Authors:
Jonathan Ben-Dov
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Asaf Gayer
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Eshbal Ratzon
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Open Access

Tables

1 Scaling of PAM plates in relation to features of their rulers 47

2 Margin of error for the reconstruction of all lines in 1QIsaa 97

3 Margin of error for the reconstruction of lines with no vacats in 1QIsaa 98

4 Margin of error for the reconstruction of column height in 1QIsaa 99

5 Margin of error for the reconstruction of several consecutive columns in 1QIsaa – version 3.A 100

6 Margin of error for reconstruction of several consecutive columns in 1QIsaa – stage 3.B 101

7 Margin of error for the reconstruction of all lines in 1QS columns 8–11 102

8 Margin of error for the reconstruction of lines with no vacats in 1QS columns 8–11 103

9 Margin of error for the reconstruction of column height in 1QS 104

10 Margin of error for the reconstruction of several consecutive columns in 1QS – version 3.A 106

11 Margin of error for the reconstruction of several consecutive columns in 1QS – version 3.B 106

12 Margin of error for the reconstruction of all lines in 11Q5 Columns 20–24 108

13 Margin of error for the reconstruction of lines with no vacats in 11Q5 columns 20–24 108

14 Margin of error for the reconstruction of column height – 11Q5 109

15 Projecting the number of missing lines from one copy to the other 142

16 Projecting the number of missing lines from 4Q418a to 4Q418 144

17 Positions of fragments to the left 229

18 Positions of fragments to the right 231

19 Columns and margins of 4Q418a 232

20 Comparison of missing text at the beginning of 4Q418a and 4Q417 246

21 Number of columns per sheet in 4Q418a 247

Figures

Figures 107–122 can also be viewed online at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.17032940.

1 Fragment 4Q418 164, as it appears in PAM 40.978 and in PAM 41.905. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 22

2 Fragments 4Q249a 3 and 4Q249a 5 (two pieces of papyrus formerly joined as 4Q249e 2). PAM 41.990, PAM 43.410. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 23

3 Fragments of the scroll 1Q22 (PAM 40.508) with handwritten notations. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 24

4 Najib Anton Albina photographing scroll fragments in the 1950s (PAM 43.887). © IAA, LLDSSDL, photographer: unknown. https://www.deadseascrolls.org.il/learn-about-the-scrolls/conservation 46

5 Image of fragment 4Q418 9 as supplied by the LLDSSDL (IAA plate 486, frag. 2; B-499679). © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 52

6 Image of fragment 4Q418 9 after disposal of its surroundings. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 53

7 Fragment 4Q418 9 after removal of background. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 54

8 Fragment 4Q418 9 after removal of rice paper. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 54

9 Left: 4Q397 6 verso. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 58

10 4Q418a 22 verso. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 59

11 4Q418a 12 recto and verso. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 61

12 4Q417 Fragment 1 recto + verso, a close-up on the ink marks. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 62

13 3D representation of a wad. Graphics: Michal Semo-Kovetz, TAU Graphic Design Studio 63

14 4Q82, PAM 41.964. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 64

15 4Q324d 4, PAM 40.619. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 64

16 4Q511 fragments 52, 54, 55, 57, 58, PAM 41.691. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 65

17 1Q22, PAM 40.511. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 67

18 Reading the words ד̇ב̊ק̇י פ̇לא in 4Q405 19a 5. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi. Graphics: Asaf Gayer 71

19 A section from 1QSa I 18–21, with suggested completion of the lacuna. The image reproduced is a graphic reconstruction of the scroll based on a photograph taken by Bruce and Kenneth Zuckerman, West Semitic Research, in collaboration with Princeton Theological Seminary. Courtesy Jordan Museum. Graphics: Einat Tamir 71

20 Two consecutive columns of 4Q418. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi/Najib Anton Albina 75

21 Estimation of the width of a column of 4Q82 by casting the text of Micah 1:12–3:36 in the layout and script of 4Q82, fragments 91, 93, 94. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 78

22 Reconstruction of column II of 4Q249a pap cryptA Serekh haEdah. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 80

