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Index

Actionable subsidies 233, 290
Agenda 21 92, 232
Agreement on Anti-dumping (ada) 188
Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (sps) 196, 199, 203
Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (ascm) 4, 188190, 229233, 269270, 277
Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (tbt) 196, 203, 275
Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (trips)
Amicus curiae 27, 184, 279
Anti-dumping duties 234
Appellate Body (ab) 253
case history 149, 176185, 199202, 273277
composition 26, 177, 179180
impact 26, 104, 175, 179, 274
See also Tribunals
Argentina 1
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (apec) 171, 272
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (asean) 118
Atlantic Conference 4648
Atlantic Charter 4748, 57, 63, 223
Australia 82, 103, 202
Austria 118, 125, 251
Balance of payments 82
Baldwin, Robert 15
Bergsten, Fred 13
Bhagwati, Jagdish 120, 127, 158
Boulding, Kenneth 60
Brazil 82
Bretton Woods system 20
Brown-Weiss, Edith 88
Brundtland
Commission 148, 153
Gro Harlem 116, 153
Report 148, 151, 153, 166, 183, 194, 264
Burden of proof 141143, 182, 198
Canada 6364, 9596, 115116, 162, 195, 202, 235, 244245
Carson, Rachel 58
Carve-outs 195201, 231, 233, 238239, 253, 291
Chile 82, 245247, 270271
China 82, 155
Churchill, Winston 4648, 63
Clean Water Act 74, 77
Climate change 115116, 182, 215, 224, 247
Clinton, Bill 125, 150, 159, 161, 257
Club model of cooperation 25, 115, 171, 245
Club of Rome 61
Cobden, Richard 41
Commerce Clause 70, 7779, 133
Commission on Sustainable Development (csd) 161
Committee on Trade and Environment (cte) 162, 165, 167, 172176, 185, 192193, 212, 215, 228229, 231, 252, 254262, 269, 271
Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (cbdr) 205, 262, 265
Conflict
arguments/theories 6
of goals 8788, 251
of norms 149
Conservation 57, 59, 153, 271
Constructivism 25, 111, 245
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (cites) 125, 183, 242, 244, 246, 250252
Countermeasures 125
Countervailing duties 234
Cultures, clash of 112115, 148
ddt 58
Decolonization 121
Denmark 124
Developing countries 220
assistance 28, 219, 226, 231, 265266
in the gatt/wto 119120, 149, 171172, 185, 192, 260
role in environmental negotiations 6768, 111, 121123, 154155
role in trade negotiations 119, 167, 171, 228, 232, 269
support for trade regime status quo 110, 118120, 253, 263
Development 68, 122
Agenda 28, 121, 157, 261262, 268, 283
movement 121
Dispute settlement
participation 114, 146
procedures 135, 144145
Dispute Settlement Understanding (dsu) 184, 202
Doha Round 119, 191, 217, 228229, 263
Dormant Commerce Clause 133
Dubos, René 60, 152
Dumping 112, 126
Earth Summit. See Rio Conference on Environment and Development
Eco-imperialism 109, 126
Eco-labelling 125, 237, 251, 257, 260
Economic Section, War Cabinet Secretariat (UK) 45, 4850
Embedded liberalism 19, 87, 105106, 285
Environment
as an international issue 56, 6263, 7071
domestic dimension 56, 59, 223
interest 5859, 7172
Environmental agreements. See Multilateral environmental agreements
Environmental differentiation 99, 275276
Environmental goods 171, 214, 218, 257, 272
Environmental impact assessment (eia) 159162, 167, 205, 207, 261
Environmental imperialism. See eco-imperialism
Environmentalists
challenge to free trade 109
defensive agenda 159
fragmentation 92, 111, 254
offensive agenda 129, 142
trade perspective 91, 129
trade propositions 168
Environmental Kuznets Curve (ekc) 158
Environmental Measures in International Trade gatt (emit) Group 91, 119, 150, 171173
Environmental movement 5860, 70, 169
Environmental organizations 2627, 113, 117, 256, 258, 269, 283
Environmental protection
aim of 8
trade liberalization linkage 79, 89, 93
Environmental Protection Agency (epa) 169, 245, 271
Environmental standards
competitiveness factor 126, 234
convergence or harmonization 9698, 203, 247
diversity of 9697, 112, 235, 245
enforcement of 233235
