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Inna Vasilievna Islanova
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Illustrations

A Puiga barrow group. View from the South 107

B High mound on the left bank of Tsna River near village Zhelezniak. View from the North 108

C Handmade pottery from the barrows: 1, 2 – Shikhino barrow group, barrow 2; 3 – Shikhino barrow group, barrow 1; 4 – Ivan’kovo (Chamnka) barrow group, barrow 19 108

D The finds of non-ferrous metal from the barrow: 1 – the fragment of female head attire; 2 – belt plaque; 3 – buckle; 4, 5 – plaques of the female head attire; 6 – fragment of neck-ring 109

E The finds of non-ferrous metal from the barrow: 1 – cross-shaped plaque from the horse tack; 2, 4–6 – shell-shaped plaques; 3 – mount with rivet; 7 – belt mount 109

F Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 2. The Western part of the under-floor pit with the remains of fireplace. View from the North 110

G Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 12. The down part in the virgin soil. View from Northeast 110

H The finds from the settlement and burial site of Yurievskaia Gorka. 1–3 – facetted glass beads; 4 – clay bead; 5 – the fragment of the bracelet with widened ends; 6, 7 – rods for melting; 8 – mosaic bead; 9 – bottle-shaped pendant; 10 – triangular pendant; 11, 12 – buckles; 13 – suspension bracket with pendants; 1–4,8 – glass; 5–7, 9–11, 13 – non-ferrous metal; 12 – iron 111

1 The region under investigation 112

2 Strongholds and settlements of the Early Iron Age: a – strongholds, b – settlements, 1 – Lovnitsa; 2, 3 – Bologoe; 4 – Podol 1; 5 – Kaftinskii Gorodok; 6 – Borki; 7 – Kazikino; 8 – Kurovo 2; 9 – Yur’evskaia Gorka; 10 – Troitsa 1; 11 – Garusovo 2; 12 – Ryadok; 13 – Luben’kino 1; 14 – Yakhnovo; 15 – Varvarina Gora; 16 – Glybi 2; 17 – Ovsische 1; 18 – Shitovichi 113

3 The fragments of vessels with a textile surface 114

4 The finds from the settlements of Early D’iakovo culture 115

5 Ceramics of the stronghold of Varvarina Gora (according to Vladimir A. Burov) 116

6 The finds from stronghold of Varvarina Gora (according to Vladimir A. Burov) 1, 2 – non-ferrous metal; 3, 6–10 – iron; 4, 5 – clay. 1 – can-shaped bronze mount; 2 – pendant; 3 – arrow tip; 4, 5 – D’iakovo-type clay weights; 6 – sickle; 7 – flint steel; 8, 9 – knives 117

7 Three areas of concentration of the Pskov long barrows 118

8 Early Middle Ages settlements and burial sites. The numbering of sites corresponds to the numbering in Table 1. a – burial site; b – clusters of burial sites; c – burial site of unclear cultural affiliation; d – clusters of burial sites of unclear cultural affiliation; e – stronghold of the culture of Pskov long barrows; f – settlement of the culture of Pskov long barrows; g – settlement of another cultural group; h – settlement of unclear cultural affiliation; i – flat cremation graves of the culture of Pskov long barrows; j – flat cremation graves of another cultural group; k – the boundaries of areas.

