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Index

Page references marked in bold type indicate a more in-depth treatment of the subject.

Abad, Begoña 99
Abbott, Andrew 3, 232, 243
Abbott-Chapman, Joan 94
Abidin, Crystal 186, 189
abroad
going/studying 39, 41, 141, 143, 147, 148, 153, 215
see also Erasmus exchange programme ; exchange students
Acker, Joan 230, 231, 231n8, 244
Ackermann, Judith 191192
actor-network theory (Lee) 49, 53
networks of human and non-human actors 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 60, 63, 105, 106, 116, 120, 122
actors see agency
Adam, Duncan 8
addiction, to social media/multiplayer computer games 187, 191
Adi, Ana 190
adolescence
peers as key features of 28, 31, 42, 186
transition to 186188, 191
see also transition to adulthood ; youth transition
adult control
escape from 9, 98, 106, 110, 210
see also lonjas
adulthood
independent 12, 51, 52, 66
link between independence, work and 5051, 5758
stable 50, 54
Western vs. Indonesian context 119
see also transition to adulthood ; youth transition
adult support 53
see also parental support
agencement see assemblage
agency
actor-network theory (Lee) 49, 53
‘agential cuts’ 55
as appearance of independence 49, 50
becoming and 50, 5253
of children 53, 54
definition 27, 28, 229n5
dependent 53, 66
interdependent social agents 27
relational dimensions of 27, 36, 42
shared 248, 250, 262
structure vs. 1, 13, 27
collective engagement as mediating between structure and 7, 1314, 15
supplementation/extensions and (Lee) 4950, 5355
temporal dimensions of 28, 32, 36
young adults as agents of social change 27
see also assemblage
agency workers 8081
Agnoli, Maria Stella 169
Ailaket (association for drug abuse counseling, Basque Country) 96, 96n3
alcohol consumption 101, 103, 109, 141, 194
Alldred, Pam 52, 53, 64, 122
alt-right movement 16
altruistic individualism 129
alumni/alumni associations (exchange students) 144, 151, 152, 153, 155
Andretta, Massimiliano 89, 161, 165, 166
Anthias, Floya 247, 251
anthropological places 100, 106
see also lonjas
apprentices see trainees/traineeships
apps/applications see social media applications
‘arenas of comfort’, peers as 14, 31, 32, 39, 41
Armano, Emiliana 80, 83
Artium (Basque Museum of Contemporary Art, Vitoria-Gaszeiz) 96
art projects see graffiti art practice
Asia 5, 115, 119, 268
see also Indonesia ; Singapore
assemblage (Deleuze, Guattari) 2, 115
actor-network theory 49, 53
networks of human and non-human actors 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 60, 63, 105, 106, 116, 120, 122
collective engagement as 7, 1113, 15, 41
concept and methodology 120122, 136
desire as driving energy behind 13
of the self/individuality and 12, 13, 121
term/concept 1112, 52
workplace assemblages see teen-work assemblages
see also graffiti art practice ; lonjas
assisting collectivities
concept/term 11, 222
role in decision-making 207, 208, 216222
asso (Action des salarié(e)s du secteur associative, France) 82, 83
Augé, Marc 100, 106
Australia 5, 117, 268
Austria 145
autonomy 12, 49, 51, 262
assemblage and 52, 66
illusion of 54
semi-autonomous spaces 101102, 106, 107, 108, 109
see also lonjas
of young workers 12
babysitting 55, 56, 56n3, 57
Bakker, Tom P. 163, 164, 165
Bang, Henrik 261, 263
Barad, Karen 55
Barnes, Barry 27, 36, 42, 229n5
Barron, Pierre 81, 82
Basque Country (northern Spain) 97, 105, 107, 109
precarity among middle classes 104
public space regulations 101
urban transformation/reconfiguration 98, 100101, 110
see also lonjas
Basque Observatory of Youth (ovj) 97, 98, 103
Bauer, Ulrich 27
Bauman, Zygmunt 1, 209
Beck-Gernsheim, Elisabeth 1, 51, 67, 259
Beck, Ulrich 1, 51, 129, 187, 247, 251, 259
becoming 50, 123, 251
agency and 50, 5253
political participation/micropolitics of 261
behaviour, bad behaviour through peer influences 32, 35
Beierle, Sarah 25, 26, 29, 31, 33, 34
Belgium 78, 145
belonging
assumed closeness to celebrities 196, 201
lonjas as 93, 98, 99, 108, 109
social 227, 235
transnational/supranational 56, 140, 155
see also Erasmus bubble ; peer group belonging
Bennett, Andy 16, 250
Bennett, W. Lance 164, 248
Berrio-Oxtoa, Kontxesi 95, 97, 98, 106, 107
Bertaux, Daniel 227, 228, 230, 231, 232, 233, 233n14, 244
best friends 10, 94, 154, 187, 195, 196, 198
Binary Logistic Regression 163, 171
biographical research 232, 233
Black Lives Matter 15
Blatterer, Harry 50, 57
Blau, Peter M. 230
blocking, on social media 194195, 201
Blumer, Herbert 229, 243
bodies, as part of teen-work assemblages 6061
bodily aestheticisation 10, 190, 201
Börjesson, Mikael 141
botellón (Basque law on alcohol consumption in public spaces) 101
Bourdieu, Pierre 27, 64, 229, 231
boyd, danah 209, 210, 220, 221, 222
boys
collective engagement through multiplayer computer games 10, 186, 197199
digital games played by 188, 189
media devices used by 188
online/smartphone applications used by 188189, 193
peer group belonging 186
Bracciale, Roberta 89, 165, 167
Brannen, Julia 1, 4, 233, 233n12, 14
Brill Research Perspectives in Global Youth 6
British Academy 77
Bröckling, Ulrich 253, 255
Brown, Phillip 255, 256
Brown, Zoe 190, 201
Brussels 142
buddy relationships 94, 143, 149
bullying 10, 187, 199
Caflisch, Marianne 187
Cagliari (Sardinia) 139
Cairns, David 9, 140, 142, 143, 145, 150
Call, Kathleen T. 28, 32, 41
Canada/Canadian youth 5, 39, 40, 49, 55, 57
see also part-time jobs ; team-work assemblages
capital
cultural 6465, 252, 253, 263, 267, 268
economic 64
as part of teen-work assemblages 6466
social 27, 43, 51, 64
capitalism 69, 70, 84
‘capitalism without classes’ 247
see also financialisation
Carbajo, Diego 9, 15, 95, 100, 101, 102, 110
career choice
comparison across generations 235243
role of peers in 33, 3741, 42
role of social media in 214, 216217
of women 236, 237, 238, 240, 241
see also vocational decisions ; vocational orientation
career development 26
comparison across generations 235243
care work 70, 75, 236, 240
car sharing (metaphor in youth transition) 3, 268
Cartmel, Fred 3, 14, 51, 268
case studies
collective learning 140
intergenerational transmission in transition to adulthood 227, 233, 235243
migrant youth and new media 213222, 214ill.
