Index

In: Baghdād
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Index

Heads of state and church have the dates of their reigns in parenthesis. Historical figures are followed by their death date. Modern authors do not have any additional information. Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations.

Aba (fl. 7th cent.) 687
Aba I (r. 540-552) 130
Abālish (heretic) 773-775
Abān al-Lāḥiqī (d. ca. 815) 429, 431
Abaqa (r. 1265-1282) 11, 293, 301
Abate, E. 743n56
Abba Arikha (d. 247) 745
Abba ben Joseph bar Ḥama (Rava) (d. 352) 128-129
al-ʿAbbās (son of al-Maʾmūn) (d. 838) 160
ʿAbbāsid caliphs
in general 26-28
Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī on 826-827
burial places of 8, 76, 173
court of. ʿAbbāsid court
duration of reigns of 184-185, 185
(not) dying in Baghdād 47, 59, 98
harems of 414
influence on society of 411
Medinan scholars and 522-529
military activities of military activities
al-Miṣrī on 411
pilgrimages of 524-526
poetry and 428-429
privacy of 412
sharing rule with son(s)
in general 181
Hārūn al-Rashīd 155-156
al-Mahdī 153
al-Manṣūr 151-152
al-Muʿtaḍid 174
al-Muʿtaṣim 161-162
al-Mutawakkil 165
al-Muwaffaq 170-171
sponsoring by 82, 251, 412, 524, 525, 526, 538, 564, 574
as supreme commanders 146, 150
Ṭughril Beg and 231, 232-233
ʿAbbāsid dynasty/caliphate; ʿAbbāsid caliphs
ʿAbbāsid court
in general 26-28, 829
Baghdād’s prosperity and 317
boon companions at boon companions
caliphs at ʿAbbāsid caliphs
courtiers at 418-423
literary salons at 491-493
physicians at 713, 715, 718
poetry and 428-429
rivalry between bureaucrats and soldiers at 416-418
scholars/litterateurs at 440-441, 442
women at 413-415
ʿAbbāsid dynasty/caliphate
ʿAbbāsid dynasty/caliphate
administration of 233-234 ʿAbbāsid officials/bureaucrats
ʿAlids and 147, 158, 179n149, 267, 617-618
astronomy/astrology and 98-100, 466, 491, 539n14, 564, 580, 715
Ayyūbid dynasty and 268
Barmakid dynasty and 154, 416
Būyid dynasty and 202-203
Byzantine Empire and
in general 365
ʿAbbāsid campaigns against 154, 164, 176, 187, 342, 345-349
diplomatic exchanges between 352-353, 352, 356, 360-361, 409
intellectual competition between 350-351, 352-354, 356
mobility between 359
at Taurus frontier 345-349, 358
caliphs of ʿAbbāsid caliphs
Carolingian dynasty and
in general 371, 384
diplomatic missions between 372-378, 392-393
sources on 371-372
Christianity and 341-344, 355-356, 536
construction activities of construction activities
court of. ʿAbbāsid court
end of 267, 418, 423
founding of 143
golden age of 467-468
Ḥamdānid dynasty and 178
Ilkhanid dynasty and 267, 276-277, 278, 279, 289, 290
Khwārazm dynasty and 266-267, 288-289
legitimizing policies of 186
Mamluk dynasty and 292
military power of
of caliphs military activities
deprived of 232, 235-236
military personnel of military personnel/troops/armies
regaining of 236
palatial cities/complexes of palatial cities/complexes
regnal names in regnal names
religious policies of religious policies
revival of rule and authority of 173-174, 194, 228, 233-237, 265, 266, 280, 288
Saljūq dynasty and 227, 232-237
sources on 150-151, 265-266
succession in succession
Ṣūfī school of Baghdād and 636
Ṭāhirid dynasty and 167-168, 172, 176
Tang dynasty and 399-400
Turkish commanders and 162, 164-165, 167-169, 180, 237
ʿAbbāsid officials/bureaucrats
mobility of 259
payment of 419
poetry and 433-444
rise of 444
sponsoring by 251-252, 538
“ʿAbbāsid Palace” 90-91, 91
ʿAbbāsiyya Unit 154
Abbott, Nabia 523
ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd al-Kātib (d. 750) 443
ʿAbd al-Jabbār (d. 1025) 722
ʿAbd al-Malik (r. 685-705) 342
ʿAbd al-Masīḥ b. Buqayla (in Kūfa’s foundation story) 58
ʿAbd al-Muʾmin b. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq al-Baghdādī (d. 1339) 813-814
ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (d. 1165/1166) 252, 253, 678
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. al-Jawzī (d.1201) Ibn al-Jawzī
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Mahdī (d. 814) 601
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III (r. 912-961) 188
ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-Ṣanʿānī (d. 827) 601, 611
ʿAbd al-Wahhāb al-Mālikī (d. 1031) 31
ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. Zayd (d. 793) 641
ʿAbdallāh (envoy) 375
ʿAbdallāh b. Aḥmad (d. 903) 611
ʿAbdallāh b. al-Ḥusayn al-Khāṣibī (d. 957) 37
ʿAbdallāh b. Ibāḍ (fl. mid-8th cent.) 619
ʿAbdallāh b. al-Muʿtazz (d. 908) 175
ʿAbdallāh al-Mahdī (r. 909-934) 188
ʿAbdīshūʿ I (r. 963-986) 691, 707
ʿAbdīshūʿ II (r. 1074-1090) 699-700
ʿAbdīshūʿ III (r. 1138-1148) 700, 706
abnāʾ al-dawla (Sons of the Revolution) 28, 143, 153, 154, 156-157, 163
Abraham II (837-850) 695
Abraham III (906-937) 704
Abraham of Kashkar (d. 588) 684
Abū l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ (r. 749-754)
Abū l-ʿAbbās b. Surayj (d. 917) 217
Abū l-ʿAbbās (elephant) 375, 376, 393
Abū ʿAbdallāh b. Jarada (d. 1084) 251
Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Faḍlān (fl. 13th cent.) 747
Abū Aʿlā ʿUbayd Allāh (fl. 10th cent.) 693
Abū ʿAlī b. al-Bannāʾ al-Ḥanbalī (d. 1079) 229, 733, 746-747
Abū ʿAlī b. al-Rashīd (n.d.) 710
Abū ʿAlī Rajʾ b. Yazdānbakht (fl. 9th cent.) 775
Abū ʿAlī l-Rūdhabārī (d. 979) 670-671
Abū ʿAlī Saʿīd (fl. 8th cent.) 777
Abū l-ʿAtāhiya (d. 825) 432-433, 434-435, 442
Abū l-Bakhtarī Wahb b. Wahb (d. 815) 526-527
Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Thābit al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī
Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq (r. 632-634) 600
Abū l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī (d. 1164) 584, 757
Abū Bishr Mattā b. Yūnus (d. 940)
Baghdād School of Philosophers and 542n17, 547
influence on Arabic philosophy 537
inter-religious collaboration of 576
move to Baghdād of 536
pupils of 576, 719
al-Sīrāfī and 572, 577
Abū Faḍl al-Bayhaq (d. 1077) 204
Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī (d. ca. 971)
on ʿAbbāsid caliphs 826-827
on Baghdād 827-828
as boon companion 512
life of 511, 826
sponsoring of 512, 826
works of, Kitāb al-aghānī 201, 455, 511, 512, 826
Abū l-Farraj b. al-Ṭayyib (d. 1043) 714-715
Abū l-Fidāʾ Ismāʿīl b. Ayyūb al-Ḥamawī (d. 1331) 814-815
Abū Firās (d. 968) 361-362, 364
Abū Ḥāmid al-Marwarrūdhī (d. 973) 213
Abū Ḥanīfa (d. 767)
in general 32, 37, 601
shrine of
in general 8, 153, 251, 800-801, 800
school at 251, 255, 478, 800
Abū Ḥanīfa Madrasa (Baghdād) 251, 255, 478, 800
Abū l-Ḥasan Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Qaṭṭān (d. 970) 217
Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Hārūn b. ʿAlī b. Yaḥyā (d. 963/964) 420
Abū l-Ḥasan al-Qattān al-Shāfiʿī (d. 982) 218
Abū l-Ḥasan ʿUbayd Allāh b. Khāqān (d. 877) 450
Abū Ḥayyān al-Tawḥīdī (d. 1023) 449
Abū l-Hudhayl (d. 841/842) 619, 629-630, 721
Abū l-ʿIbar (d. ca. 866) 433
Abū ʿĪsā Yaḥyā b. al-Munajjim (d. 912) 717
Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm b. Aḥmad al-Marwazī (d. 951) 217
Abū Kālījār (r. 1044-1048) 230
Abū Maʿshār al-Sindī (d. 787 or 792) 526, 572-573
Abū Mikhnaf (d. 776) 443
Abū Muḥammad al-Muhallabī (d. 963) 201
Abū Mukhaffaf ʿĀdhir b. Shākir (d. after 833) 437
Abū Muslim (d. 755) 143, 147
Abū Naṣr Sābūr b. Ardashīr (d. 1025) 490
Abū Nuʿaym al-Iṣfahānī (d. 1038) 657, 677
Abū Nūḥ (d. ca. 800) 724
Abū Nuwās (d. 815) 441, 442
Abū l-Qāsim al-Kaʿbī (d. 931) 658
Abū l-Qāsim Yūsuf b. Aḥmad b. Kajj (d. 1014) 218
Abū Qurra, Theodorus (d. ca. 825) 576-577, 717, 718, 724
Abū Rāʾiṭa (d. ca. 830) 724
Abū Saʿd al-Mukharramī (d. 1119) 252
Abū Saʿīd (r. 1316-1335) 296
Abū Shujāʿ b. Barhām (d. 1126) 252
Abū Tammām (d. 845/846) 160, 347-348, 364, 436, 452
Abū Thawr (d. 854) 610
Abū ʿUbayd al-Buṣrī (d. 852/853 or later) 649
Abū ʿUbayda (d. 824) (philologist) 441
Abū l-Wafāʾ al-Muhandis al-Būzajānī (d. 998) 215, 220
Abū Yazīd al-Bisṭāmī (d. 874/875 or 877/878) 659, 660
Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb al-Kūfī (d.798) 37-38, 604, 691-692, 694
Abū Zakariyyāʾ Denḥā (d. 940) 717
Abū Zayd al-Anṣārī (d. 813) 441
abuse persecution/abuse/discrimination
Academy of Jundishapur 537, 562, 566
Achaemenid dynasty 111n2, 114-115, 116
action (ʿamal) 497
adab (cultural ideal)
in general 444, 497, 571
ʿilm and ʿamal and 497
literature 449, 450, 497-498, 826-832
Ādābʿāliml-mutaʿallim (The Rules of Conduct for Teachers and Students) 495-496
Ādāb al-dunya wa-l-dīn (The Ethics of this World and of Religion) (al-Māwardī) 498
al-Adab al-kabīr (The Great Code of Conduct) (Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ) 443
adab al-mulūk (Mirror of Princes) 497-498
Adam, creation of 609-610
Adams, Robert 132-133, 320-326, 327-329, 330
Ademar of Chabannes (fl. 11th cent.) 379
ʿAdhaym River 132
adībs (men of letters), concept of 444 scholars/litterateurs
administration of Baghdād
Ilkhanid
factional strife and 300
governors of 292, 293, 295, 296, 297-298, 299
judicial system 299
religious bureaucracy 298-299
structure of 292, 297-300
urban development of Baghdād
Ado of Vienne (fl. 9th cent.) 376
ʿAḍud al-Dawla (r. 949-983)
construction activities of 10, 219
Ibn Yumn and 717
inviting doctors to Baghdād 220, 567
physician of 713
religious policies of 694
sponsoring by 213
mention of 201, 484n40
ʿAḍudī Hospital (Baghdād) 7, 219-220, 252, 715, 820
African slaves (Zanj) 171, 329, 428
afterlife 551-552
Agent Intellect 551
Aghlabid dynasty 347, 358
agriculture
in Asoristan 132-133
in Baghdād’s hinterland
in general 1, 132-133, 302-303, 316
during ʿAbbāsid rule 329-330
climate change and 330-334
crops cultivated in 328
decline in 326, 329-330, 334
Islam and 327-328
pastoralism and 334-335
in Samarran period 322-323
in Sasanian period 324-327, 329, 334
al-Aḥkām al-sulṭāniyya (The Ordinances of Government) (al-Māwardī) 498
ahl al-ithbāt (The People of Affirmation) 624
ahl al-kitāb (The People of the Book) 692
Aḥmad b. Būya Muʿizz al-Dawla
Aḥmad b. ʿĪsā (d. ca. 854) 36-37
Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā (fl. 10th cent.) 420
Aḥmad Tegüder (r. 1282-1284) 295
Aḥsan al-taqāsīm (The Best of Divisions) (al-Maqdisī) 818
aides-mémoire 476
ʿĀʾisha bt. Abī Bakr (d. 678) 611
ʿAjāʾib al-makhlūqāt (The Marvels of Creation) (Qazwīnī) 307
al-ʿAkawwak (d. 828) 434
akhbār (short narratives) 428
AkhbārBaghdād (The Reports about Baghdād) (Nathan the Babylonian) 734
Akhbārṭārikat kursī l-mashriq (The History of the Oriental Patriarchs) (ʿAmr b. Mattā) 229
Akhbārṭārikat ī l-mashriq (The History of the Oriental Patriarchs) (Mārī b. Sulaymān) 229
Akhbār Ṣīn wa-l-Hind (The Accounts of China and India) (Sulaymān) 401
Akhlāq al-wazīrayn (The Morals of the Two Viziers) (al-Tawḥīdī) 201
Akhlāṭiyya Hospice (Baghdād) 272
Akpınar, Mehmetcan xxxvii, 521-529
alchemists/alchemy 345n22, 583
Alexander the Great (Dhū l-Qarnayn) 53, 61, 63
Alexandria 61, 62, 63, 544
Alflayla (One Thousand and One Nights) 371-372, 512
al-Ali, Nawar 102
al-Ali, Saba 102
ʿAlī b. al-ʿAbbās al-Majūsī (d. 994) 220, 567
ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (d. 661) 270, 485, 598, 600-602, 612
ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. Hibat Allāh (fl. 13th cent.) 81
ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā l-Asṭurlābī (fl. 9th cent.) 564
ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā b. al-Jarrāḥ (d. 946) 415, 419, 636, 719, 754
ʿAlī b. ʿῙsā l-Rummānī (d. 994) 213
ʿAlī b. al-Jahm (d. 863) 432, 434
ʿAlī b. Muḥammad (d. 893) 171
ʿAlī b. Riḍwān (d. ca. 1061) 572
ʿAlī b. Yaqtīn (d. 798/799) 618
ʿAlī l-Riḍā (d. 818) 158, 179n149, 617, 618
ʿAlids
in general 244
ʿAbbāsid dynasty and 147, 158, 179n149, 267, 617-618
shrines of 76
al-ʿAllāma l-Ḥillī (d. 1325) 305
Allard, Michel 706, 707-708
Allen, Terry 76
Almagest (Ptolemy) 561, 562, 563
Alshaar, Nuha xxxvii, 194-222
Amājūr family 563
al-Aʿmash (d. 765) 601
ʿAmīd al-ʿIrāq (d. 1058) 251
al-Muntaṣir bi-llāh (r. 861-862)
accession to rule of 156
administrative/military education of 156
military activities of 157, 183
mother of 43, 413-415
poetry and 429
religious policies of 618
succession of 9, 26, 156-157, 416
amīr al-umarāʾ (chief emirs) 196
Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali 603
ʿAmmār al-Baṣrī (fl. ca. 850) 724
Amorion 160, 347-348, 348
ʿAmr b. Mattā (fl. 14th cent.) 229, 687
ʿAnan Ben David (d. ca. 795) 739
ʿAnanites 739
Anatolia, Muslim campaigns into 160, 342, 345-349, 358, 363
anatomical dissections 567
Anbār 145
Anbārī Mosque Quarter (Baghdād) 8-9
Andragoras (Narsinka) 115
Angilram (d. 791) 374
animals, water-carrying 72
Anklesaria, Behramgore 327
Annales Stadenses (Annals of Stade) 380
annihilation with God (fanāʾ) 651, 659, 660-661, 675
Ansāb al-ashrāf (The Genealogies of the Nobles) (al-Balādhurī) 453
anthologies 451-452
anthropomorphism (tashbīh) 609-610, 612, 613
anti-Christian measures Christians
anti-Christian riots 710-711
Antioch 111-112n2, 131-132 Vēh Antioch Khosrow/al-Rūmiyya
apocalyptic traditions 341
apodictic proof (burhān) 582
apologetical treatises
anti-Christian 720-723, 726
pro-Christian 723-725, 726, 779-781
pro-Jewish 726, 754
Arabian Nights 371-372, 512
Arabic, use of term 532, 534n6
Arabic language
geographical studies in 389-392
grammar of 452, 501, 503
study of 216
vocabulary of 440, 541
Arabic script 769
Arabo-Islamic culture 439-440, 450, 467
Arameans 137
arcades (ṭāqāt) 70
archaeological field survey 320-322
architecture
in Baghdād 22, 66, 93-94, 815 constructions
in Cairo 93-94
Ardashīr I (r. 224-239/240) 63, 67, 115, 127, 128
Ardashīr-Khurra (Fīrūzābād) 128
Ardavan IV (r. ca. 213-224) 115
Arethas of Caesarea (d. ca. 939) 360
Arghun (r. 1284-1291) 295, 301
ʿArīb al-Maʾmūniyya (d. ca. 880) 34
ʿArīb al-Qurṭubī (d. ca. 980) 151, 791
Aristotelian philosophy Aristotle, theories of
Aristotle (d. 322 BCE)
theories of
on aether 555, 584
criticism on 573, 584-585
erroneously attributed to 585-586
on eternity of material world 585
on happiness 552-553
on logic 581
on matter and form 584-585
works of
Metaphysics 543, 547, 549, 550
Nicomachean Ethics 551
Organon 543, 548, 716, 719
Physics 542
Posterior Analytics 543, 582
On the Soul 551
Topoi 691
Arjawān (d. 1118) 253
armies military personnel/troops/armies
Arsaces (Ashk) I (r. ca. 247-ca. 211 BCE) 115
Arsacid dynasty 115
The Art of Organ Building (Audsley) 372
art production
in Baghdād
in general 93-94
books book production/trade
calligraphy 76-80, 77, 204
manuscripts illustrated manuscripts from Baghdād; Qurʾān production in Baghdād
textiles 87-88, 302, 319
in Cairo 94
arwāḥ (human spirits) 651, 661 human souls
Asad, Talal 474n4
Aṣbagh al-ʿIbādī Church (Baghdād) 705
al-Ashʿarī, Abū l-Ḥasan (d. 936) 39, 507, 629, 672 Ashʿarism/Ashʿarites
Ashʿarism/Ashʿarites
Ḥanbalism/Ḥanbalīs and 240
Muʿtazilism/Muʿtazilīs and 216, 574n49
policies favoring 258
resurgence of 480
Saljūq dynasty and 243, 244, 258, 480
technical kalām of 629
al-Ashʿarī, Abū l-Ḥasan
Ashinās, Abū Jaʿfar (d. 844) 159
ʿĀshiq Palace (Sāmarrāʾ) 170, 170
Ashmūnī Monastery (Qaṭrabbul) 708, 710
ʿAskar al-Mahdī (al-Mahdī’s Camp) al-Ruṣāfa
al-Aṣmaʿī (d. 828) 441
Asoristan
agriculture in 132-133
inhabitants of 137
irrigation in 132-134
map of 133
Aspānbūr (quarter of Ctesiphon) 124-127, 137
astrolabes 60, 564
astrology
astronomy and 560
cessation of practice of 101
in city planning 59, 62, 98-101, 466
ikhtiyārāt (choices) branch of 100
Indian influence on 3n12, 100, 101, 561
status of 351, 549, 559n36
translations of works on 539
validity of 563-564
works used in 561
astronomers/astrologers
astronomers/astrologers
in general 558-559
Christian 715
education of 561-562
Jewish 753
observations by astronomy
philosophy and 557, 559, 563
scientific polymathy of 571-572
status of 559-560
astrology; astronomy; observatories; astronomers/astrologers
astronomical tables (zījāt/zīj) 99-100, 562, 564, 580
astronomy
observations in 562-563, 564, 580, 582-583
physical principles in 563
practical implications of 560
Ptolemaic 387-388, 559
religion and 560
works used in 561
al-Āthār al-bāqiya ʿan al-qurūn al-khāliya (al-Bīrūnī) 767
Āthār al-bilād wa-akhbār al-ʿibād (The Monuments of the Regions and Traditions about Human Beings) (al-Qazwīnī) 812
al-Atharī l-Baghdādī, Muḥammad Bahjat 830
al-ʿAtīq Monastery (Baghdād) 705
al-ʿAttābiyya (neighborhood of Baghdād) 87
attacks
on Baghdād
in general 231, 236, 278-279, 290-292
restoration after 292 construction activities, Ilkhanid
on Constantinople 342, 344
on Irbil 268, 276
ʿAṭṭār, Farīd al-Dīn (d. 1221) 656, 657