1 – Karzovo, 2 – Ochep, 3 – Shikhino, 4 – Trufanikha, 5 – Bogatkovo, 6 – Ovsische, 7 – Briakovo, 8 – Dubniki, 9 – Nikulkino, 10 – Deriagino, 11 – Kolpinets, 12 – Pal’tsevo, 13 – Oboltino, 14 – Kopachevo, 15 – Ukhab, 16 – Griady, 17 – Dudikha, 18 – Diatlovo, 19 – Shepel’kino, 20 – Sorokino, 21 – Volkovo, 22 – Vasil’ovo, 23 – Staroe, 24 – Filino, 25 – Norfino, 26 – Kamushki, 27 – Boldyrevo, 28 – Dunai, 29 – Garusovo (Mlyovskii Bor, Manuilovo), 30 – Diagilevo (Ryzhakovo), 31 – Puiga, 32 – Bolshoe Maloshevino, 33 – Zashishev’e, 34 – Pochep, 35 – Poliany, 36 – Kazikino, 37 – Gogolino, 38 – Lipovitsa, 39 – Pashino, 40 – L’alino, 41 – Ostrov, 42 – Kurskii Ryadok, 43 – Tubosskaia Gorka, 44 – Leontievo, 45 – Boriskovo, 46 – Berezovskii Riadok, 47 – Maloe Loshakovo, 48 – Lovnitsa, 49 – Tuganovichi, 50 – Filimonovo, 51 – Belinets, 52, 53 – Ust’e, 54 – Lubitovo, 55 – R’utino, 56 – L’ubets, 57 – Uzmen’, 58 – Pyros, 59 – Lycoshino, 60 – Sopki, 61 – Gorka, 62 – Korykhnovo, 63 – L’vovo, 64 – Otdykhalovo, 65 – Bolshie Gornieshnitsy, 66 – Pogorelka, 67 – Nikiterovets, 68 – Kamen’, 69 – Makarovo, 70 – Kuzhenkino, 71 – Ozerevichi, 72 – Rigodischi, 73 – Oleshevo, 74 – Gogolevo, 75 – Yamnik, 76 – Kaftino, 77 – Prudy, 78 – Podol, 79 – Kaftinskii Gorodok, 80 – Bologoe, 81 – Gorodok (Kotovo), 82 – Gadyshi, 83 – Poddubie, 84 – Glybi 2, 85 – Rozhdestvo, 86 – Glybi, 87 – Uzmen’, 88 – Zarech’e, 89 – Novinka, 90 – Gorodok, 91 – Parshukovo, 92 – Komkino, 93 – Yablon’ka, 94 – Martiushino, 95 – Ust’ Rybezhna, 96 – Sukhaia Niva, 97 – Kuvshiny, 98 – Bogatyr’, 99 – Khriply, 100 – Ruchenaia, 101 – Rvenitsy, 102 – Rvenitsy (Vyshnii Volochek), 103 – Mlyovo 3, 104 – Kuznechikha, 105 – Priamik, 106 – Ivankovo, 107 – Podolkhovets, 108 – Ilino, 109 – Shitovichi, 110 – Berezino, 111 – Cherentsovo, 112 – Pavlovo, 113 – Stroikovo, 114 – Elizavetino, 115 – Kolokol’nia, 116 – Ievtsevo, 117 – Troitsa 1, 118 – Yurievskaia Gorka, 119 – Agryskovo, 120 – Zhelezniak 119

9 A – Puiga archaeological complex, B – Diagilevo archaeological complex, a – marshland area, b – high barrow of the culture of Pskov long barrows, c – barrows of the culture of Pskov long barrows, d – settlement, e – barrowss of unclear cultural affiliation 120

10 A – Ovsische archaeological complex, B – Karzovo-Shikhino archaeological complex 120

11 Puiga burial site 1: a – a late pit; b – barrow; c – investigated barrow 121

12 Puiga archaeological complex: a – barrows, b – settlement

1 – burial site; 2 – high barrow; 3 – settlement 121

13 Ivan’kovo 1, 2, 3 burial sites (according to Alexander Kh. Repman): a – barrows; B – barrows, excavated by Alexander Kh. Repman 122

14 Garusovo 1 (Mlyovsky Bor 1) burial site: a – barrows; b – barrows, excavated by Maria V. Fekhner; c – cremated bones of destroyed burial 123

15 Shikhino burial site (by Alexander Kh. Repman): a – barrows; b – barrows, excavated by Maria V. Fekhner; c – late non-grave pits 123

16 Northern part of Shitovichi burial site: a – barrows, b – excavated barrows 124

17 Ovsische burial site: a – boundaries of the settlement 1; b – boundaries of settlement 2; c – excavation areas; d – fireplace; e – excavated barrow 124

18 Barrow 11 of the Ovsische 1 burial site: a – layer of coals with ash, b – layer of ash, c – stones, d – pottery in the burial pit, e – bones, f – layer of coals with ash in the mound sections, g – coals, h – yellow sand, i – turf, j – brown sand, k – dark brown sand, l – grey brown sand, m – dark grey sand, n – yellow brown sand, o – calcined sand 125

19 Sections of the barrow 11 of the Ovsische 1 burial site. Symbols in figure 18 125

20 Podol burial complex 1. Plan of the base level and sections. a – burial, b – turf, c – transferred turf, d – dark brown sand, e – dark grey sand with ash, f – orange sand, g – black sand with coal, h – yellow sand, i – stones 126