part-time work 49, 5566
peer support 26, 30, 3741, 42
trade union representation 78, 8084
celebrities
assumed closeness to 196, 201
following of 189
online vs. traditional 190
Certeau, Michel de 100, 101, 251, 257
cgt (Confédération générale du travail, France) 80, 8182
Cha, J. Min 78, 79
channels of political information model (political participation research) 168169, 175tab., 176, 176177, 180tab.
children, as social agents/agency of 53, 54
Cicchelli, Vincenzo 5, 6, 144, 149, 155
citizenship rights, of migrant workers 80, 8182
civic commitment/participation 131, 167, 251, 252, 261, 262
class see social class
classmates 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36
Coffey, Julia 27, 95, 110
cognitive skills 191
Coleman, James S. 27, 33
collaborative individualisation 51
collective individualism vs. 129
colleagues 31, 39
collective action
contemporary vs. traditional patterns 247248
starting from individualised position 247, 250, 258261, 262, 263, 267
see also political engagement/participation
collective bonding 144, 146
post-study 152154
see also Erasmus bubble
collective engagement
as assemblage 7, 1113, 15, 41
importance for youth 10
as mediating between structure and agency 7, 1314, 15
online 10, 186, 193199
as sociality 911, 15
as solidarity 79, 15
collective identification, exchange students 143144
collective individualism 12, 115, 116, 129136, 130ill.
collaborative individualisation vs. 129
triggered by economic precarity vs. communitarian practice 130
collective learning 140, 142, 143, 146
collective responsibility 15
collective transition, individual vs. 5, 14, 267
collectivity/collectivities
conventional vs. modern understanding of 49
creative 118, 125, 130ill., 136
individualisation/individualism and/vs. 2, 8
practices/forms of 122123, 136
collective individualism 129136, 130ill., 136
intense collectivity 8, 10, 124129, 131
social media and 10, 185, 200, 202
genres of collectivities available through 211, 211fig.
Collins, Randall 28
Collins, Rebecca 16, 29, 51, 129
Colombo, Enzo 2, 7, 8, 247, 250, 254, 257
combined intelligence/talents (scenius) 128129
comfort, peers as ‘arenas of comfort’ 14, 31, 32, 39, 41
comic book characters, in graffiti art 123, 131132
commercial premises
as semi-private meeting places 93, 94, 96, 99, 100, 106, 110
see also lonjas
communalism/communitarian based cultures 125
individualism vs. 129, 130
communism 216
community building, role of social media in 186, 200
compulsory schooling 234, 235, 240, 241, 242
computer games see multiplayer computer games
Confédération générale du travail (cgt, France) 80, 8182
consumption
shared 93, 95, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 109
see also lonjas
conviviality, among exchange students 910, 140, 141, 142, 143, 148
cooperative individualism 129
Coppola, Sophia 267
Corrigan, Paul 125
Cortada (Short Film Festival, Vitoria-Gasteiz) 96
cosmopolitan Bildung 6, 142n2
cosmopolitanism 6
cost reduction/cost sharing
labour cost reduction 70
leisure activities 104, 105
Côté, James E. 1, 250, 251
covid-19 pandemic 5, 15
Cracow (Poland) 215
Craig, Gary 25
creative collectivity 118, 125, 130ill., 136
youth language 191192
see also graffiti art practice
critical capacities 248, 258
Crompton, Rosemary 230, 231, 243, 244
cuadrilla (Basque form of friendship organisation) 98100, 103, 106107, 108
role during dictatorship 99
cultural capital 64, 252, 253, 263, 267, 268
as part of teen-work assemblages 6465
subcultural capital 267, 268
Cultural and Social Mobility (Pitirim Sorokin) 230
Cuzzocrea, Valentina 9, 16, 29, 51, 129, 178, 267
cvs 217218
cyberbullying 187, 199
see also hate speech
Dalton, Russell 166
decision-making
new media as assisting collectivities in 207, 208, 214, 215, 216222
role of peers in vocational orientation and 14, 2526, 27, 28, 29
see also career choice ; vocational decisions
Dekker, Rianne 209, 216
Deleuze, Gil 11, 12, 13, 49, 50, 52, 53, 57, 64, 115, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 126, 136
Della Porta, Donatella 161, 164, 165, 166
Delli Carpini, Michael X. 163, 167
Demos Institute (Italy) 161
dependence 49
dependent agency 53, 66
economic 102
embedded 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 66
de-politicisation 161
desire, as driving energy behind assemblage 13
deterritorialisation (process in assemblage) 52, 57, 121, 126, 135
devices, media, gendered use of 188189
Diana, Princess 216
digital communication
between exchange students 140
between peers 43
see also social media
digital games
gendered use of 188189
risks and benefits 191
see also multiplayer computer games
digital media 208
see also new media ; social media
digital natives/digital immigrants 185n1
distant relationships 140, 219220
doing nothing 13
see also nongkrong
‘doxa’ (Bourdieu) 229
Dreher, Eva 28, 186, 187, 191
drinking 101, 103, 109, 141, 194
Drips and Drops (graffiti supplies shop, Yogyakarta) 123
drugstores, part-time jobs in 56, 62, 64
dual vocational education and training system (Germany) 25, 26, 43
‘duck face’ challenge 201
Durkheim, Émile 10, 76
early-selective school systems 26
earnings, managing 59
Eastern Europe 267
Ebner, Julia 6, 27
economic capital, as part of teen-work assemblages 64
economic concerns/dissatisfaction 127, 130
political participation and 161, 165, 166, 170, 172, 173, 178
economic crises 5, 248, 268
2008 financial crisis 77, 101, 104, 109, 161, 253, 256
effect on employment and education 162, 253, 256
impact on political engagement 161, 165
economic dependence 102
economics, Keynesian 227, 235
education
comparison across generations 235243
older generations 235, 237, 238, 240, 241
political participation and 164, 165, 172, 176, 178, 252
see also neets
educational opportunities 227, 235, 237, 238, 240, 241
educational orientation/decisions see vocational decisions ; vocational orientation
educational performance, impact of peer support 29
educational transition processes
influence of peers on 29
see also vocational decisions ; vocational orientation
education system
class-divisions through 2, 6
in post wwii Norway 234
Education-to-domestic and -foreign labour market transitions of youth see Peer Groups & Migration
Elder, Glen H. 50, 94, 228, 233
elections 74, 161, 215
embedded dependence 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 66
see also supplementations and extensions
emerging technologies 208, 213
emigration 40
see also migrant youth
Emirbayer, Mustafa 27, 28, 32, 36
emotional comfort/support, peers as ‘arenas of comfort’ 14, 31, 32, 39, 41
employment rights, of migrant workers 80
employment/unemployment 2, 7
dual vocational education/training against unemployment 25, 26
employment as negative experience 76
hasty return to labour market/pressure to conform 35