ʿAwārifmaʿārif (The Knowledge of the Spiritually Learned) (al-Suhrawardī) 507
ʿAwf b. al-Muḥallim (d. 835) 432
ʿayyārūn (young men’s gangs) 208-210, 241-242 futuwwa groups; gangs
Ayyūbid dynasty 268
Ayyuhā l-walad (O Disciple) (al-Ghazālī) 506
Azhar Mosque (Cairo) 486
al-ʿAzīz (r. 975-996) 486, 687
Bāb al-Azaj (neighborhood of Baghdād) 239
Bāb al-Baṣra (neighborhood of Baghdād)
in general 7
Ḥanbalīs in 239
Sunnī community in 8, 39, 240
tensions between al-Karkh and 208-209, 240, 710-711
Bāb al-Dhahab (Golden Gate Palace) (Baghdād) 3, 71, 73-74
Bāb al-Ḥadīd (neighborhood of Baghdād) 707
Bāb al-Ḥarb Cemetery (Baghdād) 239
Bāb al-Ḥarb (neighborhood of Baghdād) 6, 28, 146
Bāb al-Marātib (neighborhood of Baghdād) 239
Bāb al-Muḥawwal Church (Baghdād) 708
Bāb al-Muḥawwal (neighborhood of Baghdād) 6 735, 11, 293, 812
Bāb al-Ṭāq (neighborhood of Baghdād) 246-247
Babai the Great (d. 628) 684, 687
Babylon 113, 118, 381, 382
Babylonia
as center of Manichaeism 776-777
Jewish community in 731-733
Badīʿ al-Zamān al-Hamadhānī (d. 1007) 456
Badr al-Dīn Luʾluʾ (d. 1259) 268-269
Bagaʾdāta’s estates 1-2
Baghdād
ʿAbbāsid dynasty and ʿAbbāsid dynasty
administration of administration of Baghdād
agriculture around agriculture
architecture in architecture
art in art production
attacks on/sieges of attacks
Būyid dynasty and Būyid dynasty
as center
of ʿAbbāsid Empire 24, 172
of Būyid dynasty 198-199
of Islamicate World 633
of the universe 387-388
of world Shīʿī traditionalism 614-616
as circular shaped 102
climate of 331-334
diplomatic missions to diplomatic missions
emergence of 1-2
employment in 31-34 occupations and industries
faiths in specific faiths
famines in 207, 330-333
gates of gates
geographical location of 54
hinterland of hinterland of Baghdād
human experience of 786-787
idealization of 20, 371, 466-468
as imagined city 785
inhabitants of inhabitants
intellectual life in knowledge production in Baghdād
judicial function of 24
in Latin texts 378-381
literary activities in literary activities in Baghdād
maps of maps
markets in markets in Baghdād
Mongol conquest of Mongol conquest
mosques in mosques
municipal authority 21-22
name of 1-2, 4-5, 48n3
natural disasters in natural disasters
navy construction in 295, 301
neighborhoods of neighborhoods/quarters of Baghdād
pictorial representations of 382
precursors of 111-112, 113 Ctesiphon
production in production in Baghdād
religious communities in specific religious communities
restoration after sack construction activities, Ilkhanid
as rival of Rayy 214
sack of attacks on Baghdād
Saljūq dynasty and Saljūq dynasty
segregation in 8-9, 25, 239
social/religious unrest in social/religious unrest
sources on sources
status of 4-5, 14, 19-20, 94, 297, 310
Tigris River and 1, 20, 238, 245
trade in trade in Baghdād
travel writing/writers on travel writing/writers
urban development of urban development of Baghdād
urbanity of urbanity of Baghdād
walls of walls
Baghdād School of Philosophers 542, 547, 557, 719
Baghdād. Sīrat Madīna (Wali) 785
Bahāʾ al-Dawla (r. 988-1012) 79, 204, 748
al-Bāhilī (d. 915) 721
Baḥīrā legend 52
Bahrām Chūbīn (r. 590- 591) 132
Bahrūz Ribāṭ (Baghdād) 251, 257
Baidu (fl. 13th cent.) 295-296
Bajkam al-Mākānī, Abū l-Ḥusayn (d. 941) 178, 196
Bakhtīshūʿ family 220, 565, 566, 713
al-bakkāʾūn (The Weepers) 648
al-Bakrī, Abū ʿUbayd (d. 1094) 808
al-Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā (d. 892)
on Baghdād 50, 789
as boon companion 165, 789
life of 789
works of 50, 453, 789
Balʿamī (d. 997) 144
baldachinus/baldakinus 380
Balkuwārā Palace (Sāmarrāʾ) 164
Banafshā (d. 1201) 34, 253
banking sector 320, 747
Banū Jahīr 234-235
Banū Khafāja 236
Banū Munajjim 420
Banū Mūsā brothers (fl. 9th cent.) 563
baqāʾ (subsistence in God) 651, 660-661, 675
al-Bāqillānī (d. 1013) 216, 722
Bar Hebraeus (d. 1286) 266, 287, 688, 703
Barāthā Mosque (Baghdād) 12, 178
al-Barbahārī (d. 941) 623
Bardas Skleros (d. 991) 362
Barīdī family 195, 196-197
barley 328, 333
Barmakid family 154, 416
al-Barqānī, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Khwārizmī (d. 1034) 494
al-Barqī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad (d. 887) 613-614, 616, 624
Barsauma (d. 491) 684
Barthélemy, A. 774
al-Basāsīrī, Abū l-Ḥārith Arslān (d. 1059/1060) 37, 231
Bāshahrā Monastery (hinterland of Baghdād) 708
Basharin, Pavel xxxvii, 239, 629, 633-678
Bashshār b. Burd (d. 784) 429, 440-441, 501
Basil I (r. 867 to 886) 354
Basil II (r. 975-1025) 362
al-Baṣīr, Yūsuf (fl. 11th cent.) 757
Baṣra
birth of Arabo-Islamic culture in 439-440
Brethren of Purity in 218
as center of Shīʿī traditionalism 614-615
as center of trade 401
foundation legends of 52
grammar school of 452, 501
Ibāḍī education centers in 487
Mirbad of 440
Baṣra Gate (neighborhood of Baghdād) Bāb al-Baṣra
al-Baṣrī, Abū ʿAbdallāh (d. 980/981) 218
al-Baṣrī, Abū l-Ḥusayn (d. 1044) 722
The Bathers (al-mughtasila) 767
bathhouses (ḥammāms) 17, 829
al-Battānī (fl. 9th cent.) 563
Baybars (r. 1260-1277) 292
al-Bayhaqī (d. 1066) 401, 718
Bayt al-Ḥikma (The House of Wisdom) (Baghdād) 447-448, 488-490, 577-578
al-Bazzāz, Abū Ḥamza (d. 883 or 902) 653, 663-664
beauty, God as manifestation of 668
Beckwith, Christopher 103
Bedouins 303, 431, 440
belts, zunnār 694-695
Benjamin of Tudela (d. 1173)
on Baghdād 247, 380
on Jewish community in Baghdād
in general 820
exilarch 740
security of 752
size of 736
synagogues 736
travels of 734, 818-819
works of, Sefer ha-massaʿot 819
mention of 230
Bennett, David xxxvii, 629-632
