Index

Note: Page numbers followed by an ‘n’ and another letter refer to table notes.

Ainu 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 65, 66, 67, 76
Hokkaidō Ainu 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 66, 74, 75, 77
Kuril Ainu 58
Sakhalin Ainu 57–77 passim
Saru dialect 59, 63
Rayciska and Usoro dialects 57
Altaic 17, 184
Arabic 176
Barga 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 290, 292, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307
Barga-type standard Mongol 275
Bargut 113
Chipchin 273, 279
Interethnic New Barga 282
Solon Barga 273, 278
Bodic 81, 82, 83, 90
Bonan, Baonan (Mongolic) 41, 43n, 81, 86, 92, 94, 97
Eastern (Gansu) Bonan 83
Western (Qinghai) Bonan 83, 87, 95
Buryat (Mongolic) 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 110, 111, 113, 116, 116n, 117, 119, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 139n4, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 176, 177n3, 178, 179, 181, 182, 183, 184, 250, 251, 252, 253, 266, 255, 271, 272, 272n11, 272n12, 274, 275, 276, 277, 280, 281, 282, 284n35, 289, 290, 292, 293, 293n38, 294, 295, 296, 296n40, 297, 298, 301n42, 302, 302n43, 304, 305, 306
Aga B. 250, 255, 255n, 166
Alar B. 111
Alar Tunka dialectal group 108, 167
Balagan B. 108ne
Bokhan B. 108ne, 108nf, 111
B. dialects 167, 169, 182, 184
B. varieties 251
Eastern (or Trans-Baikalian) B. 166
Ekhirit-Bulagat group 166, 167
Khori (dialectal) group 167
Khori B., Khori-Buryat, Khori variety, Khori dialect, Literary B. 166, 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 183, 184, 274, 255n, 270, 274
Lower Uda B. variety 167
North Selenga dialect 166
Sartul B. dialect 166–184 passim
Shinekhen B. 250, 251, 253, 255, 274
Tsongol-Sartul dialectal group 167, 169
Tugnuy dialect 166
Unga B. 111
Western (or Cis-Baikalian) B. 166, 167, 273
Chakhar (Mongolic) 285, 286, 287, 297
Chalkan (Turkic) 6
Chinese 17, 18, 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 81, 88, 107, 138, 139n5, 141, 142n11, 143, 146n21, 149n30, 150, 157, 160, 158, 162, 183, 187, 205, 251, 251n2, 252, 281n25, 269, 270n3, 271, 271n5, 271n9, 276, 276n15, 277, 278, 280, 281, 283, 284, 285, 286, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 305, 306, 307
Linxia (Hezhou) dialect 45
Northern (Zhongyuan/Lan-Yin) Mandarin 81
Northwest Mandarin 38, 45, 46, 47, 48, 51
Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin (Putonghua) 38, 39, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 52, 81, 82, 96, 274, 275, 284, 285, 286, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 304
Xining dialect of Northwestern Mandarin 45, 48, 49
Xunhua dialect of Northwestern Mandarin 45, 48
Daur, Dagur, Dahur, Dawoer, Dawur, Dagūr 127, 138–162 passim, 188, 196, 197, 226, 251, 269, 271, 272, 274, 275, 276, 277, 277n17, 278, 278n18, 278n19, 280, 280n23, 280n25, 281, 281n25, 281n27, 287, 288, 289, 292, 293, 295, 296, 296n40, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301n42, 304, 305, 306, 307
Butha Dagur 139, 145, 153n37, 278, 299
Daur-style standard Mongol 287
Hailar Dagur 138, 139, 140n8, 142, 143, 274
Nonni Dagur 138
Darkhat (Mongolic) 18n13, 169
Dariganga (Mongolic) 169
Dongxiang Santa
Dukhan (Turkic) 200–208 passim
Enets (Tundra and Forest) 231
English 29, 40n, 47, 48, 49, 50, 67n, 75, 203, 299
Even 103n
Ewenki, Evenki, Ewenke (Tungusic) 103, 103n, 104, 113, 116, 117, 117n, 118, 119, 126, 130, 131, 138, 142, 143, 144, 145n19, 251, 252, 271, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 280n23, 291, 292, 300, 303, 305
Barguzin E. 103, 118
Boorji variety of Khamnigan E. 276, 299, 300, 306
E. dialect of Khamnigan 103