23 An image file of the letters of 4Q417. Graphics: Einat Tamir 87

24 Stage 1 performed on 1QIsaa columns 41 and 42. © Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum. Ardon Bar Hama 97

25 1QS Column 3 with the top three lines extant and the rest of the column simulated. © Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum. Ardon Bar Hama 105

26 A vector glyph in SQE 113

27 Simplified vector glyph 113

28 Rasterized and thinned glyph 114

29 Relative hanging lines 115

30 Kerning distance 115

31 Section of the scroll 11Q1. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 119

32 The inner sheet of the scroll 11Q5. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 119

33 Columns 10–11 of 1QS in the early stages of their being opened. © Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum. M. Kirschner 120

34 3D representation of a wad. Graphics: Michal Semo-Kovetz, TAU Graphic Design Studio 122

35 Wad A. 4Q418a 6–8, PAM 41.973. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 123

36 Documentation of the layers of 4Q418a Wad A (frags. 1–8) after their separation, PAM 41.997. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 124

37 4Q418a frag. 6: the separation of layers. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 125

38 4Q418a fragments 6 and 8 while still attached on PAM 41.973. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 125

39 4Q415 fragments 2, 9, 11. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 127

40 Borders and damages of 4Q415 fragments 2, 9, 11 127

41 The outlines of 4Q415 fragments 2, 9, 11 superimposed 128

42 Columns 8–11 in 1QS. © Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum. Ardon Bar Hama 131

43 Corresponding damage points on 4Q511 fragments 63 iii–iv. Illustration courtesy of Joseph L. Angel 132

44 4Q418a cols. XVXVII. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 133

45 Columns of 4Q418a. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi and Najib Anton Albina 143

46 Columns of 4Q418. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 144

47 The two piles of wad A, PAM 41.973. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 165

48 Fragments 1–8 of wad A after separation, PAM 41.997. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 166

49 The contours of the various fragments in wad A. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 166

50 Top: Wad A in its original state, PAM 41.973. Bottom: frags. 1 and 2 after their separation, PAM 41.997. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 168

51 Wad A, pile 1, PAM 41.973. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 169

52 Fragment 2, IR image, B-506474. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 169

53 Fragment 3, PAM 41.997. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 171

54 Fragment 4, IR image, B-506467. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 172

55 Fragment 5, IR image, B-506492. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 173

56 Right: frag. 6 on top of half of the unpeeled wad A, PAM 41.973. Left: the small pieces of frag. 6 from PAM 41.997, pasted on top of its older image. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 174

57 Left: frags. 6–8 still attached on PAM 41.973. Right: frag. 8, after separation, PAM 41.997. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 174

58 Left: IR image of frag. 5 (verso) digitally flipped and enhanced. Right: the letters found on the verso of frag. 5 are placed in their original location on frag. 6 (taken from PAM 41.973). © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi and Najib Anton Albina 175

59 Fragment 8, IR image, B-506495. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 176

60 4Q418a fragment 8. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 177

61 Fragment 7, PAM 43.687. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 178

62 Wad B before separation, PAM 41.972: Red – frag. 9; black – frag. 10. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 180

63 Wad B after separation, PAM 41.997. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 180

64 The earliest image of wad B before separation, PAM 41.410. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 181

65 Fragment 9a, PAM 41.410. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 182

66 Fragment 9. Left: as seen on PAM 41.410 before wad B was peeled; right: PAM 43.687 already separated. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 183

67 Fragment 10, PAM 43.687. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 184

68 Fragment 11, IR image, B-506507. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 185

69 Fragment 12, PAM 41.997. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 185

70 Fragment 13, PAM 41.410. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 187

71 Fragment 14, PAM 41.972. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 187

72 Left: frag. 14 verso flipped and enhanced. Right: the borders between layer 14a and 14b. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 188

73 Wad D before separation, PAM 41.891. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 190

74 Wad D separated, PAM 41.909. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 190

75 The second stage of separation of Wad D, PAM 41.973. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 191

76 Wad D, PAM 41.997. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 191

77 Fragment 15, PAM 41.891. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 192

78 Left: frag. 15 on top of the unpeeled wad D, PAM 41.891; Right: frag. 16 on top of frag. 17, PAM 41.973. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 193