21 Podol burial complex (according to Igor N. Tchernykh): 1 – a piece of red ochre, 2 – skull bones, 3 – handmade vessel and its fragments, 4 – a fragment of ladle for pouring molten metal, 5 – a broken metal object, a – grey sand with ash, b – dark sand with ash and bones 127

22 Diagram of the section of barrow 16 of Shikhino burial site and reconstruction of its structure: 1 – west fill, 2 – east fill, 3 – fill.

a – approximate boundaries of lower fill, b – layer of coals, c – gated bones, d – buried turf, e – turf, f – pit, g – hand-made vessel, h – upper fill 128

23 Section of the elongated barrow 9 of the Ivan’kovo (Chamka) burial site (according to Alexander Kh. Repman): a – brown sand, b – grey sand, c – dark grey sand, d – calcined sand, e – coals, f – yellow sand, g – red sand with pebbles, h – red sand 128

24 Mednaia Gora burial and ritual complex: 2, 3, 6, 7, 37 – pit numbers; a – approximate boundaries; b – pits of ritual complex; c – pits belonging to the barrow 1; d – pits dug up before the construction of barrows; e – burial pit; f – stones; g – cross-sections; h – yellow sand, i – stones 129

25 Cross-section in North – South direction and cross-sections of pits: a – brown sand, b – grey sand, c – dark grey sand, d – calcined sand, e – coals, f – yellow sand, g – red sand with pebbles, h – red sand, i – turf 130

26 Mednaia Gora. Burial in the barrow 1: A – the fragments of the vessel; b – stones; c – burned wood; d – layer saturated with carbon; e – cluster of cremated bones 130

27 Cross-sections of the barrows of the basin of Upper Msta River: A, B – barrow group 1; C – barrow group 2; a – burnt bones; b – buried turf; C – layer saturated with carbon 131

28 Barrow 11 of Shikhino burial site (according to Maria V. Fekhner). For layer symbols, see fig. 18. Finds: 1 – beads; 2 – fragments of bronze bracelets; 3 – urn; 2, 7 – stones; 5 – iron knife; 6 – bronze ring 132

29 Barrow 27 of Shikhino burial site (according to Maria V. Fekhner). For layer symbols, see fig. 18. 1 – pottery, 2 – iron knife, 3 – iron rod 133

30 Barrow 28 of Shikhino burial site (according to Maria V. Fekhner). For layer symbols, see fig. 18. 1 – bronze ring, 2 – pottery, 3 – glass beads 134

31 Remains of wooden construction in the barrows of Shikhino burial site (according to Maria V. Fekhner): 1 – barrow 16, sectors I and II, depth – 60–95 cm; 2 – barrow 16, sectors IV and VI, depth – 45–60 cm; 3 – barrow 26, 4 – barrow 22; a – coals; b – burned wood; c – the accumulation of burnt bones; d – pottery 135

32 Barrow 1 of Parshukovo 3 burial site (according to Rostislav L. Rosenfeldt); a – sand; b – coals; c – burnt wood; d – stone and burnt bones 136

33 Barrow 2 of Parshukovo 3 burial site (according to Rostislav L. Rosenfeldt): a – pit numbers (in plan and near sections); b – sand; c – coals; d – pit; e – virgin soil 137

34 Barrow 60 of Shitovichi burial site: 1 – ground grave, a – turf, b – brown sand, c – brown-yellow sand, d – grey sand, e – yellow-grey sand, f – brown-grey sand, g – yellow sand, h – white sand, i – coals, j – dark humused sand, k – burnt bones, l – coal spots, m – items, n – stones 138

35 Sections of barrow 60 of Shitovichi burial site. For symbols, see fig. 34 139

36 Burial of Shitovichi burial site: 1 – fragments of the upper part of vessel, 2 – fragments of the lower part of vessel 139

37 Norfino burial site: a – excavation areas 140

38 Norfino burial site. Burial 1: a – boundaries of burnt bones areas, b – transferred sand and forest soil, c – black sand, d – ceramic accumulation, e – transferred sand, f – yellow sand, g – pottery, h – brown-yellow sand, i – fragments of urn, j – yellow-grey sand, k – grey sand, l – burnt bones, m – forest soil 141