E. dialects of Buryatia 104
E. Nerchi (or Nercha Ewenki) 118
Khamnigan Ewenki 103, 131, 279, 290, 300
Namiatii variety of Khamnigan E. 276, 299, 300
Upper Aldan and Uchur-Zeya E. dialects 103
Finnish 107
Gangou 41
Gullah (Sea Island Creole) 40n
Hulunbuir Languages 268
H. interdialects 287
H. vernacular varieties 298
Japanese 58, 59n, 62, 63n, 64, 67n, 251n1, 257, 264, 281, 286, 289, 292, 297, 299, 305, 307
Kalmyk, Kalmuck (Mongolic) 15, 16, 18, 18n11, 28, 81, 106, 107, 110, 116n, 132, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 183
Sart-Kalmyk 18n11
Kangjia (Mongolic) 41, 81, 84, 86, 87, 95
Kazakh (Turkic) 85, 88, 105, 187, 200
Khalkha, Khalkha Mongol, Khalkha Mongolian 18n9, 18n10, 18n13, 22, 24, 31, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 106nd, 107, 108, 108ng, 111, 113, 114, 115, 120, 122–131 passim, 139n4, 143, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 178n, 179, 182, 183, 184, 200, 206, 274, 275nh, 282, 284, 287, 294n, 295, 297, 298, 302n, 306
19th century Khalkha dialects 108
Eastern Mongol (variety) in Urga 16
Khalkha regional variants 109
Khamnigan (Mongolic) 100–132 passim, 251, 279, 287, 288, 290, 292, 295, 297, 298, 299, 300, 305, 306
Khamnigan-style Standard Mongol 287, 299
Altan Kh. 124
Delyun Kh. 129
Gunui Kh. 124
Kurulga Kh. 122, 124, 129
Kyra Kh. 124
Manchurian Kh. 104, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 128, 280
Mangut Kh. 127, 130
Onon Khamnigan 102, 104, 107, 113, 116–130 passim, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 179, 183
Tarbaldzhei Kh. 118, 124, 127, 130
Tokchin Kh. 124
Ulhun-Partiya Kh. 124, 127, 128
Uzon Kh. 124
Zugalai Kh. 129
Khamnigan Ewenki Ewenki
Khorchin, Khorchin Mongolian 196, 251, 283, 283n29, 284, 286, 287, 290, 292, 295, 296, 297, 303, 304, 305, 306
Khorchin-type Standard Mongol 282, 284, 287, 292, 297, 299, 302
Tongliao variety of Kh. 283
Khotogoit 169
Kyrgyz (Turkic) 110
Latin 157
Manchu 17, 138, 139n5, 141, 143, 143n13, 144, 145, 148n22, 149n30, 150, 157, 158, 162, 187, 188, 189, 196, 197, 277, 278, 281, 280n25, 281, 287, 286, 287, 288, 292, 305
Manchu (Classical) 297
Spoken Manchu 150, 187, 189
Written Manchu 189, 298
Manegacha Baonan
Manghuer (Mongolic) 81, 86, 87, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97
Mansi 230
Minhe Monguor 41
Mongghul 81, 86, 92, 94, 97
Karlong variety of M. 89, 90
Mongol 140, 143, 144, 275, 281n25, 286, 291, 292, 295, 296, 300, 302, 303
Middle Mongol 101, 102, 103n, 131, 196
Mongol proper 143, 169, 184, 293, 300
Standard Mongol, Standard Mongolian 251, 255, 274, 275, 275nh, 282, 283, 284, 286, 287, 292, 297, 299, 304
Written Mongol (or Classical Mongolian, Written Mongolian, Literary Mongolian) 17, 101, 102n, 128, 141, 162, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 179, 183, 185, 254, 255, 273, 274, 286, 288, 292, 295, 297, 298, 299
Mongolian 2, 18, 18n9, 19, 21, 22, 24n31, 25, 27, 30, 31, 31n, 112, 142, 143, 144, 148, 150, 151, 154, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 169, 196, 202, 202n6, 203, 205n, 206, 251, 252, 253, 255, 269, 270, 270n3, 275, 279, 281, 281n25, 282, 283, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 295, 296, 298, 300, 303, 305
Common Mongolian 284
Inner Mongolian Standard Language 285, 286
Inner Mongolian Standard Mongol 286
Inner Mongolian varieties 282, 297
Mongolian proper 275, 275nh, 282n, 286, 287, 290, 294, 297, 298
Mongolic 4, 38, 43, 45, 50, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 101, 105, 106, 107, 110, 111, 114, 117, 119, 138, 139, 140, 166, 167, 168, 172, 173, 175, 176, 177, 177n, 178, 182, 183, 184, 251, 273, 274, 275, 276n15, 277, 278, 279, 279n22, 280, 283, 287, 291, 306