Bernardus Monachus (fl. 865) 379
Bertha, daughter of Lothair II (d. 925) 385-386
Bet Rabbenu shebbe-Bavel (The House of Our Master in Babylonia) 745-746
Bibliotheca (The Library) (Photios) 351-352
Bickerman, E. 111-112n2
al-Bidāya wa-l-nihāya (The Beginning and the End) (Ibn Kathīr) 229, 266, 803
al-Bilālī, Masʿūd (d. after 1155) 236, 243
biographical dictionaries
in general 229-230
of Ibn al-Fuwaṭī 286
of al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī 35, 50-51, 199, 229, 500, 513, 735, 796
Biran, Michal xxxviii, 285-310, 458
al-Bīrūnī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad (d. 1048)
as astronomer 220, 221
on astronomy 563
on horoscope for Madīnat al-Salām 98-100, 99, 100
Ibn Sīnā and 573
on Indian astrological sources 101
on Manichaeans 776
works of 767, 776
Bishr b. Ghiyāth al-Marīsī (d. 833/834) 489
Bishr b. Marwān (d. ca. 694) 689
Bishr b. al-Muʿtamir (d. 825) 720-721
Bishr al-Ḥāfī (d. 840-842) 636, 638, 644-645, 649
Bishriyya Madrasa (Baghdād) 90-91, 91
Bisṭāmī Ribāṭ (Baghdād) 257, 258
Bivar, A. 123
Bladel, Kevin van 3, 3n12
The Blamers (al-malāmatiyya) 634, 671
Blois, François de 767
boat-bridges 238, 238, 245, 253
Bonner, Michael 154, 174
The Book of Pure Good (al-Kindī) 541, 550, 585-586
book production/trade 31, 33, 78, 302, 445, 484, 538-539 Qurʾān production in Baghdād
booksellers (warrāqūn/warrāq) 78, 218, 221, 493
Bookseller’s Market (Sūq al-Warrāqīn) (Baghdād) 31, 217-218, 445, 446, 446, 451
bookshops 31, 445, 493
boon companions (nadīms) 165, 420-422, 421, 422, 451, 512, 687, 719, 789, 792
Borgia Map 383
Borrut, Antoine 143n3
Bosworth, C. Edmund 154
Böwering, Gerhard 653
Brethren of Purity (Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ) 218, 547, 552
bridges
in Baghdād
boat-bridges 238, 238, 245, 253
Katah Bridge 819
Maude Bridge 433
poetry performances at 432-433
in Sasanian Ctesiphon 124
Brüll, N. 736n20
Būghā l-Kabīr al-Turkī (d. 862) 164
al-Buḥturī (d. 897) 452
al-Bukhalāʾ (The Book of Misers) (al-Jāḥiẓ) 28, 229
al-Bukhārī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl (d. 870) 500-501, 606, 612
Bulgars 343, 346, 357, 359
Bulliet, Richard W. xxxviii, 316-335
Bulughan Khātūn (d. 1286) 293, 296
al-Bundārī (d. 1245) 229
Būrān (wife of al-Maʾmūn) (d. 884) 159, 173
bureaucrats ʿAbbāsid officials/bureaucrats; Saljūq officials/bureaucrats
al-Burjumī (fl. 11th cent.) 22
al-Bursuqī, Āqsunqur (d. 1126) 236
Busse, Heribert 214
Būyid dynasty
ʿAbbāsid caliphate and 202-203
Baghdād as centre of 198-199
construction activities of construction activities
court of 829
Daylamites and 205
establishment of 197, 202, 203
inhabitants of Baghdād and 202
knowledge production during knowledge production
legitimizing policies of 202-203, 204, 213
military personnel of military personnel/troops/armies
palatial cities/complexes 10-11, 219, 810
religious policies of 36, 198, 202, 623, 649
revival of Persian culture by 203-205, 454
social framework of 205
social/religious unrest during reign of 206-210, 221-222, 230-231, 454
sources on 199-200
sponsoring by sponsoring
tensions within 214-215
Byzantine Empire
in general 339
ʿAbbāsid dynasty and
in general 365
ʿAbbāsid campaigns against 154, 164, 176, 187, 342, 345-349
diplomatic exchanges between 352-353, 352, 356, 360-361, 409
intellectual competition between 350-351, 352-354, 356
mobility between 359
at Taurus frontier 345-349, 358
ancient knowledge, transmitting of 350-351
Chalcedonian Christians and 684
epic poems of 363-364
Ḥamdānid dynasty and 362
Islam and 340-341, 355-356, 357
loss of territory of 342, 349, 363
map of 343
religious controversy within 349, 354-355
Saljūq dynasty and 363
Sasanian dynasty and 116-117
sponsoring in 353-354
Umayyad dynasty and 341-345
western occupation of 363
specific Emperors
Cairo
architecture of 93-94
art production in 94
genizah documents from 733, 749, 750
mosques in 486
Caliphal Mosque (Jāmiʿ al-Qaṣr) (Baghdād) 10, 174, 239, 251, 293, 294, 308, 476
calligraphers 78-80
calligraphy 76-77, 77, 80, 204
canals/waterways
in Baghdād 794, 807
in Baghdād’s hinterland 122, 132-134, 302-303
repair of 219, 220
canon law 685, 698-699
Cardini, Franco 387
carnal souls 639-640
Carolingian dynasty
ʿAbbāsid caliphate and
in general 371, 384
diplomatic exchanges between 372-378, 392-393
sources on 371-372
interest in the East of 377-378
Jerusalem and 377
protectorate of Palestine and 372-373
cathedrals 340, 351, 360
catholicos, East Syrian
authority of 739
investiture diplomas of 689, 699-701
as leader of other Christian churches 700, 702
relations with caliphs of 691, 692-693
residence/see of
in Baghdād 39, 138, 690-691, 709
in Sāmarrāʾ 695
in Vēh Ardashīr 129-130, 685
succession of
government intervention in 686-687, 689-690
vacancies in 689, 695
East Syrian Church; under specific catholicos
Cefu yuangui (The Magic Mirror for Document Storage) 399
celestial realm 555-557
cemeteries in Baghdād
Bāb al-Ḥarb Cemetery 239
Khayzurān Cemetery 8, 152-153, 239
Quraysh Cemetery 6, 36
Shūnīziyya Cemetery 306
sources on 797, 827
Zoroastrian 2
centrality, topos of 50
ceramics 401-402, 421
Chacha, H.F. 774
Chalcedon, Ecumenical Council of 683
Chalcedonian Christians 684, 689
chamberlains (ḥājibs) 243
Charlemagne (r. 768-814)
Hārūn al-Rashīd and
in general 371, 378, 384
first mission 374-375
second mission 375-377
sources on 374
interest in the East of 377-378
legend about voyage to Jerusalem 379
chief emirs (amīr al-umarāʾ) 196
chief financial administrator (ṣāḥib al-dīwān) 292, 293, 297, 298, 299