individual professional development vs. stable employment 253254
link between adulthood, independence and 5051, 5758
long-term/stable employment 50, 51, 256
low/unskilled employment 35, 75, 80, 258
precarious employment 70, 71, 72, 80, 8286, 101102, 248, 256, 258
younger vs. older generations 254, 256, 257
comparison across generations 235243
see also neets ; part-time work ; school-to-work transition
Engbersen, Godfried 209, 216
Eno, Brian 128
entrepreneurial job market 7
‘entrepreneurial self’ 253, 257, 262
environmental concerns/dissatisfaction, political participation and 166, 170, 173
Enyon, Rebecca 185n1
equality/inequality
between peers 28, 32, 42
inequality in teen-work assemblages 50, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67
young workers 76
see also social inequality
Erasmus bubble (social bubble of exchange students) 10, 140, 141144, 150, 154
definition/concept/characteristics 142143
limitations/weaknesses of 15, 149152, 154, 155
post-study collective bond 145, 152154
self-exclusion from 150
togetherness/conviviality/strengths of 146149, 154, 155
Erasmus exchange programme 910, 139, 141
aim 144n3
alumni 144, 152, 153, 155
identification of students with Europe/European Union 144
Erasmus Students Network (esn) 139, 144, 145, 148, 153154, 155
ethnicity, social media and 195, 195n6
Eurofound (European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions) 77
Europe, see also trade unions
European youth, collaborative individualisation 129
Europe/European Union 5, 16, 214, 216
European identification 141, 142, 144
support to young people after financial crisis 77
unionisation of young workers 69, 80
events, major see life lines
exchange programmes 141
see also Erasmus exchange programme
exchange students
collective bonding 144, 146
collective identification 143144
conviviality among 910, 140, 141, 142, 143, 148
engagement/contacts,
with established friends/family vs. new friends 148, 151152, 155
with local students/culture 10, 149150, 151, 152
with other students 910, 15, 140, 143, 148, 149, 155
post-exchange 140, 142, 144, 152154
with students of own/similar nationality/culture 149
see also Erasmus bubble
social/leisure activities with peers 141, 146, 147, 148
social media and 148, 153
solidarity and support among 143, 148, 155
Facebook 106, 185, 192n3, 193, 208, 220
role in career decision-making 214, 216217
role in educational/vocational decision-making 219
family 6, 1314, 93
education/career development over three generations 229, 235243
importance of family in transition to adulthood 227228
as part of teen-work assemblages 5860, 64
peers taking over family function 148
prolonged co-habitation with 104
ties with 11, 39
family histories 232
far-right movements 6, 16
Farrugia, David 6, 27, 95, 110, 253, 255, 256
fashion and lifestyle bloggers 190
fast-food restaurants, part-time jobs in 56, 57, 60, 62, 6364
fathers, social mobility of fathers and sons 230, 231
Feixa, Carles 7, 16, 95, 101, 106, 268
financial crises see economic crises
financial imperatives/incentives 71, 72
financialisation
divisions between (groups of) workers 69, 70, 71
of household decision-making/private realm 70, 84
individualism as consequence of 69
intergenerational challenges 7071
of labour market/public realm 8, 69, 70, 76, 80, 84, 85
financial sector 70
financial support, from parents 235, 236, 237, 239, 240, 242
Fisher, Dana R. 164, 165
Floyd, George 15
following/unfollowing, on social media 190, 193194, 201
food production 5354
Fox, Nick 52, 53, 64, 122
France
exchange students in 150, 151
unionisation of young workers 78, 80, 82, 83
France, Alan 4, 248, 250, 251
Franco, Francisco 99
Fridays for Future 5, 15, 268
friends 11, 29
best 10, 94, 154, 187, 195, 196, 198
estrangement between 40
in teen-work assemblages 5860
see also peer intimacy ; peers/peer groups
friendship
between exchange students 143
friendship-driven participation in social media 210, 211, 216
for life 9899
see also cuadrilla
Furlong, Andy 1, 3, 14, 16, 51, 261, 268
gaming see multiplayer computer games
gangsters 117
gastronomic societies (Basque Country) 98, 99
lonjas vs. 99100, 108
Gatti, Gabriel 95, 98, 99
Gaupp, Nora 32, 34, 35, 42
gender
gender dynamics/roles in lonjas 15, 103104
gendered use of smartphones 188189
gendered use of social media 185, 186, 188189, 202
political engagement and 164165, 172
in social mobility research 230231
taken-for-granted in youth transition across generations 228, 229, 231, 235243
General Certificate of Secondary Education (Realschulabschluss) 37
‘generalised other’ (Mead) 228
Generation Identity (racist movement) 6
generations (Norway)
‘crisis of presence’ of new 250251
individualisation processes and 249, 252
intergenerational relations 7, 227, 235
social class/gender taken-for-granted in youth transition across 228, 229, 231, 235243
social generation 4, 249250
see also older generations
Genova, Carlo 254, 260
geographical mobility 35, 36, 39, 40, 41
Germany/German youth
dual vocational education and training system 25, 26, 43
exchange students 145, 149150
peer support in vocational orientation 26, 30, 3741
unionisation of young workers 77, 78, 80, 8081
see also school-to-work transition
Gil de Zúñiga, Homero G. 167, 168
girls
collective engagement through Instagram 10, 186, 193196
digital games played by 188, 189
media devices used by 188189
online/smartphone applications used by 188189
peer group belonging 186, 195
Givan, Rebecca K. 78
Glaser, Barney G. 232n10
globalisation 25, 100, 101, 117, 119, 262
Gook, Ben 267
Gozzo, Simona 161
Grabowska, Izabela 10, 29, 212
Grady, Jo 69, 70
graffiti art practice (Indonesia) 5, 1213, 116117
as assemblage 12, 120123, 131, 135
community support 12, 134
employment opportunities for artists 134
funding of 133
diy merchandising 133134, 133ill.
history/origins 116, 117
individualisation vs. collectivity/combining talent in 123, 128129
Indonesian vs. Western image and purpose 117, 118, 124
internet/social media and 135136
live painting events 116, 126127, 130, 131, 132134, 133ill., 135
local government policy 13, 123124
mentorship/transfer of skills 125, 127128, 134, 135
nongkrong (hanging out) as crucial element of 115116, 125128
practices of collectivity 122123, 136
collective individualism 129136, 130ill.
intense collectivity 124129
techniques/styles 116, 117, 135
characters in artworks 123, 124ill., 131132
wildstyle graffiti 117, 122, 123
violence against artists 117, 124
grandparents
educational/employment opportunities 234, 241, 242
support in vocational orientation/coordinating jobs 38, 41, 58
Granovetter, Mark S. 30, 210, 211
Grasso, Maria 7
grievances model (political participation research) 165166, 170, 173, 174tab., 178, 179tab.
