
Prokesch-Osten, Baron 57, 59, 61
Prussia 56, 84, 88, 90, 102, 112, 118, 121, 127, 149, 160, 163, 173–174, 191, 195, 197, 200, 241, 284
Prussian-Austrian War (1866) 160
Prut 62, 185–187, 194
Prut Commission 186–187
Public Act of 1865 (The Commission’s ‘Constitution’) 2, 15, 79, 104–109, 159, 242, 278, 330
quarantine 32–34, 37, 39, 44, 56, 61, 107, 245, 274, 296, 300–301
quarries 97, 136
quasi-state, the Commission as a ‘quasi-state’ 3, 111, 247, 330
quays 106, 120, 292, 297–298
Radeglia, Commission’s employee 205
Radocanachi, merchant in Galați 127
Radofinikin, agent of Emperor Nicholas I 42
Radovanovitch, Voyslav M. 21
railways 27, 38, 68–69, 116–117, 124, 129, 152, 171–178, 186, 190, 193, 251, 312, 334
Ranke, Leopold von 230
Rashid Bey , 275
Rashid Pasha 127
Red Cross 2
Reichstadt Agrerment (1876) 233
Renault, Louis 229
Rennie, George 117
Rescue Service 222
Resis, Albert 34
Reverseaux, Marquis 218
Rey, Francis 22, 217
Rhine 6, 13, 38, 53, 59, 67, 70–71, 74, 87, 114, 118, 126, 130, 264 Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine
Rhône 126, 133, 178–179
Ribble 130
Richardson, Louise 327
Richrath, Commission’s engineer 125
river police 54, 56, 65, 67, 106, 110, 238–239, 244, 250, 279, 301, 313, 316, 330
Riverain Commission 56–57, 60, 65, 67–70, 75–77, 109, 121, 188, 206
Rivier, Alphonse 228–229
Rize 98
Romanenko, Alexander 143
Romania 15, 17, 19–21, 23–24, 28, 82–83, 104, 107, 111–112, 115, 128, 135, 143–144, 154, 160, 165, 175–178, 181, 184, 186–188, 211, 228–266, 268, 279, 282, 285, 290, 301, 309–312, 314–320, 328, 332
Rome 295, 318, 322
Rosetti, Nicolae 65–66
Rossetti, Carlo 22
Rostov 129
Rotterdam 270
Roumania , Romania
rules and rulemaking 2, 8, 11–12, 15, 28, 53, 60, 68, 79, 88, 94, 96, 110, 112, 126, 154–156, 188, 191, 195–197, 205–206, 214, 216–217, 219–221, 224, 227, 238, 240, 264, 272, 282, 288, 308–309, 312, 324–325, 330–332, 334
Rummel, L. von 144
Ruse 251
Russell, John 59
Russia 28–34, 36–39, 42, 44–49, 51–52, 54–55, 57, 59, 61–64, 73, 75, 83, 90, 97, 99, 101–102, 104, 108–109, 112–113, 116–117, 119, 121, 142–145, 163, 171, 174, 185–187, 194, 231–232, 234–240, 242, 254, 256–257, 259–261, 268, 274–275, 277–278, 284, 292, 318, 322, 326, 328–329
Russophobia 26, 29, 31–34, 42, 45, 49–50, 109, 145, 233–234, 326
Rüthling, Commission’s accountant 200
Saar Basin 284
Safvet Pasha 108, 147, 230
Saint-Pierre, Jules Alexander Aloyse de 90, 127
salaries 98, 119, 150, 195, 198, 205, 211, 215–217, 294, 310
Salih Bey 136
Salter, James Arthur 4
Samuelson, Martin 69
San Stefano Treaty (1878) 104, 235–238, 240
sandbanks 37, 115, 119, 138, 182
Sanderson, Percy 136, 218, 256
Sardinia 44, 52, 56, 72, 74–75, 87, 90, 121, 149, 174
Savoye, J.M. 200
Sayre, Francis Bowes 18
Scheldt 129, 146, 162
Schenk, Joep 327
Schirges, Georg Gottlieb 67
schleps 288, 290
Schobler Sagui 222
Schrœder, Octavio 159
Scott, James C. 12, 197
Secretariat 16, 78, 82, 89, 93, 149, 180, 197, 199–200, 320
security culture 9, 324
security regime 8, 11–12, 26, 77, 79, 116, 167, 188, 197, 211–212, 219, 227, 271, 306, 308, 324, 329, 331
Serbia 56, 68, 72, 112, 188, 235, 250, 252–253, 255–256, 258, 265, 332
