Liping Wang
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Cover illustration: Part of Zhong E jiao jie quan tu (Jun Hong, 1890 Guangxu 16 year), retrieved from the Library of Congress,

The Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available online at

LC record available at

Typeface for the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic scripts: “Brill”. See and download:

ISBN 978-90-04-51163-7 (hardback)

ISBN 978-90-04-51178-1 (e-book)

Copyright 2022 by Liping Wang. Published by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Brill Nijhoff, Brill Hotei, Brill Schöningh, Brill Fink, Brill mentis, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Böhlau and V&R unipress.

Koninklijke Brill NV reserves the right to protect this publication against unauthorized use. Requests for re-use and/or translations must be addressed to Koninklijke Brill NV via or

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