Guattari, Félix 12, 13, 49, 50, 52, 53, 57, 64, 115, 119, 120, 121, 122, 126, 136
Gurrutxaga, Ander 88, 98, 100
Habermas, Jürgen 94, 168
hanging out 31, 105, 116, 125
see also lonjas ; nongkrong
Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out (Mizoko Ito) 207
Hannerz, Ulf 6
Hans Böckler Stiftung (hbs) 78, 79
happiness 161
harmful content (social media) 187, 194195
see also hate speech
hate speech 10
in digital games 192, 192n3, 198199, 200, 201
Hauptschulabschluss (Lower Secondary School Certificate) 37
Havighurst, Robert J. 25, 27, 186, 187, 191
hbs (Hans Böckler Stiftung) 78, 79
Helsper, Ellen 185n1
Hess, Andreas 98, 99, 108
Hipp, Lena 78, 80
Hollauf, Isabella 187, 191
Honduras 216
hospitality sector 70, 75, 99
housewife, value as occupation 231, 231n9
housing wealth 70, 71
human and non-human actors, networks of (assemblage/actor-network theory) 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 60, 63, 105, 106, 116, 120, 122
see also assemblage
Hurrelmann, Klaus 25, 27, 187
Hutabarat, Felencia O. 117, 118
Hyman, Richard 72, 7576, 80, 85
Identitarian movement (pan-European far-right movement) 6, 16
identity building/development
leisure and 94
in lonjas 95
role of peers in 29, 93
social media and 7, 187, 190, 196
youth culture as critical aspect of 268
idols see celebrities
ig Metall (Germany) 8081
independence
agency as appearance of 49, 50
beliefs about 51
link between adulthood, work and 5051, 5758
perceptions of independence by supplementations and extensions 4950, 5355, 56, 66
of upper class youth 236237, 242
of young workers 49, 66
see also assemblage ; teen-work assemblages
independent adulthood 12, 51, 52, 66
individualisation 51, 119
collaborative 51, 129
collective action starting from individualised position 247, 250, 258261, 262, 263, 267
‘entrepreneurial self’ 253, 257, 262
generational shifts in individualisation processes 249, 252
historical context 247, 249, 250, 251
individualism vs. 262
of media 185, 200, 202
neo-liberal version of 255, 262
political activism as opportunity for 259261
in postindustrial/post-class societies 247, 263
private transportation metaphor 3, 1415, 268
protagonist of own life 253258, 261
uncertainty as individualising driving force 1, 255
individualism
collective individualism 12, 115, 116, 129136, 130ill.
collectivity and/vs. 8
communalism vs. 129, 130
condemnation of 258259
as consequence of financialisation 69
individualisation vs. 262
in late-modern labour market 78
individuality
assemblage and 12, 13, 121
social media and 185, 200, 202
individual transition, collective vs. 5, 14, 267
Indonesia/Indonesian youth 117, 129, 135
communitarian culture 119, 129
mainstream youth vs. Indonesian youth 117118, 119
youth/political activism 117, 118
see also graffiti art practice ; nongkrong
influencers 11, 190, 196
Informagiovani (Municipality of Milan Youth Guidance Service) 252
informal associations 105
see also lonjas
informal networks, political participation and 168169, 173
Inglehart, Ronald 165
Instagram 106, 189191, 208
blocking people 194195, 201
following/unfollowing and likes 190, 193194, 195196, 200201
(gendered) use of 188189, 192n3, 193
use by girls 10, 186, 188, 193196
harmful content 194195
influencers/online celebrities 190, 193, 196, 201
Instagram perfectionism 196, 198, 200, 201
for marketing purposes 190
peer group belonging and 10, 188, 194, 201, 202
peer intimacy on 195
pictures/videos/self-display 190, 195196, 198, 201, 202
political collectivity on 190191
positive vs. negative postings 190
Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach 31
institutional control
escape from 110
see also lonjas
institutional trust, political participation and 161, 166, 173
institutions 93
support in vocational orientation 33, 42
intense collectivity 8, 10, 124129, 131
see also Erasmus bubble ; graffiti art practice ; lonjas ; nongkrong
‘Interaction Ritual Chains’ (regular encounters with peers) 28
intercultural learning 146, 148
see also Erasmus exchange programme
interest-driven participation (social media) 210, 211, 216
intergenerational processes see generations
Intergenerational transmission in the transition to adulthood (project, Norwegian Research Council) 233
international learning experiences 147
see also Erasmus exchange programme ; exchange programmes
International Sociological Association (isa) 4
international students see exchange students
internet 209
impact on graffiti art practice 135136
‘Matthew effect’ of internet access 165
political participation and 170, 173
as source of information for writing cvs 217218
internships 141, 144
interviews see qualitative research
intimate peer relationships see peer intimacy
investment savings 70, 71
ipr Marketing Institute (Italy) 161
isa see International Sociological Association
isis 6
Islamism 6
istat (Italian National Statistics Institute) 169, 170
Istituto Giuseppe Toniolo 162
Italian youth, political engagement see political engagement/participation
Italy 152
employment and education 89, 162
exchange students 146, 152
political engagement 89, 161, 162
unionisation of young workers 77, 8283
Italy/Italian youth
individualisation 161, 253
see also Erasmus exchange programme ; neets ; political engagement/participation
Ito, Mizuko 207, 210211, 216
it skills, online participation and 165, 170, 172
Jakarta 123, 135
Japan 267
Java/Javanese youth 116, 125
job market see labour market
John Paul ii (pope, r. 1978-2005) 213
Juchniewicz, Natalia 10
Kammerl, Rudolf 187, 191
Kelly, Peter 1, 11, 95, 101, 104, 110, 253, 255
Keynesian economics 227, 235
Klandermans, Bert 165
Klinkhammer, Julie 28
knowledge economy 256
Koochaki, Nader 95, 110
Kracke, Baerbel 26, 42
Krüger, Heinz-Hermann 27, 28, 29
Krzaklewska, Ewa 9, 140, 142, 143, 145, 146, 148, 149, 151
labour market 2, 6
ageing 69
changes after financial crisis 77
corporate regulation 27
financialisation of 8, 69, 70, 76, 80, 84, 85
individualism in late-modern 78
integration into 26
structure of, effect on trade unions 6970
youth-dominated sectors 70
see also employment/unemployment ; neets ; part-time jobs ; school-to-work transition ; teen-work assemblages
Lahusen, Christian 7
language use 191192
La Stampa 161
Latour, Bruno 105, 106
Lazarsfeld, Paul F. 167, 168
Lee, Doreen 117, 118
Lee, Nick 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 60, 66, 67
Lehmann, Wolfgang 12, 51, 105
leisure/leisure-oriented activities
cost sharing/reduction 104, 105
of exchange students 141, 146, 147, 148
identity building and 94
with peers 32, 94
role of/changes in youth leisure 94
time spent on 94
see also lonjas
Let’s Play (lp) videos (YouTube) 189, 197198
life course perspectives 228
life course scholarship 50, 66
life lines (research tool, life time events) 213, 214, 214ill.
lifestyle 16, 140, 146, 190
life time events, major 213, 214, 214ill.