chief judges judges
chief judges (qāḍī l-quḍāt) 24, 255, 292, 505, 765
China 401-403, 691
Chinggis Khan (r. 1206-1227) 288n13, 289
Chrétiens syriaques sous les Abbasides surtout à Bagdad (749-1258) (Fiey) 688
Christian communities
in Baghdād Christian communities in Baghdād
in Seleucia-Ctesiphon 129-130, 683
in Vēh Ardashīr 129-130, 685, 709
Christian communities in Baghdād
in general 306-307
catholicate in 39, 138, 690-691, 709 catholicos, East Syrian
churches churches
monasteries monasteries
in qaṭīʿat al-Naṣārā (neighborhood) 706, 707, 710
religious festivals of 24, 709-710
in al-Shammāsiyya (neighborhood) 8, 39-40, 705
size of 711
sources on 687-688
Christianity; Christians
Christianity
ʿAbbāsid dynasty/caliphate and 341-344, 355-356, 536
conversion to, of Muslims 712-713
dyophysitism vs. miaphysitism within 683-685, 686
East Syrian Church East Syrian Church
Islamic attacks on 720-723, 725-726
philosophy and 554-555
rise of 339
Sasanian dynasty and 683, 685-686
split within 357
trinity in 554-555, 723-724
Christian communities in Baghdād; Christians; Iconoclasm
Christian-Muslim Relations. A Bibliographical History (eds. Thomas et al.) 688
Christians
in general 726-727
banned from administration 695, 696
conversion to Islam of 696, 711-712, 723
dress codes for 693, 694-696, 698
Jewish openness towards 756-757
knowledge production by knowledge production in Baghdād
list of self-imposed obligations 697
military service of 693
occupations of
in general 713
astronomers/astrologers 539n14, 715
court physicians 713-715, 718
philosophers 719-720
restrictions concerning 713
translators 718-719
persecution/abuse of 307, 693-696
as prisoners of war 8, 705, 706-707
riots against 710-711
as slaves 693, 695
status of 691-692, 693
taxation of 303, 692, 693, 697, 701
Christian communities in Baghdād; Christianity; under specific Christians
Christopherus (r. 959- 967) 704
Chronicle of Fredegar 373
Chronicle of Seʿert 686, 698
Chronicon (Bar Hebraeus) 266, 688
The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque (Griffith) 688
Church of the East East Syrian Church
churches (buildings)
in Baghdād
building of 694
destruction of 689, 710-711
of East Syrian Church 705, 706
in al-Karkh 708
of Melkite Christians 705, 706
periods of use of 708-709
in Sasanian Ctesiphon 124-125
in Vēh Ardashīr 130
circularity of cities
of Ardashīr-Khurra (Fīrūzābād) 128
of Baghdād 102
as literary constructions 104-105
of Madīnat al-Salām 53-54, 67, 102-105, 803-804, 826, 832
of al-Manṣūriyya 188
of Sasanian Ctesiphon 67
of Vēh Ardashīr 63, 128, 138
Citadel (or Fortress) of Garondagan 131
cities
astrology in planning of 59, 62, 98-101, 466
gates to gates
grid of 53-54, 61-62
shapes of
circular circularity of cities
horseshoe form 103, 147
as literary constructions 104-105
octogonal 155
oval 104, 105, 106, 118, 128n90
citrus trees 331, 333
City of Peace Madīnat al-Salām
Civil War, ʿAbbāsid (813) 9, 26, 48n5, 156-157, 416
Civil War, First (680-692) 689
clepsidras (water clocks) 372
climate
in Baghdād 331-334
change of 330-331
cloak of the Prophet 412
Cobb, Paul 164
cognition (maʿrifa) 646, 654, 656, 657, 661, 669-670 knowledge
Cohen, Mark 697
coin minters 746-747
coins 171, 232, 233, 341, 468, 621
minting of 166, 249, 300, 319, 746
Colpe, Carsten 767
commentaries 542-543, 547, 586-587
commerce trade
commercial tax (tamgha) 299, 303
Companions (ṣaḥāba) 612-613
concubines 253
Conrad, Lawrence 701
Constantine I (r. 306-337) 339
Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (r. 913-959) 361
Constantine/Cyril (d. 869) 356-357
Constantinople
in general 339-340
attacks on 342, 344
cathedrals at 340, 351, 358
destruction of 363
inhabitants of 359
mosques in 344, 355
construction activities
of ʿAbbāsid dynasty
in general 4, 149, 251
correlation between military activities and 153, 155, 161, 165, 168, 173, 176-177, 181-187
duration of reigns and 184-185, 185
financing of 184
Hārūn al-Rashīd 154-155, 182
al-Mahdī 12, 74, 152, 789, 802
al-Maʾmūn 10, 159, 185
al-Manṣūr al-Manṣūr
al-Muktafī 10, 174, 183, 194
al-Muqtadī 11, 251
al-Muqtadir 176-177
al-Mustaḍīʾ 251
al-Mustaʿīn 14, 168, 169, 182
al-Mustanjid 251
al-Mustanṣir al-Mustanṣir bi-llāh
al-Mustarshid 269
al-Mustaẓhir 14-15, 251, 269
al-Muʿtaḍid 10, 173, 182, 491
al-Muʿtamid 170
al-Muʿtaṣim 121, 161, 182
al-Mutawakkil 164-165, 182
al-Muʿtazz 14, 168
al-Muwaffaq 171, 182
al-Nāṣir al-Nāṣir li-Dīn Allāh
al-Qāʾim bi-Amr Allāh 251
al-Saffāḥ 145, 183, 184
al-Wāthiq bi-llāh 162
of Būyid dynasty
ʿAḍud al-Dawla 10, 219
Fakhr al-Dawla 221
Muʿizz al-Dawla 10, 219, 706
palatial cities/complexes 10-11
craftsmen for 32
during Ilkhanid rule
in general 292, 293, 300, 310
Ghazan 301, 303
Juwaynī, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn 37, 301, 302-303
of military commanders 188, 243
of Saljūq dynasty 11, 245-249
of Sasanian dynasty 124, 125, 125, 126, 127, 128
sources on 789, 795, 800-801, 802-803, 804, 810
Contra legem Sarracenorum (Against the Law of the Saracens) (Riccoldo da Montecroce) 306
conversions
to Christianity, of Muslims 712-713
to Islam
of Christians 696, 711-712, 723
of Jews 757
of Zoroatrians 773-775
cooking 33
Cooperson, Michael 48n5, 50, 217, 467, 468
Corpus Hermeticum (Hermes Trismegistus) 539
cotton textiles 87, 319
courtiers, at ʿAbbāsid court 418-423
courts
of ʿAbbāsid dynasty ʿAbbāsid court
of Ilkhanid dynasty 11, 293, 297
of Sasanian dynasty 135-136
covenant, primordial (mīthāq) 641, 651, 661
craftsmen/artisans 32, 78-80 illustrated manuscripts from Baghdād