39 Strongholds of the culture of the Pskov long barrows in the clusters of burial sites and settlements: a – settlement, b – burial site, c – several burial sites, d – strongholds; 1 – Yakhnovo, 2 – Varvarina Gora, 3 – Lovnitsa, 4 – Borki, 5 – Pochep (Semiki), 6 – Diagilevo, 7 – Puiga 142

40 Finds of on the strongholds of Varvarina Gora of the culture of Pskov long barrows (according to Vladimir A. Burov): 1 – iron knife; 2 -14 clay spindle whorl and fragments of spindle whorl 143

41 Pottery of the strongholds of Varvarina Gora of the culture of Pskov long barrows (according to Vladimir A. Burov) 144

42 Pottery of the culture of Pskov long barrows: 4–4, 7–10 – stronghold Lovnitsa;

5 – stronghold Borki; 6 – Barrow Zovnitsa 144

43 Schemes of the complexes “settlement – burial site”: a – settlement, b – burial site, 1 – Pochep – Garusovo (Mlyovskii Bor), 2 – Ust’e, 3 – Kuznechkovo, 4 – Bogatkovo, 5 – Dubniki, 6 – Karzovo 145

44 Gorodok 1 settlement and Mednaia Gora complex (situation plan by Vladimir A. Burov): 1 – Mednaia Gora, a – boundaries of the settlement, b – excavation area 146

45 Gorodok 1 settlement. Excavations in the southern part: 1–8 – building numbers, P – production area, a – pit, b – pit spots, c – location of the remains of buildings 147

46 Gorodok 1 settlement. Excavations in the central part. For symbols, see fig.45 148

47 Gorodok 1 settlement. Excavations in the northern part. For symbols, see fig. 45 149

48 Gorodok 1 settlement. Building 1. a – pit, b – humused spot, c – coal spot 150

49 Gorodok 1 settlement. Finds from building 1: 1–9 – pottery; 10 – iron; 11, 13 – clay; 12, 14 – non-ferrous metal (according to Vladimir A. Burov) 151

50 Gorodok 1 settlement. Building 2: a – grey brown loam, b – dark grey loam, c – brown loam, d – yellow loam, e – white loam, f – light grey loam, g – black loam, h – dark brown loam, i – calcined layer, j – ash, k – coal, l – turf 152

51 Gorodok 1 settlement. Finds from building 2: 1–3 – clay; 4, 5 – fragments of crucible; 6 – iron; 7–21 – pottery 153

52 Gorodok 1 settlement. Buildings 3 and 4 154

53 Gorodok 1 settlement. Pottery in the buildings 3 and 4 154

54 Gorodok 1 settlement. Finds from buildings 3 and 4: 1 – iron; 2 – non-ferrous metal; 3, 4 – fragments of clay ladle for pouring molten metal; 5 – nozzle fragment?; 6 – whetstone; 7 – the fragment of crucible 155

55 Gorodok 1 settlement. Building 5. Plan of pits and cross-section (according to Vladimir A. Burov) 156

56 Gorodok 1 settlement. Pottery from building 5 157

57 Gorodok 1 settlement. Pottery from building 5 158

58 Gorodok 1 settlement. Equipment from building 5: 1–6 – clay; 7, 8 – iron 158

59 Gorodok 1 settlement. Burial 6 159

60 Gorodok 1 settlement. Finds from building 6: 1–5 – pottery; 6, 7 – iron 160

61 Gorodok 1 settlement. Buildings 7 and 8: a – cluster of burned stones in building 7; b – cluster of burned stones in building 8; c – burned wood in building 8; d – humused spot in the building 7 161

62 Gorodok 1 settlement. Finds from building 7: 1–10 – pottery; 11, 12 – clay spindles whorl 162

63 Gorodok 1 settlement. “Production complex” 162

64 Gorodok 1 settlement. Findings from the “production area”: 1–5 – pottery; 6, 7 – iron; 8 – clay 163

65 Glybi 2 settlement. Plan by Igor N. Tchernykh: a – boundaries of the settlement; b – excavation area 164

66 Glybi 2 settlement. Finds: 1–10 – pottery; 11 – clay sinker; 12 – bronze chisel 165

67 Ovsishche 1 settlement: 1 – excavation area of 1998; 2 – findings; 3, 4 – stratigraphy of the excavation:

a – fragments of clay object; b – clay spindle whorl; c – fragments of clay ladle for pouring molten metal; d – grey-brown sand; e – sand; f – black sand with carbon; g – dark grey sand; h – orange sand of virgin soil 166