‘likes’ (social media) 190, 195196, 201
linear/non-linear transition to adulthood 2, 52
transportation/travel metaphor 3, 1415, 268
Linear Regression Analysis 171
LinkedIn 208, 216
role in career decision-making 214, 217
Lithuania, exchange students in 153
live painting events (Indonesia) 116, 126127, 130, 131, 132134, 133ill., 135
living conditions, political engagement and 165
living independently 106, 140, 147148
Loader, Brian D. 162, 164
London terrorist attacks (2005) 215
lonjas (meeting place for young adults, Basque Country) 9, 93, 9495, 96
activities in 103, 104
as assemblage 105, 106
as belonging 93, 98, 99, 108, 109
cooperation between 99
definition 100
gastronomic societies vs. 99100, 108
gender dynamics 15, 103104
identity building in 95
interior and facilities 103
internal and external rules/regulations 106107, 108, 109
legal status/institutionalisation 97, 99100, 107, 108
location 9, 93, 99, 100, 106
management and organisation 102105, 108, 110
phases in ‘life time’ of 108
political aspects of 110
presence on social media 105106
quantitative data 9798
as self-governed, autonomous space 101102, 106, 107, 109
shared consumption 93, 95, 99, 100, 101, 104, 109
social and historical context 98102
social movements vs. 95, 110
as space of sociality and social relations 102, 105108, 110
as submerged leisure economy 9697, 100, 104105
user profile 9798
Lorey, Isabell 95, 98, 102
Lost in Translation (cult film) 267
Lower Secondary School Certificate (Hauptschulabschluss) 37
low/unskilled employment 35, 75, 80, 258
lp videos see Let’s Play videos
Luxembourg 145
MacDowell, Lachlan 116
machinery, as part of teen-work assemblages 6364
Maffesoli, Michel 9, 105
Malioboro (commercial district, Yogyakarta) 131
Manago, Adriana M. 185, 187, 190
Mannheim, Karl 249, 250, 251
Mansfield, Michelle 5, 1213, 105
marginalised youth see neets
Martínez, María 9, 100
Martuccelli, Danilo 247, 262
massively multiplayer online role-playing games see multiplayer computer games
mass media exposure 167
maxqda (software) 30
Mead, George Herbert 228
Meardi, Guglielmo 77
mechanical solidarity 76, 77, 8082, 85, 86
media
individualisation of 185, 200, 202
see also new media ; social media
media exposure model (political participation research) 167168, 173, 174175, 177, 180tab.
‘media malaise’ 167
media socialisation
traditional socialisation agents vs. 187188
young people as actors 187188
meeting places, semi-private see lonjas
Melucci, Alberto 248, 259
men
education/career development across generations 235243
lower middle-class 238239, 242
upper-class 235237, 241
mental health 29
mentorship 125, 127128, 135
metaphors, transportation/travel metaphor for transition into adulthood 3, 1415, 268
Michielsen, Joris 141, 149
middle-class, lower middle-class men 238239, 242
migrant youth (Polish)
employment and citizenship 43, 70, 80, 8182
new media as assisting collectivities in decision-making 207, 208, 215, 216222
peer groups and 212
use and meaning of social media for 1011, 208
Milan 248, 252, 258, 261
Mills, C. Wright 228, 233n14
MineCraft 197
Mische, Ann 28, 32, 36
Mitgutsch, Konstantin 191
mobility 140, 148, 155
money, as part of teen-work assemblages 6466
Mortimer, Jeylan T. 28, 32, 42
Mosberger, Brigitte 33, 42
moving out of parental home 106, 140, 147148
multiplayer computer games 10, 191192
achievement vs. looks on 198
collective engagement through 10, 186, 197199
communication among gamers 197, 200
gaming community/gamer(’s) identity 197198, 200
hate speech/violent content 191, 192, 192n3, 198199, 200, 201
language use 192
peer group belonging and 10, 188, 191, 198, 200
peer intimacy and 191, 198
risks and benefits 10, 191, 197
share culture/lp videos 189, 197198, 200
murals see graffiti art practices
Murphy-Lejeune, Elizabeth 141, 155
Nail, Thomas 120, 121
National Science Center Poland 212, 223
nato 214
neets (youth ‘neither in employment nor in education or training’, Italy) 8, 162, 169, 178
political participation 89, 162, 169, 171, 171tab., 174175, 176178
channels of political information model hypotheses and analysis 169, 175tab., 176
grievances model hypotheses and analysis 166, 173, 174tab.
media exposure model hypotheses and analysis 168, 173, 174175
network embeddedness model hypotheses and analysis 173, 174tab.
socio-economic model hypotheses and analysis 164, 165, 172173, 174tab.
neighbourhood 31, 93
Netherlands, The, unionisation of young workers 78
networked publics 208, 209, 210, 220, 221, 222
see also social media
network embeddedness model (political participation research) 166167, 170, 173, 174tab., 177, 180tab.
new media
as assisting collectivities in decision-making 207, 208, 214, 215, 216222
definition 208
function in private relationships 215, 216, 219220
perception by young people of 210
see also social media
New Order Era (Indonesia, 1966-1998) 117, 118
newspapers
newspaper delivery 56, 57, 59, 60
role in political participation 167168, 173
New York 84
Nice To Meet You (collaborative live painting event, Indonesia) 116, 129, 131, 132133, 133ill., 135
Nilan, Pam 11, 12, 118, 119
Nilsen, Ann 1, 4, 13, 14, 233, 233n12, 14
Nokia 220
nongkrong (Indonesian practice of hanging out) 13, 125128, 126ill., 133, 135
as component of intense collectivity 125126, 131
as crucial element of graffiti art practice 125
definition 115116
information sharing and social support 127
non-productive sociality 13, 125
see also nongkrong
Norris, Pippa 167
North America 69, 268
Norway
education system 234
intergenerational youth transition processes see generations
post wwii development 227, 233n12, 234
social inequality in 234
urbanisation 234
Not A Normal Family (video) 139140
ntmy see Nice To Meet You
Obama, Barack 213
Observatorio Vasco de la Juventud (ovj) 97, 98, 103
Octobre, Sylvie 5, 144, 155
Oerter, Rolf 28
older generations 169
education and career development 235, 237, 238, 240, 254
political participation 162, 169, 170, 171, 171tab., 174175, 176, 177, 260
channels of political information model hypotheses and analysis 176
grievance model hypotheses and analysis 173, 174tab.
media exposure model hypotheses and analysis 173, 174175
network embeddedness model hypotheses and analysis 174tab.
socio-economic model hypotheses and analysis 165, 172, 174tab.