high 112, 147, 235
international 203
low 96, 98, 113, 126, 147, 164, 234235, 245, 247
process, product, 234
trade attacks on 9697
trade disputes over 126, 202203
Environmental trade measures. See Trade-Related Environmental Measures
Epistemic communities 25, 111
Esty, Daniel 112, 204, 221
European Commission 103, 148, 225, 247
European Community (ec). See also European Union
environmental policy 70, 8081
case history 95
common market 9698
goals 80
European Court of Justice (ecj) 102, 136, 138, 249
European Economic Community (eec) Treaty 98
Article 2 8081, 96
Article 30 103
Article 36 100, 102, 104, 137138
Article 100 8081, 97
Article 235 80, 97
European Free Trade Area (efta) 118, 171, 236
European Parliament 2, 247
European Union (EU) 118, 236
environmental policy 161162, 167, 239, 261
official gatt/wto statements 168, 186
trade policy 118, 149, 195, 249
Exception clauses. See also gatt, Article xx 195201, 278
aim 8183, 99100, 104, 285
drafting 8183, 100, 130132, 186190, 233
interpretation 135141, 180185, 199202
origin 8183, 100104, 285
Exemptions. See carve-outs
Exhaustible natural resources 100, 183184
Experts
environmental 170, 225226, 257
in trade disputes 135
trade 24, 92, 111, 135, 185, 225226
Exploitation of natural resources 56
Extraterritoriality 139, 267
Fisheries
Negotiations 2, 228232, 259, 261, 291, 292
sector 124, 214, 226232, 252
subsidies 214215, 218210, 220, 226232, 235, 238, 257, 259, 268270
Food and Agricultural Organization (fao) 84, 227, 258, 269
Fossil fuels
subsidies 214, 219
subsidies reform 220, 223, 238, 271271
Founex meeting 68, 110, 122123, 154155, 224, 264
France 201202
Free trade 90
agenda 121
environmentalist challenge to 159
history of 1619, 22, 5052
meaning 1619, 23, 94, 283285, 287
Free traders 114, 120, 127, 158159, 254
Free trade agreements (ftas)
dispute settlement 95, 142, 207210, 240244, 252
environmental provisions 149, 187190, 197, 203207, 209, 234244, 246247, 249, 252, 261, 278
investment chapter 196, 208209
negotiation 159, 188, 196, 257, 279
Friends of the Earth 160
Future generations 152, 206
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (gatt)
Article i 199, 276, 285
Article iii 95, 99, 104105, 107, 130, 199, 273276, 285
Article xi 104, 106, 199, 275276
Article xx 8283, 99100, 103104, 130132, 137141, 157, 168, 175177, 180191, 196, 251, 256, 262, 275277
Article xxiii 143
environmental criticism 108, 129
evolution of 23, 218
negotiation of 5355, 8183, 93, 101104, 117118, 130132, 136, 284
objective 90, 106, 127, 129, 135, 153154
preamble 13, 127, 153, 218
Secretariat 24, 87, 8990, 92, 97, 111, 171, 224225
General Agreement on Trade in Services (gats) 188
General exceptions. See Exceptions ; gatt, Article xx
General principles of international law 145
Germany 98
Global Environmental Organization (geo) 204, 288289
Global warming. See Climate change
Government procurement 195, 201, 239240
Government Procurement Agreement 195196
Great Depression 17, 35, 49, 106, 281
Green economy 27, 220, 222223, 259260, 268
Group of 77 119
Harmonized system 170
Havana Charter 5455, 8283, 146, 211
Hull, Cordell 23, 3545, 48, 76, 217, 280282
Iceland 228, 268
Ideas 1011, 21, 23, 37, 107, 253254, 262, 272, 280284
Illegal unreported and unregulated (Iuu) fishing 219220, 226, 231, 238, 252, 270
Imperial preferences 48
Import bans 202
Import restrictions 244
India 82, 167
Institutional cooperation 27, 171, 174, 192, 215
Institutional integration 254261, 282283
International Convention for the Protection of Birds 57
International Court of Justice (icj) 136
International environmental agreements. See Multilateral environmental agreements
International environmental law, history of 6470
International Institute for Sustainable Development (iisd) 225
International investment law 294
International standards. See Environmental standards
International Trade Organization (ito) 20, 54, 146
Italy 82, 101
Jackson, John 137, 175
Japan 131, 162, 236
Jurisdiction 139, 209, 267
Kennedy Round 93