Serpent Island 63–64, 222, 239
Severn 130
Seymour, George Hamilton 44–45, 50, 69
Shanghai 284
ship-owners 13, 38, 40, 42–43, 48, 156–157, 288, 302
shipping accidents 41–42, 46–48, 67, 138, 180–182, 220–222, 224–227, 272, 276
shipping insecurity 10, 27, 49, 75–76, 325–326
shipping security 83, 124, 224, 280–281
shoals 120, 138, 142
Shuvalov, Pavel 237–238
Siborne, Herbert Taylor 209–210, 218
Simpson, William 304
Sinaia Arrangement (1938) 316
Siret 185
Slovakia 318
Sluga, Glenda 11, 325
Smith, Katharina 306
Smith, William 306
Smyrna , Izmir
Sofia 255
Sofronie, George 20, 22, 316
Soluviov, Major 41
Somova, Girla 137
Soulina , Sulina
South Africa 85, 169
Soviet Union 19, 268, 317–323
Spain 292
Spaulding, Robert Marc 327
Spratt, Thomas Abel Brimage 117
St George, branch and mouth 38, 81, 117–118, 120–122, 124, 133, 137, 142, 173–175, 222
St Petersburg 31, 33, 43–45, 51, 232
St Peterburg Convention (1840) 37, 39, 44
Stade tolls 162
staff 78–79, 81, 105, 108–109, 111, 119, 135, 142, 188, 196–199, 204–205, 212, 214, 216–218, 227, 245, 268, 292, 294, 297, 302–303, 310, 317, 320 employees
Stalin, Joseph 321
Stamboul , Istanbul
Stanciu, Ștefan 24, 144
standardisation 27, 148, 154–156, 168, 227, 332
Standen, Edward James 147–148, 192
Stari Stambul branch 102, 104, 144
Steege, Ludovic 67
Stein, Lorenz von 229
Stettin 283
Stokar, Henry 286–287
Stokes, Constance 294
Stokes, John 27, 80–81, 85, 88, 90, 93–94, 96, 103, 116, 122, 124–125, 127–128, 147, 150–151, 155–157, 159–160, 162, 169–170, 174–175, 177–180, 184–194, 196, 208–209, 294
stone 97, 117, 120, 125, 134, 136–137, 204, 244, 303
storms 225, 296, 306
Straits 7, 32–33, 52, 54, 63, 277, 291, 310, 315 Bosporus, Commission of the Straits, Dardanelles
Strambio, Annibale 90, 102–103, 127
Strasbourg 85
Stratford Canning 70, 170
Strisower, Leo 262
Sturdza, Dimitrie A. 114, 136, 146, 258, 260
Sublime Porte 30–31, 54, 59, 63–64, 66, 68, 70–75, 78, 95–96, 98, 102–109, 112, 117, 125, 137, 140, 149–153, 158–159, 171–172, 205–206, 215, 230–231, 243, 245, 274, 332 Ottoman Empire and Turkey
Suciu, Alexandru Ioan 24
Sudzhuk-Kale 33
Suez 13, 40, 271, 333
Suez Canal Company 17, 85, 87, 114, 146, 156–157, 168, 191–194, 260, 296, 331, 333
Suleyman Pasha 91, 281
Sulina passim
cemeteries 304–306, 333
churches 273, 304–305, 333
consulates 292–293
corrupt officials 39, 42, 105, 214, 271, 326, 330
elevators 290
epidemics 32, 245, 300–304, 306
international enclosure 271, 285, 297
land reclamation 295–296
octroi taxes 282–283
pirates and brigands 40, 42, 48, 89, 268, 272–273, 276, 291, 326
public services 277, 295, 298, 303, 306
stevedoring 290
urban planning 83, 295, 297
Süren 185
Sweden 112, 292
Syra 147
Syria 240
Taiping Rebellion 189
Tangier 284
tariffs and taxation 12, 16, 27, 37, 56, 66–67, 88, 94, 99, 103–104, 107–108, 110–111, 143, 147, 152–154, 157–160, 162, 165, 167, 172, 174, 177, 180, 182–184, 191–192, 201–202, 205–206, 211–212, 222, 239, 243–245, 271–272, 282–283, 288–290, 301, 303, 317, 319, 325, 332
Technical Department 81, 89, 116, 120, 131, 149–150, 197–198, 204, 222, 330
technocratic internationalism 197