Crassus (d. 53 BCE) 116
createdness/uncreatedness, of Qurʾān 488-489, 503-504, 507, 535n7, 606, 619, 631
Creswell, Keppel A.C. 67, 69, 70, 102, 118
Crusades 268, 363
Ctesiphon urban complex
in general 137
Christian communities in 129-130, 683
cities/villages in
Darzindan 123n62
Mabrakta 134
Parthian Ctesiphon Parthian Ctesiphon
Sasanian Ctesiphon Sasanian Ctesiphon
Seleucia Seleucia
Valāsh-Ābād 123, 137
Vēh Antioch Khosrow 131-132, 137
Vēh Ardashīr Vēh Ardashīr
decline of 138
Manichaeans at 766, 777
map of 120
neglect by royal family of 136
parallels with Baghdād 138
region surrounding 132-134, 137
social landscape of 134-136
currency reforms 277-278
Cyprus 343, 358
Cyriacus (fl. 7th cent.) 688
Cyril/Constantine 356-357
Cyrillic alphabet 357n74
Daeva Inscription 114
Dāha tribal confederation 114-115
dalāʾil al-nubuwwa (proofs of the prophethood) genre 721-722, 723
Damaghānī family 255
Damianos (d. 924) 359, 364
Daniel b. Eleazar (fl. 13th cent.) 744-745
Dār al-ʿIlm (The House of Knowledge) (Baghdād) 490
Dār al-Imāra (The Abode of the Emirate) (Baghdād) 11, 219
Dār al-Khilāfa (palatial city)
construction activities in 10, 173, 174, 176, 183
description of 797
founding of 10, 173
gates of 10
longevity of 184
nucleus of 155
as residence for ʿAbbāsid dynasty 9
walls of 269
mention of 27
Dār al-Mamlaka (The Abode of the Empire) (Baghdād) 11, 248, 249, 797
Dār al-Rūm/Dār al-Rūmiyyīn (The Abode of the Greek) (quarter of Baghdād) 705
Dār al-Sulṭān (The Abode of the Sultan) (Baghdād) 11, 249
Darabgerd (Dārābjird) 67
Darb al-ʿAwn (quarter of Baghdād) 708
Darb Dīnār Church (Baghdād) 706
Darb al-Qarāṭīs Church (Baghdād) 708
Darmālis Monastery (Baghdād) 706
date palms 331, 333
David of Dara (r. 762-774) 701
Dāwūd al-Ṭāʾī (d. between 777-782) 642
Daylamites 196, 197, 205, 206
Dayr Sābūr (monastery, hinterland of Baghdād) 828
Dayr Samālū (monastery, Baghdād) 828
De haeresibus (On Heresies) (John of Damascus) 344
De Materia Medica (Dioscorides) 502, 567, 579, 714
De virtutibus animae (About the Virtues of the Soul) (pseudo-Aristotle) 718
debates (munāẓarāt)
inner-Christian 717
inner-Islamic 488-489
inter-religious 576-577, 716-717, 720-721, 753-755, 756-757, 773-775
in private homes 218, 475
public 217-218, 475, 488-489
rejection of 607-608
scholarly sessions
decorations, of madrasas 90-91, 91
demonstrative proof 582
designation (naṣṣ) 598, 600
Dezong (r. 779-805) 400
Dhaʿfariyya (or Wasṭānī) Gate (Baghdād) 15, 16
al-Dhahabī (d. 1348) 229, 266, 485, 674, 739, 830
Dhayl tajārib al-umam (The Sequel to [Miskawayh’s] Experiences of the Communities) (al-Rūdhrāwarī) 199, 795
Dhayl Taʾrīkh Baghdād (The Sequel to [al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī’s] History of Baghdād) (Ibn al-Najjār al-Baghdādī) 801
dhikr (reciting God’s name) 605, 641
dhimmīs Christians; Jews
dhows 403
Dhū l-Nūn al-Miṣrī (d. 860) 641
Dhū l-Qarnayn (Alexander the Great) 53, 61, 63
Dialogues (Plato) 551
Diʿbil (d. 860) 428, 431, 432
dietetic traditions 569
Diez Album 279, 309
Digenis Akritas (epic poem) 363-364
al-Dīnawarī (d. 896) 145
Dīnāwariyya sect 776-777
Dionysius I of Tell Maḥrē (r. 818-845) 699, 701-702, 738
Dionysius Moses (r. 1112-1134) 703
Dioscorides (fl. 1st cent.) 82, 502, 567, 568, 579, 714
diplomatic missions
between ʿAbbāsid and Byzantine courts 352-353, 352, 356, 360-361, 407-409, 409, 410
between ʿAbbāsid and Carolingian dynasty 372-378, 392-393
of Carolingian dynasty to Jerusalem 377
death of envoys during 374, 375
gift-giving and 375
between Italian and Byzantine courts 409-410
pomp and circumstance during 407-410
disciples students/disciples
discrimination persecution/abuse/discrimination
discriminatory rules dress codes, for non-Muslims; poll tax
disputation (munāẓaras) debates
dissections, anatomical 567
districts neighborhoods/quarters of Baghdād
divine grace (khwarrah) 135
divine revelations, cycles of 598
Le Divisament dou Monde (The Partition of the World) (Polo) 382, 824
Diyāla Plains 320-322
Diyāla River 132
Dmitriev, Kirill xxxviii, 371-393
doctors physicians
domes 73-74, 91, 92
double peregrinations 674
doubts (shukūk) literature 584
Doukas, Andronikos (d. ca. 910) 359
Doukas, Constantine (d. 913) 359
dragons, on gates 92-93
dress codes, for non-Muslims 693, 694-695, 698, 739, 751
droughts 296
Du Huan (prisoner of war/writer) 400
Du You (d. 812) 400
dualistic religions 770
Dubays II (r. 1108-1135) 187, 236
Durkin-Meisterernst, Desmond xxxviii, 765-782
Durtā Monastery (Baghdād) 707
dyophysitism 683-685, 686
Early Modern Persian (Farsī) 769
earth vs. heaven 555-556
earthquakes 21, 239
East Syrian Church
in general 306, 688
ʿAbbāsid dynasty and 689-690
canon law of 685, 698-699
catholicos of catholicos, East Syrian
churches of 705, 706
councils of
in Chalcedon 683
in Jundishapur 684
in Seleucia-Ctesiphon 683
education of students in 709
founding of 683
hierarchy within 685
influences on 684-685
missionary activities of 691
monasteries of 707, 709
monastic vs. lay control of 686-687
patriarchal see of
in Baghdād 39, 138, 690-691
in Sāmarrāʾ 695
in Vēh Ardashīr 129-130, 683
Saljūq dynasty and 699-701
Sasanian dynasty and 685-687
schools established by 685
theological discord within 683-684
translation activities and 536-537, 565
Umayyad dynasty and 689
catholicos and bishops
Eastern Roman Empire Byzantine Empire
Ebstorf Map 382
Ecbatana (Hamadān) 115, 136
economic situation of Baghdād
during ʿAbbāsid rule 317-320
during Ilkhanid rule 295-296