unionisation of workers 78
Oliva, Jésus 97
Oliveira, Luisa 70, 80
ols (ordinary least squares analysis) 163, 171
online collectivities/collective engagement 10, 186, 193199
online communities see social media
online political participation 9, 162, 164, 166, 170, 171173, 171tab., 174175, 176177, 178
online role-playing games see multiplayer computer games
Ontario 55
organic solidarity 76, 77, 8284, 85, 86
ovj (Basque Observatory of Youth) 97, 98, 103
Pallarés, Joan 95, 106
parental/adult control, escape from 9, 98, 106, 110, 210
parental home, moving out of 106, 140, 147148
parental support
financial support 235, 236, 237, 239, 240, 242
support in coordinating part-time jobs and earnings 59, 65, 66
support during times of emotional stress 32
support in vocational orientation process 25, 30, 33, 39, 42
parental values and expectations 32, 33, 119
parents
detachment from 186, 187
educational/employment opportunities of 234, 236, 237238, 239, 240
Paris 82
Parker, Lyn 117, 118, 119
Parsons, Talcott 53
part-time jobs 49
case studies 5566
management of earnings 59
parental assistance in coordination of 5860
safety 62, 65
schoolwork and 56, 65
timetables 6061
training 62
travel to and from 60, 61, 65, 66
workplace tools/machinery 6364
see also teen-work assemblages
peer group belonging 93, 98, 185, 186, 186187, 195
social media and 186, 187, 188, 191, 195, 198, 200, 201, 202
Peer Groups & Migration (Polish research project) 212, 213, 223
peer intimacy 185, 186187, 191, 195, 198, 210
peers/peer groups
conflicts/estrangement between 36, 40
digital communication between 43
discussion topics between 31, 127, 210
early peer relationships 29
equality of 28, 32, 42
experienced peers 33, 3435, 42
importance of peer interaction 31, 94, 227
influence and support see peer support/influence
intimate friends vs. broader cohort of peers 210
leisure-oriented activities and 32, 94, 102
major peer roles,
peers as alternative vocational orientation systems 31, 3334, 42
peers as ‘arenas of comfort’ 14, 31, 32, 39, 41
peers as transition boosters and barriers 31, 3436, 40, 42
networks of peers 34, 39, 40, 42
as social capital 27, 42, 43
taking over family function 148
as ‘tandem partners’/shared ideas of 35, 3739, 42
term/concept 28
in times of mobility see Erasmus bubble
trustworthiness of 3334
peer support/influence 43, 9394
bad behaviour 32, 35
daily life 26, 29
educational performance 29
emotionally stressful times 32
going abroad/mobility 141
identity building 29, 93
from leisure-oriented activities 32
peers as barriers 3536, 40, 42
value building 29
vocational orientation and career choice 14, 2526, 27, 28, 29, 31, 3334, 3741, 42
Pemudah (Indonesian youth) 118
see also graffiti art practice
pensions 70, 71
Pérez-Agote, Alfonso 99
perfectionism, Instagram perfectionism 196, 198, 200, 201
personal capacity 2, 248, 255, 279
photo-elicitation interviews 55, 56, 61, 63
Piaget, Jean 53
pluralism, cultural/ethnic 6, 16, 29, 251
Poetto (Sardinia) 139
Poland/Polish youth 145, 147, 212, 213, 218, 220
EU and nato memberships 214, 216
exchange students 147, 154
presidential plan crash (2010) 213, 214, 215, 216
see also migrant youth
political activism/activists 161, 252, 254, 257, 261
as opportunity for adequate individualisation 258, 259261
political action as becoming 261
social media for community building among activists 186, 200
young vs. older generations 260
political engagement/participation (Italy) 89, 161163, 252
costs of 163, 164
economic concerns/dissatisfaction and 161, 165, 166, 170, 172, 173, 178
education and 164, 165, 172, 176, 178, 252
environmental concerns/dissatisfaction and 166, 170, 173
formal/informal networks and 166167, 168169, 173
gender and 164165, 172
institutional/political trust and 161, 166, 173
media exposure and,
newspapers 167168, 173
radio 168, 176
social media 89, 162, 167168, 173, 190191
television 168, 176
models/hypotheses,
channels of political information model 168169, 175tab., 176177, 180tab.
data and method 169170
grievances model 165166, 170, 173, 174tab., 178, 179tab.
media exposure model 167168, 173, 174175, 177, 180tab.
network embeddedness model 166167, 170, 173, 174tab., 177, 180tab.
socio-economic model 164165, 172173, 174tab., 177, 179tab.
online participation 9, 162, 164, 166, 170, 171173, 171tab., 174175, 176177, 178
political disengagement/dissatisfaction 161, 254255
politics of the present vs. traditional political participation 257, 261
protest participation 9, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 170, 171173, 171tab., 174175, 176177, 248
social class and 164
talking politics 9, 162, 163, 165, 166, 168, 170, 171173, 171tab., 174175, 176177, 178
voting 163, 164, 261
youth vs. older generations 162, 171172, 176, 177, 257
Portes, Alejandro 27, 43
post-secondary schooling 57
practical learning 26
see also dual vocational education and training systems ; school-to-work transition
precarious employment 70, 71, 72, 80, 8286, 101102, 248, 256, 258
precarious recreational societies 100, 105
see also lonjas
precarity/precariousness 1, 8, 9, 95, 98, 101102, 104105, 127, 130, 255
preman (gangsters, Indonesia) 117
private relationships, function of social media in 215, 216, 219220
private transportation metaphor 3, 1415, 268
privileges 12, 50, 51, 62, 65, 242
professional development, stable employment vs. individual 253254
The Profiler (research project) 192
prolongation of youth life 94, 95, 101102, 104
property ownership 71
protest participation/political protest 9, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 170, 171173, 171tab., 174175, 176177, 248
see also political engagement/participation
public sector 70, 236
public space
collective engagement in 7, 95, 110, 116, 117, 118
see also graffiti art practice ; lonjas
regulations for use of 95, 98, 101, 109
shared political public space 260, 262
see also networked publics
public transportation metaphor 3, 1415
Putnam, Robert D. 166, 167
Qualitative Longitudinal Studies (qls) 30, 208, 212
qualitative research 29, 3041, 55, 96, 122, 178, 192193, 208, 212, 232, 234, 252253
see also research/studies on youth transition
Raby, Rebecca 12, 41, 66, 104, 105, 110
radio, political participation and 168, 176
Raffo, Carlo 51, 64
Ramírez Goicoechea, Eugenia 98, 99
Realschulabschluss (General Certificate of Secondary Education) 37
Rebughini, Paola 2, 7, 8, 247248, 257
Reeves, Michelle 51, 64
Reformasi period (Indonesia, post 1998) 118
Reißig, Birgit 14, 31, 94
Reiter, Herwig 25, 30, 42, 192