technology 14, 26, 115–116, 140, 146, 175, 296, 325
Tees 130
Tegetthoff, Wilhelm von 272–273
Tennent, James Emmerson 70
Tenterden, Lord 192
territorial sovereignty 3, 19, 23, 229, 242–243, 247, 258, 309, 312, 334
thalweg 101–104
Theologos, merchant in Galați 287
Theschovici, Russian engineer 144
tides 117, 120, 125, 134
timber 97, 117, 120, 125, 136, 150
Titulescu, Nicolae 314–315
Toncourt, Guido Edler von 186
tonnage 153–157, 165, 168, 180, 191–192, 212, 214, 218
towage 140, 183, 220
Trabzon (Trebizonde) 32, 294
transhipments 39, 43, 175, 283, 286, 288–290 lighterage
triangulation 131
tributaries 54, 68, 71, 74–75, 181–185, 312–313
Trieste 36, 85, 129, 135, 146, 191, 270, 283, 293
tugs 135, 149, 183, 225, 288, 292
Tulcea 47, 80–81, 85, 98, 120, 125–126, 198, 200, 204–205, 207, 210, 212, 215, 217, 244, 274, 301, 307
Tulla, Johann Gottfried 114
Tuluș, Arthur Viorel 323
Turin 36
Turkey 30, 32, 83, 96, 177, 315 Ottoman Empire and Sublime Porte
Twiss, Travers 229
Tyne 130
Ukraine 63, 145, 320
Ulm 312, 318
United Nations (UN) 279, 309, 321
UNESCO 307
United States of America 1, 5–8, 108, 112, 319–320
Universal Postal Union 2
Urquhart, David 29–35, 38, 45, 48–51, 109
USSR , Soviet Union
Vâlcov , Vylkove
Vallotton, James 21
Varna 146
Venice 273
Venice International Health Conference (1897) 298
Versailles , Paris Peace Congress (1919–1920)
Vienna 35–36, 38, 44, 51–52, 55, 57–58, 60–62, 65–66, 69–70, 72, 81, 125–126, 133, 150, 159, 162, 187, 235, 238, 249–252, 254–256, 259, 261–262, 264, 270, 273, 287
Vienna Navigation Act (1857) 65–68, 70–75, 121
Vienna Congress and principles (1815) 9, 25, 27, 33, 37–38, 43, 51, 53, 56, 58, 60, 65, 67, 70–72, 76, 284, 319, 326, 329
Vienna Danubian Conference (1940) 318
Vienna preliminary peace negotiations (1855) 52, 55, 57, 327
Vignard, Valentin 302
Vignoles, Charles Blacker 117
Vilfan, Fran , Wilfan, Franz
Vistula 125, 130, 133
Vixen incident 33–34
Voisin Bey, François Philippe 17
Volga 126
Vorontsov, Mikhail 39
Vylkove 98–103, 230
Vyshinsky, Andrey 319–320
Walewski, Count 57–58, 63, 74
Wallachia 54, 90, 128
economic situation of Wallachia 32–33, 36, 45, 151, 181
member of the Riverain Commission 56, 65, 68
occupation of Wallachia 61, 272, 310
political situation of Wallachia 9, 52, 64, 66, 72–73, 327
ports of Wallachia 36, 80, 310, 325
warships 33–34, 57, 63, 107, 126–127, 142, 144, 186, 208, 238–239, 272, 277–279, 293, 311, 333
Wear 130
weather conditions 41, 45, 48, 120, 209–210, 219, 225
Weser 53, 71, 73, 84, 87
West Bengal 130
West Hartlepool 286
Wex, Gustave Ritter von 118
White, Richard 14
Wilfan, Franz 293
Wilson, Rivers 192
Wilson, Thomas 171–172
Wilson, Woodrow 1
winds 13, 117, 133, 145, 225
Wolf, E. de 198
Wolkenstein, Georg 256
Woolf, Leonard 6–7, 18
Woolwich 85, 169
workers 97, 119, 126, 197–198, 268, 290, 303
workshops 106, 173, 198, 204–205, 216, 297, 333
Wright, William 293
Wurm, Christian Friedrich 50–52, 55, 72–73
Württemberg 53–54, 56, 65, 67
Xenos, Stephanos 285–287
Yalpuk Lake 64
Yao, Yuan (Joanne) 25, 329
Yugoslavia 318, 320–322
Zamfirescu, Duiliu 310
Zankov, Kiril 255
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