68 Pottery of the Ovsische 1 settlement 167

69 Classification of pottery of the North-West of the Russian Plain of the 5th–8th centuries (according to Nikolai V. Lopatin) 168

70 Pottery of Gorodok 1 settlement. Type 7 169

71 Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement: 1,3,5,7–12 – type 10; 2–5 – type 7; 6 –

type 8 170

72 Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement: 1–8 – form 1; 9, 10 – form 2; 11, 12 –

type 8 171

73 Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Type 8 172

74 Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement: 1–4 – type 8; 7–9 – form 3; 5, 6 – type 11; 10 – the type is uncertain 173

75 Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Type 10 174

76 Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Type 11 175

77 Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Type 11 176

78 Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Type 11 177

79 Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement: 1,2 – form 4; 3 – form M; 4, 5, 12 – form P4; 6–9 – form Р1 178

80 Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Form 2 179

81 Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Form 2 180

82 Finds from burial site Ovsische 1: 1–7 – pottery from barrow 11; 8 – pottery from the robber pit on the barrow 9; 9 – bronze ring from the burial of barrow 11; 10 – the fragment iron knife from the coal layer of the base of the barrow 11 181

83 Pottery and bronze ring from Mednaia Gora burial and ritual complex 181

84 Pottery from the barrow 10 of Puiga burial site 182

85 Pottery from burial sites: 1 – flat grave Lipovitsa (Borki); 2 – burial 1 of the flat cemetery of Norfino 182

86 Pottery and items from the barrow 60 and the flat grave of Shitovichi burial site: 1, 2 – pottery from the ditch of the barrow; 3–9 – fragments of things from flat grave; 10 – vessel covering the top of the urn; 11 – handmade urn from the flat grave; 3,7,8 – fragment of bronze spiral (?) bracelet; 5, 6 – bronze spiral 183

87 Items from the barrow of Bogatkovo 2 burial site: 1 – bronze rod; 2–4 – handmade vessels 184

88 Pottery from the barrow 17 of Ivankovo (Chamka) burial site 185

89 Pottery from the barrow 19 of Ivankovo (Chamka) burial site 185

90 Finds from the barrows of Ivankovo (Chamka) burial site: 1 – the barrow number is unknown; 2 – handmade pottery from the barrow 3; 3 – bronze object from the barrow 3; 4 – bone handle from the barrow 9 186

91 Pottery from the barrow 2 of Yablon’ka 3 burial site: 1 – drawing by Yuriy A. Kobozev 187

92 Finds from the barrow 2 of the Yablon’ka 3 burial site: 1–7 – non-ferrous metal plaques; 9 – melted glass bead 188

93 Pottery from Shikhino burial site: 1 – barrow 1; 2 – barrow 6; 3,4 – barrow 2 189

94 Finds from the barrow 1 of Shikhino burial site: 1–11, 13 – layer with cremated bones; 12, 14 – upper fill; 1, 5–9 – non-ferrous metal; 2–4 – non-ferrous metal and iron; 10, 12, 13 – iron; 11, 14 – clay 190

95 Finds from the barrow 16 of Shikhino burial site: 1, 2 – non-ferrous metal; 3, 7–9 – clay; 4–6 – iron 191

96 Finds from Shikhino burial site: A – barrow 13: 1 – burial urn; 2,3 – iron, B – barrow 24: 4 – clay disk (?); 5 – non-ferrous metal 192

97 Finds from the barrow 17 of Shikhino burial site: 1, 2, 4, 5 – non-ferrous metal; 3 – iron; 6, 7 – ceramics 193

98 Finds from the barrow 25 of Shikhino burial site: 1–6, 8 – non-ferrous metal; 7, 9–11 – iron 194

99 Finds from the barrows of Shikhino burial site: a – barrow 27; b – barrow 20; c – barrow 28; 1–5 – iron; 6 – non-ferrous metal 195

100 Finds from the barrows of the Garusovo (Mlyovsky Bor 1) and Diagilevo (Ryzhakovo) burial sites: Mlyovsky Bor 1: A – barrow 5, B – barrow 2, C – barrow 1, D – barrow 23, E – barrow 20; Dyagilevo: F – barrow 17; 1–14 – non-ferrous metal, 15, 16 – bone 196