research/studies on youth transition 24, 5, 15, 16, 26
on assisting collectivities of migrants/nonmigrants 208, 212213
on exchange programmes/students 142, 143, 144145
on graffiti art practice 122
on individualisation and collective action 248, 252253, 261263
on intergenerational transition to adulthood 227, 233
on lonjas/semi-private meeting places 9697
on part-time jobs 5566
on political engagement/participation 164169
on role of peers in vocational orientation 3041, 42
on school-to-work transition 5052
on social media usage 185186, 187, 190, 191, 192193, 208
on social mobility 230231
terminology in 34
on trade unions and young workers 7778
Resistance through Rituals (Paul Corrigan) 125
responsibility
collective 15
self-assigned 9
of young workers 12
Retail Action Project (US) 82, 8384
retail sector 57, 70, 75, 82, 83, 84, 100
reterritorialisation (process in assemblage) 52, 57, 121, 135
Rhema (graffiti paint supplier) 131
rhizomes/rhizoanalysis (Deleuze, Guattari) 115, 122
Roberts, Ken 94, 228
Robertson, Margaret 94
Roberts, Steven 1, 2, 4, 6
role-playing see multiplayer computer games
roles, as part of teen-work assemblages 6364
Romania 145
romantic relationships 31
rural working-class, women 240241, 241242, 243
Russia 145, 147
safety, in part-time jobs 62
safety zones, peers as 32
St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams 53, 122
San Precario movement (Italy) 82
sans-papiers workers
representation by trade unions 8182
see also migrant workers
Sardinia 139
Saward, Michael 72, 74, 79, 82
scenius (combined intelligence/talents) 128129
Schiermer, Bjørn 267
Schlimbach, Tabea 14, 25, 33, 42, 94
schooling
compulsory 234, 235, 240, 241, 242
further schooling as postponement strategy 38
post-secondary 57
see also education
school-to-work transition (Germany) 25, 29, 30, 50, 66
peer support/influence 14, 2526, 27, 28, 29, 3041, 42
scholarship around 5052
successes and failures 3436
see also dual vocational education and training systems ; part-time jobs ; teen-work assemblages ; vocational orientation
schoolwork, part-time jobs and 56, 65
Schoon, Ingrid 50, 57
Schussman, Alan 165, 167
Segerberg, Alexandra 164, 248
self-esteem 31, 190, 191
selfies/self-display 190, 196, 198, 201, 202
self-improvement 253, 259
self-organisation 9
trade unions vs. 83
self-socialisation 186, 187, 188, 202
self-surveillance 119
Sella del Diavolo (Devils Rock, Sardinia) 139
Semarang (Indonesia) 135
semi-autonomy 101102, 106, 107, 108, 109
see also lonjas
semi-private meeting places see lonjas
sensomotoric cognitive skills 191
Serbia 145
service class 231
sexualisation 10
shopping centres/malls 100
short-term mobility 141
siblings 31, 33, 58, 60, 94, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240
side jobs see part-time jobs
Sihombing, Sabrina O. 117, 118
Silbereisen, Rainer K. 28, 50, 57
Simmons, Roberta G. 14, 32, 41
Simms, Melanie 8, 69, 70, 77, 78, 80, 83
Singapore 120
Skórska, Paulina 148, 151
Skrbiš, Zlatko 6, 31, 41
Skype 197, 200
‘slacktivism’ (Morozov) 167
Slovakia 145
smartphones 185, 213
as critical tool facilitating life 220, 222
gendered use of 188189
Smith, Jonathan F. 31, 41
smoking 101, 103, 109
Smolensk, presidential plane crash 213, 214, 215, 216
Snapchat 192n3, 195
sns see social media
social belonging 227, 235
social bubbles see Erasmus bubble
social capital 11, 27, 42, 51, 64, 166
peers as 27, 42, 43
social change 6, 234, 260
young adults as agents of 27
social class
choice of social media applications and 185
class-based ‘habitus’ 2, 6
definition/term 230
individualisation in post-class societies 247, 263
political engagement and 164
see also education
taken-for-granted in youth transition across generations 228, 229, 231, 235243
social engagement 8
social generation 4, 249250
social inequality 51, 227
family processes/social reproduction and 227228, 231
in Norway 234
personal merit compensating for 247, 262
social locations and 247
teen-work assemblages 50, 64, 65, 66
social integration, influence of peers on 43, 9394
social interaction 4, 123, 177, 178, 228, 229
socialisation 140, 144, 186
redefinition of 14
self-socialisation 186, 187, 188, 202
traditional socialisation agents vs. media socialisation 187188
socialising 152, 155, 227
sociality 5, 93, 94, 95, 97, 105
collective engagement as 911, 15
communitarian 125
non-productive 13, 125
see also lonjas
social life, time spent on 94
social locations 251252
social inequalities and 247
social media 16
career choice and 214, 216217
collectivities and 185, 200, 202
genres of collectivities 211, 211fig.
community building 186, 200
decision-making (migrants/nonmigrants) and 207, 208, 214, 215, 216222
ethnicity and 195, 195n6
exchange students and 148, 153
following/unfollowing on 190, 193194, 201
gendered use of 15, 185, 186, 188189, 202
harmful content and hate speech 10, 187, 192, 192n3, 194195, 198199, 200, 201
identity development and 7, 187, 190, 196
individuality and 185, 200, 202
‘likes’ on 190, 195196, 201
online collectivities/collective engagement through 10
participatory nature of 210
peer group belonging/peer intimacy and 186, 187, 188, 191, 195, 198, 200, 201, 202
political participation and 89, 162, 167168, 173, 190191
popularity aspects of 209210
(invisible) audience 210
persistence 209210
replicability 210
searchability 210
practical support/advice from networked publics 209, 220, 221
private relationships and 215, 216, 219220
risks and benefits of 10, 187, 191
rules, habits and acceptance on 188
selection of information by 213
socio-economic conditions and 5
support in everyday life/problematic situations 210, 216
tutorials 215
types of participation in,
assistance by anonymous others (‘weak ties’) 211
collaboration-driven 211, 216
friendship-driven 210, 211, 216
interest-driven 210, 211, 216
see also Facebook ; Instagram ; LinkedIn ; multiplayer computer games ; YouTube
social media applications/apps 185
choice of 185, 188189
social mobility 229, 230231, 232
social movements 161, 164, 260, 268
lonjas vs. 95, 110
see also political engagement/participation
social networks
exchange students and 141, 149
see also Erasmus bubble
social network sites (sns) see social media
social relations
as hindrance of ‘free’ individuals 2
innovative 2
social relationships 2, 162, 230
social reproduction 227, 228
social rights 248
social sciences, actor vs. structure 13
social status see social class
social structure 51
socio-economic model (political participation research) 164165, 172173, 174tab., 177, 179tab.