Amdo M. 82, 84, 86, 87, 89, 95
Common M. 90, 91, 94, 107
M. Languages 38, 40, 41, 45, 81, 105, 110, 113, 114, 196, 180, 251, 297
Proto-M. 101, 102, 105, 116
Monguor (Mongolic) 41
Nganasan 229–246 passim
Nenets (Tundra and Forest) 231
Norwegian 307n
Oirat, Oyrat 27, 275, 294, 295
Dörböt or Durvut 15n, 18, 22, 24n34, 28, 29, 30
Kalmyk-Oirat 81
Oirat Clear Script 28
Oirat dial(ects) 170, 172, 173, 174, 176, 177, 183
Oirat (dialects) in Mongolia 15, 32, 33
Oirat language 15, 17, 18, 21, 24, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32
Oirat vernacular language 21, 28, 32
Torgut 24
Uriankhai, Urianxai 18, 24, 29, 107n
Zakhchin 15n, 18, 22, 23, 24
Ordos (Mongolic) 106, 107, 111, 113, 132
O. field data 110
Orochen (Tungusic) 144, 277
Öölöd, Ööld, Öölöt (Mongolic) 15n, 18, 22, 25, 26, 27, 251, 283, 290, 291, 292, 296, 297, 305
Manchurian Öölöd 275
Öölödized Barga, Öölöd-style Barga 294, 295, 303
Imin Öölöd 275
Persian 110
Russian 102, 104, 107, 112, 116n, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 129, 148n25, 154n39, 170, 171, 175, 203, 219, 220, 221, 223, 224, 225, 229, 230, 231, 237, 238, 239, 246, 247, 251, 252, 278, 292, 295, 297, 298, 299, 300, 305, 307
Salar (Turkic) 41, 42, 45, 81, 82, 84, 85, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97
Amdo (Eastern) Salar 81, 83, 88, 89
Xinjiang (Western) Salar 81, 88
Samoyedic 231, 246
Sanskrit 107, 175
Santa or Dongxiang (Mongolic) 41, 81, 86, 89, 92n1, 167, 168
Sarig Yugur (Turkic) 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 94, 96
Sayan Turkic 200, 200n1, 200n2, 201, 202, 203, 203n8, 205, 206
Altay-Sayan varieties 200n1
Steppe Sayan Turkic 200n1
Taiga Sayan Turkic 200n1
Scandinavian 307n
Selkup (Uralic) 231
Shira (East) Yugur (Mongolic) 81, 92n
Shor (Turkic) 6, 110
Sibe (Tungusic) 187–197 passim
Sinitic 43n, 81, 82, 83, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 96
Amdo Sinitic 81, 84
Solon 139n5, 142, 251, 277, 280, 287, 288, 290, 292, 293, 295, 297, 298, 303, 304, 305, 306
Soyot (Turkic) 3, 11, 200n1, 206
Tangwang (Sinitic) 41, 81
Tatar (Turkic) 110
Tibetan 38, 40, 41, 42, 42n4, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 81, 82, 83, 88, 91, 92, 92n, 93, 94, 97, 107, 112, 113
Amdo Tibetan 38, 41, 43, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 81, 82, 93, 94, 96
Central Tibetan 43, 51
Classical Tibetan 46
Lhasa Tibetan 46, 50, 51
Rebgong Amdo Tibetan 93
Standard Tibetan 93
Written Tibetan 50
Tibetic 81
Tofan (Turkic) 1, 3, 11, 200n1, 202, 206, 217–227 passim
Alygdzher variety of T. 220
Gutara variety of T. 220, 225
Nerha variety of T. 220, 222
Tuhan or Uyghur-Uryankhay, Uygar-Uriankhay) (Turkic) 3, 3n3, 200, 200n1, 203n9, 203n10
Tungusic 130, 138, 142, 187, 196, 251, 274, 275, 276
Turco-Mongolic 81, 82, 83, 89, 90, 93, 94
Amdo Turco-Mongolic 82, 83, 90, 91, 92, 94, 96
Turco-Mongolic languages 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 88, 89, 93, 94, 96
Turkic 40, 81, 83, 84, 85, 91, 94, 110, 111, 176
Amdo Turkic 82, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 92, 94
Common Turkic 92, 94, 95
Old Turkic 5, 90, 91, 95
Siberian Turkic languages 203, 218
Turkish dial 110
Turkmen (Turkic) 110
Tuvan, Standard Tuvan (Turkic) 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 200n1
Altai Tuvan 3, 200, 201, 202
Tere-Khöl varieties 200n1
Tozhu, Toju variety of Tuvan 1–11 passim, 200n1
Tuvan dialects 2, 3, 11
Uralic 230, 231
Uyghur (Turkic) 85, 88
Old Uyghur 107, 175
Modern Uyghur 187, 197
Uyghur-Uriankhay, Uyghur-Uryankhay Tuhan
Uzbek (Turkic) 110
Wutun 38–52 passim, 81
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