101 Finds from the barrows of Berezino burial site: A – barrow 8; B – barrow 10; 1–3, 5, 8, 9 – non-ferrous metal; 4, 6 – glass; 7 – iron; 10 – ceramics 197

102 Podol burial site: 1 – burial 2; 2 – burial 3; 3 – embankment; 4 – outside the barrow; 6 – soil from the modern pit; 1 – non-ferrous metal; 2 – bone; 3, 4 – ceramics; 5, 7 – iron 198

103 Findings from the flat grave of Podol burial site: 1 – upper part of vessel from flat grave, lower part – from barrow fill; 3 – clay spindles whorl; 4 – clay ladle for pouring molten metal 199

104 Finds from the barrow 20 of Puiga burial site: 1 – ceramics; 2,3 – iron buckles 199

105 Finds from Early Middle Ages sites: 1.13,20,21 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 2 – Berezino burial site, barrow 8; 3 – Podol burial site, flatd grave; 4 – Shikhino burial site, barrow 28; 5 – Kuzhenkino burial site, barrow (without number); 6 – Beriozovsky Riadok burial site, barrow 5; 7, 7a, 8, 15–18 – Shikhino burial site, barrow 1; 9, 10, 14 – Mlyovskii Bor 1 burial site, barrow 20; 12 – Shitovichi burial site, ground burial; 19 – Mlyovskii Bor 1 burial site, barrow 23; 1–10, 12–14, 17–23 – non-ferrous metal; 11, 15, 16 – iron rod wrapped with bronze wire. 1–6, 18 – holders and its fragments for the head attire; 7, 7a, 11, 15,16 – neck-ring fragment; 8, 19 – tubes; 12, 13 – spirals; 17 – head attire; 20, 21 – pendants 200

106 Finds made of non-ferrous metal from the Early Middle Ages monuments: 1, 2 – Shikhino, barrow 16; 3, 4, 11 – Shikhino, barrow 17; 5–9 – Shitovichi, ground burial, 10 – Shikhino, barrow 26; 12 – Shihino, barrow 30; 1, 2, 4–11 – the fragment of bracelet; 12 – neck-ring fragment 201

107 Finds from early Middle Ages sites: 1 – Shikhino, barrow 17; 2 – Mednaia Gora, ditch of the barrow 1; 3, 14, 15 – Berezino, barrow 8; 4 – Mlyovsky Bor 1, barrow 20; 6 – Podol, flat grave; 8 – Ryzhakovo, barrow 17; 9 – Ovsische, barrow 11; 10, 12, 16, 19 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 17 – Ivankovo (Chamka), barrow 9; 18 – Shikhino, barrow 28; 20–22 – Yablonka 3, barrow 2; 23 – Diagilevo (Ryzhakovo), barrow 17; 1–6, 9 – non-ferrous metal; 7, 8, 17, 23 – bone; 10, 11, 14–16, 18, 20–22 – glass; 12, 13, 19 – clay. 1–6, 9 – rings and fragments; 7, 8 – fragments of combs; 10–16, 18–22 – beads; 17 – handle 202

108 Finds from Early Middle Ages sites: 1 – Mlyovskii Bor 1, barrow 1; 2 – Mlyovskii Bor 1, barrow 2; 3, 4 – Puiga 1, barrow 20; 5 – Shikhino, barrow 25; 6 – Shikhino, barrow 13; 7 – Shikhino, barrow 30; 8 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 9 – Shikhino, barrow 16; 10,12,13 – Shikhino, barrow 1; 11 – Podol, burial ground; 1,2,5, 10,13 – non-ferrous metal; 3,4, 7–9, 11,12 – iron; 1–10, 12,13 – buckles and their parts; 11 – rod 203

109 Finds from early Middle Ages sites: 1–3 – Mlyovskii Bor 1, barrow 3; 4 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 5–7 – Mlyovskii Bor 1, barrow 5; 8 – Shikhino, barrow 16; 9 – Shikhino, barrow 25; 10, 13 – Berezino, barrow 8; 11 – Shikhino, barrow 25; 12 – Shikhino, barrow 1; 14, 15 – Beriozovskii Riadok, barrow 5; 16–18 – Yablon’ka 3, barrow 2; 1–7, 10–18 – non-ferrous metal; 8 – iron, 4, 8 – plaques; 5, 9, 12, 13 – holders; 6, 7, 17, 18 – shell-shaped plaques; 11 – metal plaque; 14, 16 – plaques with umbo; 10, 15 – plaques 204