sociology 230
biographical research in 232
‘taken-for-granted’ in 229
solidarity
among exchange students 143, 148, 155
among workers 69, 71, 72, 7477
collective engagement as 79, 15
intergenerational 7
mechanical 76, 77, 8082, 85, 86
organic 76, 77, 8284, 85, 86
solidarity groups/networks 7, 248
see also trade unions
Solo (Indonesia) 135
sons, social mobility of fathers and sons 230, 231
Sorokin, Pitirim 230
Soule, Sara A. 165, 167
space, as part of teen-work assemblages 6062
Spain 101, 104, 219
see also Basque Country ; lonjas
sport, time spent on 94
Spyrou, Spyros 52, 56
squatting social movements 95, 110
Steam 197, 198
Steinhoff, Annekatrin 25
Stekelenburg, Jacquelien van 165
Stephenson, Niamh 95
Strauss, Anselm L. 232n10
street art see graffiti art practice
striking 164
structure
agency vs. 1, 13, 27
collective engagement as mediating between agency and 7, 1314, 15
student jobs see part-time jobs
students see exchange students
studying abroad 143, 147, 148, 153
see also Erasmus exchange programme ; exchange students
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri 185, 187, 190
Suharto, Mohamed 117
Sumpah Pemuda (Youth Pledge, 1928, Indonesia) 118
supplementations and extensions (Lee) 4950, 5355, 56, 5766
see also embedded dependence
Surabaya 135
talking politics 9, 162, 163, 165, 166, 168, 170, 171173, 171tab., 174175, 176177, 178
‘tandem partners’, peers as 35, 3739, 42
Tarde, Gabriel 263
teachers, conflicts with 37
teamplay see multiplayer computer games
TeamSpeak 197, 200
technical secondary school 37
teen-work assemblages (Canada) 12, 49, 52, 5455
capital/money 6466
family and friends 5860
inequality and privilege in 50, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67
supplementation and extensions 4950, 5455, 56, 5766
term 54n2
time, space, and bodies 6063
workplace tools/machinery, practices and roles 6364
Tejerina, Benjamin 2, 9, 93n1, 95, 97, 98, 102, 106, 108
television, political participation and 168, 176
territorialisation (processes in assemblage) 121
see also deterritorialisation ; reterritorialisation
Thompson, Paul 71, 227, 230, 231, 233, 233n14, 244
Threadgold, Steven 1, 2, 133, 250, 251
Thunberg, Greta 5
Tiggemann, Marika 190, 201
Tillmann, Frank 33, 36
time, as part of teen-work assemblages 6062
timetables, workplace 6061
Tocqueville 262
Tokyo 267
tools, as part of teen-work assemblages 6364
Trades Union Congress (UK) 76
Commission of Vulnerable Employment 80, 81, 82
Trade Unions Congress (tuc, UK), Commission on Vulnerable Workers 80, 81, 82
trade unions (Europe)
definition 73
needs of young vs. priorities of 7879
objectives 69, 73
organisation outside formal union structure/self-organisation 79, 8084
recruitment/membership,
decline in membership 69, 7980
recruitment and organisation challenges 69, 70
of young workers 74, 7879, 86
representation/unionisation,
of agency workers 8081
of diverse working class 76
of migrant workers 80, 8182
of precarious workers 80, 8284, 8586
representative claims, alternative claims vs. expert claims 74, 77, 8084
of vulnerable workers 80, 81
younger vs. older workers 78
of young workers 8, 70, 7172, 7374, 84
case studies 78, 8084
representative claims 7475, 76, 7778, 79, 80, 86
response to financial crises 77
union campaigns 72
see also solidarity
trainees/traineeships 31, 37, 39, 4041
training-on-the-job 62
transition research see research/studies on youth transition
transition to adolescence, developmental tasks and self-socialisation 186188, 191
transition to adulthood
gender/social class taken-for-granted across generations 1314, 227, 228, 229, 231, 234, 235243
case studies 235243
importance of family in 227228
transportation/travel metaphor 3, 1415, 268
younger vs. older generations 253
see also youth transitions
transnational/supranational belonging 56, 140, 155
see also Erasmus bubble
transportation (metaphor in youth transition) 3, 1415, 268
travel 41, 152153
as metaphor for youth transition 3, 268
with peers 39
to and from part-time jobs 60, 61
see also exchange students
Tsoukalas, Ioannis 141, 142, 143, 152
tuc (Trades Union Congress, UK) 76
Commission on Vulnerable Workers 80, 81, 82
Turkey 145, 195
Turkle, Sherry 207, 209
tutorials, on social media 215, 220221
txokos (gastronomic societies, clubs) 98
uncertainty 23
as individualising force 1, 255
managing 2
normalisation of 255
unemployment see employment/unemployment
unionisation see trade unions
United Kingdom 70, 219
social mobility in 230
unionisation of young workers 77, 78, 80
United States 15, 16, 215, 267
social mobility in 230
unionisation of young workers 78, 80, 8384
universities 142
University of Graz 192
unskilled work 35, 75, 80, 258
upper class
independence of youth in 236237, 242
upper class males 236237, 241
upper middle-class women 237238, 241
youth transition across generations 235236
urbanisation (Norway) 234
urban transformation/reconfiguration (Basque Country) 98, 100101, 110
urban youth 166
value building, role of peers in 29
Vandaele, Kurt 69, 70, 79, 80
Van Mol, Christophe 141, 149
Verba, Sidney 164, 166, 176
Vienna 192, 194
Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country) 96, 101
vocational decisions
indecisiveness towards future profession 38
influence of peers 28
new media as assisting collectivities for 218219
peers as barriers 3536, 40, 42
see also career choice ; school-to-work transition
vocational education and training (Germany) 26, 36
dual system (Germany) 25, 26, 3738, 4041, 43
vocational orientation 27
institutional support 33, 42
parental and grandparental support 25, 30, 33, 38, 39, 41, 42
peers as ‘tandem partners’/shared ideas of peers 35, 3739, 42
peer support/influence 14, 2526, 27, 28, 29
peers as alternative vocational orientation systems 31, 3334, 42
peers as transition boosters and barriers 31, 3436, 40, 42
research on 3041, 42
see also school-to-work transition
Vogt, Kristoffer Chelsom 13, 14, 239
voluntary year 38
voting 163, 164, 261
Vreese, Claes H. 163, 164, 165
vulnerable workers, unionisation 80, 81
Waechter, Natalia 10, 15, 185, 186, 187, 190, 191
Waerness, Kari 243
wall art see graffiti art practice
Walther, Andreas 1, 25, 26
Warsaw 213, 214, 215, 216, 218
wealth, intergenerational transfer of 7071
web 2.0 187
Webbs, Sidney and Beatrice 73
Weber, Max 230
Weidinger, Karin 192
welfare state 50, 51, 227, 234, 242, 243, 244
WhatsApp groups 105, 152, 153, 188
wildstyle graffiti 117, 122, 123
Willis, Paul E. 29, 32
Witzel, Andreas 30, 192
women
education/career development across generations 235243
(rural) working-class 240241, 241242, 243
in social mobility/social class research 231
urban upper middle-class 237238, 241
Woodman, Dan 1, 6, 7, 14, 16, 109, 249, 250
work see employment/unemployment
workers, solidarity among 69, 71, 72, 7477
workers’ centres 84
see also trade unions
workforce, ageing 69
working class 231
rural working-class women 240241, 241242, 243
unionisation of diverse working class 76
youth transition across generations 235, 239240
Work and Occupations (journal) 78
workplace assemblages see teen-work assemblages
work placements 141, 144
workplace tools/machinery, as part of teen-work assemblages 6364
World Trade Center, terrorist attacks (2001) 213, 215, 216
World Values Survey 166
World War ii, economic and educational developments post- 227, 233n12, 234, 235, 241, 243
Wyn, Johanna 2, 6, 109, 117, 240, 249
Yogyakarta (Indonesia) 115, 116117, 123, 125, 128, 130, 130ill., 134, 135
see also graffiti art practice
young migrants see migrant youth
young people
definition 161, 207
political participation see political engagement/participation
young workers
independence of 49, 66
unionisation of see trade unions
see also migrant youth ; precarious employment
youth activism (Indonesia) 118
youth clubs see lonjas
youth culture 268
Youth and Globalization (journal) 6
youth language 191192
youth life, prolongation of 94, 95, 101102, 104
youth lifestyle 16, 140, 146
youth (sub)culture, definition 16
youth transition see transition to adolescence ; transition to adulthood
youth transition research see research/studies on youth transition
YouTube/YouTubers 188, 189, 196, 197
tutorials 220221
Zemmels, David 208, 210
Zinnecker, Jürgen 187, 202
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