79 Fragments 13 (PAM 41.410) and 15 (PAM 41.891), distantly joined. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 194

80 Fragments 16 (PAM 41.973) + 16b (PAM 41.909). © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 195

81 Fragments 14 (PAM 41.972), 16 (PAM 41.973), and 16b (PAM 41.909), distantly joined. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 196

82 Left: frag. 16b, PAM 41.909. Right: IR image of 16b verso, flipped and enhanced. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi and Najib Anton Albina 197

83 Left: frag. 17c, PAM 41.973. Right: IR image of IAA plate 511, fragment 32 verso (= 17c verso) flipped and enhanced. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi and Najib Anton Albina 197

84 Right: IR image of frag. 16 recto; Left: IR image of frag. 16 verso flipped and enhanced. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 198

85 Fragment 17 with all the small pieces joined to it. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi and Najib Anton Albina 198

86 Fragment 17, small pieces, and frag. 14, joined. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi and Najib Anton Albina 200

87 Left: frag. 18, PAM 41.909. Right: frag. 19, PAM 43.687. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 201

88 Fragment 18 (PAM 41.909) after a fold of the skin was digitally opened. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 202

89 The reconstruction of column XI containing frags. 18 (PAM 41.909) and 14b (from the verso of frag. 14). © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi and Najib Anton Albina 203

90 Fragment 19 (PAM 41.997) + 19b (PAM 41.909). © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 203

91 The oldest available image of frag. 22 from January 1959 (PAM 42.247), in which the top layer began to be peeled. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 205

92 The first layer continues to be peeled in an image from July 1960, PAM 43.687. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 205

93 IR image of frag. 22, taken especially for the current study at the IAA lab. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 206

94 Layers 1 and 2 in wad E. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 206

95 The verso of frag. 22 flipped. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 207

96 The maximal boundaries of frag. 22c joined to frag. 9a. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 210

97 Fragment 20+21, PAM 41.375. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 211

98 Fragment 20+21 (PAM 41.375) joined with frag. 9b. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 211

99 Tigchelaar’s reconstruction of the order of fragments in 4Q418a 214

100 The text of 4Q416 2, 4Q417 2, and 4Q418 7–10 cast in the layout of 4Q418a, Columns IXXII. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi and Najib Anton Albina 217

101 Fragments 15+13, 16+14, 17+14a, and 18+14b, columns XIXIV. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi and Najib Anton Albina 218

102 Black: borders and cracks of frag. 22; Red: borders and cracks of frag. 11 221

103 Wad B. The text of 4Q417 1 and 4Q418 43+44+45+108 presented in the layout of 4Q418a. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 221

104 Left: IR image of 4Q418a 7 recto; Right: IR image of 4Q418a 7 verso, flipped and enhanced. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 222

105 Multispectral image of 4Q418a 7 verso. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 223

106 The suggested order of fragments in 4Q418a 226

107 Columns XII and XIII. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi and Najib Anton Albina 235

108 Column XIV. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 236

109 Column XV. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 237

110 Columns XVI and XVII. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 238

111 Column XVIII. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 239

112 Column XIX. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 239

113 Column XX. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 240

114 Reconstructed Borders of Fragments 22a and b and the reconstructed distance between them 240

115 Columns VI and VII with fragments 22c+9a and 20+21+9b. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 242

116 Column V with fragment 9. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 242

117 Columns III and IV. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 243

118 Column II. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 244

119 A visualization of columns IXX attested in fragments 1–22c. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi and Najib Anton Albina 248–249

120 Columns IIV of the canvas of 4Q418a. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Najib Anton Albina 254

121 Section of the canvas of 4Q415. © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 255

122 Section of the canvas of 4Q418 (fragments 81, 81a, 101, 102, 103, 122, 126, 137, 139). © IAA, LLDSSDL, Shai Halevi 256

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