110 Iron knives from the Early Middle Ages sites: 1–5 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 6–9 – Kuzhenkino burial site 205

111 Iron knives from the early Middle Ages sites: 1 – Beriozovskii Riadok, barrow 5; 2 – Shikhino, barrow 17; 3 – Shikhino, barrow 16; 4 – Shikhino, barrow 28; 5 – Shikhino, barrow 30; 6 – Berezino, barrow 8; 7 – Shikhino, barrow 27 206

112 Chisel-shaped flint-steels from early Middle Ages burial sites: 1 – Shikhino, barrow 27; 2,3 – Shikhino, barrow 25; 4 – Kuzhenkino 207

113 Iron objects from the early Middle Ages sites: 2–5,7,9 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 1 – Podol burial site; 8 – Shikhino burial site, barrow 1; 1, 4–9 – awls; 2 – the fragment of an axe blade; 3 – fishing hook 208

114 Iron objects from early Middle Ages sites: 1 – iron horse comb from the barrow 25 of Shikhino burial site; 2 – sickle from the Gorodok 1 settlement 209

115 Clay objects from the Early Middle Ages sites: 1–4, 7.8 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 5 – Ovsische 1 settlement; 9 – burial ground Podol. 1 – casting mold; 2–9 – fragments of clay ladle 210

116 Clay spindle whorls from early Middle Ages sites: 1–23.26 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 25 – Ovsische 1 settlement; 24 – flat grave Podol 211

117 Clay spindle whorls from early Middle Ages sites: 1–3, 5–20, 22 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 4 – Shikhino burial site, barrow 16; 21 – Boldyrevo locality 212

118 Clay spindle whorls from early Middle Ages sites: 1 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 2–4 – Glybi 2 settlement; 5 – Shikhino burial site, barrow 1 213

119 Yurievskaia Gorka. Stronghold, settlement and burial site: a – settlement; B – flat graves; c – excavation area 213

120 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Western excavations: 1–9 – numbering of buildings; a – pits in the virgin soil; b – pits from pillars 214

121 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. East excavations: 10–26 – numbering of buildings 214

122 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Central excavations: 27–31 – building numbering 215

123 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 1. A – pits in the virgin soil; B – humused spots; C – contours of stone clusters; D – contours of ceramic clusters 216

124 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from buildings: a – building 5; b – building 2; c – building 1 217

125 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 2 218

126 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 3 218

127 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 4 219

128 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 5 219

129 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 6 220

130 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 13 221

131 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 7 221

132 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from building 7 222

133 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 10 222

134 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 11 223

135 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from c buildings. a – building 29; b – building 11 223

136 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 12: a – brown sand; b – grey sand; c – sand with carbon; d – black sand; e – turf; f – coals; g – ashes; h – white sand; J – yellow sand; k – stones; l – accumulation of small stones; m – coal spots; n – a cluster of pottery 224

137 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from building 12 224

138 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from building 12 225

139 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 14 226

140 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from building 14 226

141 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 17 227

142 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from buildings: a – building 17; b – building 19 228

143 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 19 229

144 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Production building N 230

145 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 20 231

146 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Buildings 21 and 21a 232

147 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Buildings 22 and 23 233

148 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 24 234

149 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 25 235

150 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 26 235

151 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from buildings 28 and 28a 236

152 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 29 236

153 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 30 237

154 Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 31 238

155 Pottery of the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–5, 10–13 – form 2; 6, 7 – form 5; 8, 9, 15, 18 – type 7; 14 – Form 1 239

156 Pottery of the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Type 7 240

157 Pottery of the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Type 10 240

158 Pottery of the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1, 12–17 – P1 form; 2, 6, 7, 9 – form 4; 3, 4 – form 1; 5 – form 1; 11 – form Р2 241

159 Pottery of the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1, 4, 5 – type 9; 2, 3 – type 8 241

160 Pottery of the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–3, 7–9 – form 3; 4–6 – form M; 10, 11 – covers; 12 – form 2 242

161 Finds from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–11, 13–15 glass; 12.16, 17 – clay; 18–29 non-ferrous metal. 1–17 – beads; 18, 19 – metal scrap; 20 – a fragment of an unclear object; 21 – pendant; 22 – neck-ring fragment; 23, 24 – the fragments of tube; 25 – ring; 26 – the fragment of bracelet; 27, 28 – pendants; 29 – plaque from the head attire 243