Labelling. See Eco-labelling
Laissez-faire 20
Lang, Andrew 15
League of Nations 36, 4243
Learning 1012, 21, 23
Least-Developed Countries (ldcs) 28, 167, 219220, 226, 231, 263, 265, 269271
Less favourable treatment 104
Likeness 99, 104, 107, 272277
Marine Mammal Protection Act 128
Meade, James 23, 45, 4854
Mercantilism 16, 22, 52
Mexico 131, 156, 163164, 235
Mill, John Stuart 4041
Millennium Development Goals (mdgs) 152
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat 40
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 92, 225
Most-favoured nation (mfn) 51, 273, 285
See also gatt, Article i
Multilateral Environmental Agreements (meas) 243
gatt/wto compatibility 192, 225226, 251, 256
negotiation 92, 113
secretariats 174, 228, 255, 258
with trade provisions 109, 186, 193194, 212213, 225
Multilateralism 17, 50, 5254, 281
Mutual supportiveness 148, 210, 282
Muskie, Edmund 7375
National Environmental Policy Act (nepa) 7273, 160
National sovereignty. See Sovereignty
National treatment 51, 104, 134, 273, 275, 285
See also gatt, Article iii
Natural resources 56, 104, 128129
Natural Resources Defence Council (nrdc) 169
Necessity test 137, 180183, 187, 202
Neoliberalism 13, 8990, 92, 94, 105107, 110, 127, 129, 140, 223224, 278279, 283284
Nixon, Richard 7273
Non-actionable subsidies 190
Non-discrimination 105, 107, 134, 204, 253, 273, 278, 285
See also Most-favoured nation ; National treatment
Non-governmental organizations (ngos) 27, 114, 117, 120, 146, 170171, 184, 214, 216, 279
Non-tariff barriers (ntbs) 89, 9394, 104, 134, 239
North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (naaec) 118, 161162, 164
North American Free Trade Agreement (nafta) 150, 201, 215
environmental provisions 163164, 166, 190, 193, 203, 234235, 251
environmental review 161, 163
negotiations 113114, 117, 160, 167, 169170, 249250
Norway 124
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (oecd) 134, 161, 170
Panels
composition 135, 144
gatt 103, 108109, 129, 134136, 140141, 157, 177178, 183, 253, 275
wto 175, 177178, 202, 274
Paris Agreement 2, 247
Peace 4042, 50, 106, 217218, 285
Peace-making value of trade 4042, 50, 217, 280281
Pelly Amendment 124125, 251
Peru 1, 241244, 252, 270
Pesticides 58, 96, 244
Polluter pays principle 205
Pollution 56, 74, 127
Pollution haven 164
Pollution-haven package 164165, 206, 234
Population growth 6162
Prevention principle 205
Process and production methods (ppms) 99, 115, 147, 272277
Prohibited subsidies 259
Protectionism 17, 35, 87, 94, 110, 120, 126127, 129, 132, 156, 204, 263
Public health 82, 100, 102103, 201202, 274
Public participation
in environmental decision-making 113, 206
in environmental negotiations 113
in trade negotiations 113114, 161
in the wto 161, 174
Public procurement. See Government procurement
Quantitative restrictions 51, 104
See also gatt, Article xi
Race to the bottom 109, 126, 161, 164
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (rtaa) 4445, 76
Regimes
conflict 6, 8, 148
integration 272, 278, 293
Renewable energy 189, 214, 220, 237
Ricardo, David 16
Right to development 122, 155156
Right to regulate 127, 201202, 238, 240
Rio Conference on Environment and Development 153155, 171172, 194, 216, 264
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development 154, 156157, 267
Robbins, Lionel 45, 4950, 53
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano 4648, 63, 221
Roosevelt, Theodore 57, 223
Ruggie, John Gerard 19, 285
Safeguards 234
Schuman, Robert 79
Scientific community 6566
Seattle Ministerial of the World Trade Organization 159, 215, 268
Sierra Club 160, 169
Single European Act (sea) 81
Smith, Adam 16, 22
Smoot-Hawley Tariff 17, 35, 281
South Africa 130
Sovereignty 127, 185, 202
Spaceship Earth 55, 6062, 151, 153
Special and differential treatment 226, 231, 269272
Standards. See Environmental standards
Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment 63, 6570, 84, 89, 91, 110, 121122, 134, 151155, 264, 270
Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment 69, 204, 206
Strong, Maurice 6371, 89, 121, 123, 152, 264, 290
Subsidies 126, 218
definition of 231
discipline reform 217, 229, 231
environmental 197, 231, 238
Sustainable development 14, 148149, 151, 159, 166, 176, 178, 217220, 223226, 228, 237, 246, 248249, 261262, 264269, 282, 291293
Sustainable development goals (sdgs) 23, 28, 148, 152154, 157, 216, 218220, 225226, 230, 265266, 268269, 278, 292
Sweden 6465, 118
Switzerland 82, 101, 118, 236
Taiwan 125, 251
Tariffs
domestic dimension 3739, 281
international dimension 3940, 51
regulation 37, 51
Technical barriers to trade 97
Technology, environmentally friendly 214, 237
Tokyo Round 23, 93, 106107, 144, 285
Trade community 89, 129, 214
Trade liberalization 251, 278
aim 8, 13, 283284
benefits 50, 94
environmental perspectives on 159
relationship with environmental protection 6, 120, 127, 194, 224, 235, 254, 278
Trade measures
sanctions 124125, 157, 240244, 251252
unilateral 124126, 157, 175, 234
Trade negotiations 113114, 159, 167, 215
Trade policy, convergence with environmental policy 118, 223
Trade policy élite 2426, 87, 110, 117, 135, 175, 177179, 215, 253254, 260, 282
Trade regime
aim 1315, 87, 90, 105, 107, 120, 127, 153154, 176, 213, 218, 261, 264, 279, 280, 283, 286291
history of 5155, 105, 218, 284286, 291
theories 13, 107, 128
Trade-Related Environmental Measures (trems) 192, 212, 238, 262, 267, 281
Trade restrictions. See Trade measures
Trade sanctions. See Trade measures
Trade remedies 233234
Transboundary harm 56, 77
Transparency 113114, 161
Treaty on the European Union (teu) 249
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (tfeu) 249
Tribunals
failure to consider environmental issues 144145, 175, 253, 276
introduction of environmental considerations 176179, 183185, 209, 283
jurisdiction 209
problems with scientific evidence 144145
use of external sources 144145, 176179, 183, 253
Udall, Stewart 71
unced. See Rio Conference on Environment and Development
Unilateralism 17, 124126, 139, 157, 175, 234, 266266
United Kingdom (UK) 17, 4554, 131132, 225
United Nations (UN) 54, 58, 64, 68, 8485
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (unctad) 121, 162, 224, 269
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (unclos) 145, 183
United Nations Development Programme (undp) 121
United Nations Environment Programme (unep) 70, 8386, 115, 162, 215, 221, 225, 228, 258259, 269
United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 23, 28, 213, 216, 219, 226, 230, 265268, 286, 292
United States (US) 34, 95, 227, 232235, 240247, 270271
Constitution 70, 7579, 133
environmental impact assessment procedures 159, 246, 257
environmental legislation 72, 7475
environmental policy 57, 72, 118, 128, 162
federalism 70, 7577, 133
role in post-war economic reconstruction 17, 41, 4548, 5355
tariff policy 3739
trade policy 1718, 118, 124125, 128, 149, 162, 195, 243
unilateralism 124
United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement (uscfta) 9596, 116
United States-Mexico-Canada (usmca) 235, 238239, 252
United States Supreme Court
case history 7778, 133134, 180
composition 180
United States Trade Representative (ustr) 1, 108, 160, 163, 169171, 243246
Uruguay Round 20, 117120, 128, 161, 167, 171172, 176, 196, 234
Utilitarism 5658
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (vclt) 178179
Ward, Barbara 61, 151
Water
management 7778
pollution 74
Wetlands 7778
Wilcox, Clair 45, 54, 83
Wildlife, protection of 241244, 246, 250
Wilson, Woodrow 4142
World Bank 158
World Commission on Environment and Development. See Brundtland, Commission
World Health Organization (who) 8485
World Meteorological Organization (wmo) 84
World Trade Organization (wto)
history of 19, 218
membership 20, 23, 149, 171, 285
World Trade Organization Agreement, preamble 14, 176, 183, 210, 291
World War i 3942
World War ii 17, 4445, 121, 284
World Wild Fund (wwf) 169, 258
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