162 Finds from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–4, 6–17, 19–22 – iron; 5, 18 – non-ferrous metal; 1, 7, 7a, 8.10, 11, 12, 19, 20, 22 – uncertain objects; 2 – top of the handle; 3,4 – the tongues of buckles; 5, 9, 13,14 – buckles and buckle fragments; 6 –plaque on the belt; 15 – fragments of the rings from the chain armor (?); 16, 18 – needles (?); 17 – tweezers; 21 – arrow 244

163 Findings from iron from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1, 3 – rivets; 2 – chain armor fragment; 3 – 16 – knives and fragments of knives 245

164 Findings from iron from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1, 2 – rivets; 3–7, 10 – prickers; 8.9 – fragment of horse bit; 11, 14 – fragments of axes; 12, 13, 17, 19 – uncertain objects; 15, 16 – hooks; 17 – rod 246

165 Clay finds from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–11 – spindle whorls; 12 – the fragment of nozzle from furnace 247

166 Clay finds from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–4.6-10 – spindle whorls; 5 – uncertain objects 248

167 Finds from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–3, 5–14 – clay; 4, 5 – stone; 1,3,6,11, 14 – uncertain objects; 2 – toy fragment; 4, 5, – whetstones; 7–10, 12,13 – fragments of crucibles 249

168 Finds from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–5 non-ferrous metal; 6–9 – stone; 10–14 – clay; 1–5 – metal scrap; 6–9 – molds for casting of non-ferrous metal objects; 10–14 – ladle for pouring molten metal and fragments of ladles 250

169 Things from the burials of the Yurievskaia Gorka burial site: 1, 4 – burial 3; 2 – burial 5; 3 – burial 2; 1 – bronze spiral; 2 – iron arrow; 3 – the fragment of bronze bracelet; 4 – clay spindle whorl 251

170 Yurievskaia Gorka burial site: 1 – 8 – fixed burials; a, b, c – destroyed burials 251

171 Burials of the Yurievskaia Gorka burial site: 1 – burial 3; 2 – burial 4; 3 – burial 2; 4 – burial 5; 5 – burial 6; a – transferred layer; b – grey sand; c – brown sand; d – dark grey sand; e – white sand; f – turf; g – yellow sand; h – pieces of burned clay; i – slag; j – coals; k – cremated bones; l – pottery fragments; m – stones; n – clay 252

172 Burials of the Yurievskaia Gorka burial site: 1 – burial 1; 2 – burial 7; 3 – burial 8 252

173 Troitsa 1 settlement 253

174 Finds from the Bologoe settlement: 1–8 – clay spindle whorls; 9 – ladle for pouring molten metal 254

175 Leont’evo settlement: a – the boundaries of the settlement; b – boundaries of the Stone Age settlement; c – areas without wood; d – excavations of 1998; e – prospect trench and cleaning; f – fences; g – field road; h – water tube; j – bush; k – meadow 255

176 Leont’evo settlement. Stratigraphy of layers of an excavation: a – turf; b – coals; c – grey loam; d – dark grey loam; e – brown loam; f – yellow loam; g – light grey loam; 1 – brown humused loam – ploughland; 2 – brown-grey loam and grey loam layer; 3 – dark grey loam with inclusions of coals; 4 – motley layers; 5 – light grey loam with yellow inclusions; 6 – yellow loam with dark inclusions; 7 – virgin soil 255

177 Finds from the Leont’evo settlement: 1 – iron knife; 2–8 – clay spindle whorls; 9, 10 – clay sinkers; 11 – whetstone 256

178 Pottery of the Leont’evo settlement: 1, 4, 7 – type Р1; 2,3, 5, 6, 8,9 – form 1; 10 – type 11; 11 – type Р2; 12 – type 8; 13, 16 – form 3 257

179 Pottery of the Leont’evo settlement: 2,3 – type 11; 4–6 – type Р1 257

180 Pottery of the Leont’evo settlement: 1, 4, 7, 13, 14 – type 10; 5, 6, 9 – type 7 258

181 Pashino settlement: 1–3 – iron; 4 – 7 – handmade pottery. 1 – sickle; 2 – hook; 3 – knife; 4 – form M; 5, 6 – type 7 of pottery 259

182 Boriskovo settlement: 1 – plan; 2, 3 – handmade pottery 260

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