ecstasy (ghalaba) 649, 656, 659-660, 667, 668, 669-670, 674-675
ecstatic utterances (shaṭḥiyyāt) 654-655, 665, 668, 669-670, 673
Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon 683
education
in general 512-513
of astronomers/astrologers 561-562
of Christian students 709
in East Syrian Church 685
elementary 494-495
higher higher education
humanistic concerns of 497-498
at Jewish academies 743-744, 744
master-disciple relationship in 558, 574-575
of philosophers 548-549
of physicians 220, 567
at private homes 709
al-Yaʿqūbī on 495
scholarly sessions; students/disciples; study circles; tutors/teachers
Eilers, Wilhelm 1-2
Einhard (d. 840) 374, 375, 377, 378
Eisagoge (Porphyry) 543, 548
El Cheikh, Nadia Maria 364
El Omari, Rachel 489n63
Elchazites 771-772
The Elect (khāṣṣ) 635
elementary education 494-495
Elements of Theology (Proclus) 541, 550
elephants 375, 376, 393
Elias II b. al-Muqlī (r. 1111-1132) 725
Elias III (1176-1190) 725
elites ʿAbbāsid officials/bureaucrats; Saljūq officials/bureaucrats
embassies diplomatic missions
employment in Baghdād 31-34 occupations and industries
engineers 136
Enneads (Plotinus) 541, 547
Enosh (r. 877-884) 725
epic poems 363-364
epistles (risālas) 558
Ernest, Carl 653
Ess, Josef van 489, 619, 624
essays (maqālas) 558
eternity, of material world 585
ethics 509, 552-553
eunuchs 414
Euphrates River 113, 122, 123, 133, 302-303
Europe and Islam. A History of Misunderstanding (Cardini) 387
Eutychios (r. 933-940) 695, 704
executions 127
exilarchate/exilarchs
authority of 731-732, 739-741
in Baghdād 738-741
conflicts over 738-739
geonim and 732, 740
rabbis and 731-732
residences of 39, 129, 247, 735
in Vēh Ardashīr 129, 138
experience (tajriba) 582-584
experimentation (iʿtibār) 583-584
express designation (naṣṣ) 598, 600
al-Fāḍil (The Exquisite) (al-Mubarrad) 451-452
al-Faḍl b. al-Furāt (d. 938) 577
al-Faḍl b. Ghānim (d. 850) 618
al-Faḍl b. al-Rabīʿ (d. 823/824) 154
al-Faḍl b. Sahl (d. 818) 416
al-Faḍl b. Yaḥyā l-Barmakī (d. 808) 76
faith, indivisibility of 609
Fakhr al-Dawla (r. 976-997) 214, 221
al-Fakhrī (The Glorious [History]) (Ibn al-Ṭiqṭaqā) 459
falāsifa/faylasūf philosophers
falsafa philosophy
famines 207, 330-333
fanāʾ (annihilation with God) 651, 659, 660-661, 675
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr (d. 950)
astrology and 549
Baghdād School of Philosophers and 542n17, 547
collaboration with Christians of 576
on experience and observation 583
as expert on Aristotelian thought 546, 587
on hylomorphism 585
immortality of the human soul and 552
originality of 587
philosophical vocabulary and 541
on philosophy and religion 533, 534n5, 554
scientific polymathy of 571
on theory of aether 584
works of 554, 558
al-Faraj baʿd al-shidda (The Deliverance Follows Adversity) (al-Tanūkhī) 200-201, 455
al-Farghānī (fl. early 9th cent.) 561, 563
al-Farrāʾ, Abū Zakariyyāʾ (d. 822) 503
al-Faṣīḥī l-Astarābādhī, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Abī Zayd (d. 1116 or 1122) 482
Fāṭima bt. al-Rāzī (d. 1127) 254
Fāṭimid imām-caliphs 598
Fattal, Antoine 694
al-Fazārī, ʿAbdallāh b. Yazīd (fl. 8th cent.) 487
female slaves (jāriyas) 34-35
festivals, Christian 24, 709-710
Fez 58
Fiey, Jean Maurice 119, 123n62, 128n90, 688, 703-704
fig trees 331, 333
al-Fihrist (The Catalogue) (Ibn al-Nadīm) 78, 419, 420, 493, 691, 736, 767, 777
al-Fihrist (The Catalogue) (al-Ṭūsī) 614
Firdaws al-ḥikma (The Paradise of Wisdom) (Rabban al-Ṭabarī) 567, 569
Firdawsī (d. ca. 1020) 204
fires 20-21, 238-239
The First Cause (al-sabab al-awwal) 551, 556
Fīrūzābād (Ardashīr-Khurra) 128
fitan/fitna (riots) social/religious unrest
floods 20, 237-238, 239, 289, 296, 300
Forstner, Martin 169, 173
The Forty-Two Martyrs of Amorion (Euodios) 347
foundation inscriptions 90
foundation legends
in general 47-49
of Alexandria 62, 63
in ancient Greece 61
of Baṣra 52
of Fez 58
historicity of 48-49
horoscopes in 59
of Kūfa 52, 58
of Madīnat al-Salām/Baghdād
in general 48-49, 62-64
astrology in 98-100, 101, 466, 753
Baghdād’s geographical location in 54
five iron gates in 60-61
as glorified image 104
historicity of 63
horoscopes in 59
Ibn al-Athīr on 56
influences on 61-62, 63
al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī on 53
al-Manṣūr in 52-53, 71
Miqlāṣ story in 55-56
monks in 56
prophecies in 55-56, 57, 98
protective talismans in 53, 60-61
reasons for founding in 52
region’s climate in 54-55
sources for 49-51
al-Ṭabarī on 51-53, 54-56, 103-104
al-Yaʿqūbī on 53, 54, 57, 102, 103-104
Yāqūt al-Hamawī al-Rūmī on 56-57
monks in 57-58
prophecies in 55-58, 62
of al-Rāfiqa 56
of Sāmarrāʾ 58
search for locations in 52
of Wāsiṭ 57-58
Frankish Annals (Annales Regni Francorum) 374, 376
Friday mosques in Bagdhād 11-13 Friday mosques
Fück, Johann W. 479n20
Fuḍayl b. ʿIyāḍ (d. 803) 645
Fūlād Sutūn (r. 1053-1062) 231
funerals 308, 525
Fusṭāṭ/Old Cairo 188
Futūḥ al-buldān (The Conquests of the Regions) (al-Balādhurī) 50, 453, 789
futuwwa groups
in general 29, 30, 208
reform of 269-270, 280
gangs
Gabriel (Jibrīl) 611
Gabriel b. Bakhtīshūʿ (d. 828) 713
Galen (d. ca. 216) 567, 569, 571, 718-719
gangs 208-210, 240, 241-242, 245 utuwwa groups
Gaozong (r. 649-683) 399
gardens in Baghdād 17
gates
of Baghdād
Muʿaẓẓam Gate 820
sources on 822
Talismān Gate 14, 15, 92, 93, 273, 273, 274
Wasṭānī Gate 15, 16
of Dār al-Khilāfa 10
dragons on 92-93
of Madīnat al-Salām 60-61, 69, 74
reuse of 60-61, 74
of Wāsiṭ 60, 74
Geikhatu (r. 1291-1295) 293
genizah documents 733, 743n56, 749, 750
Genoa 295, 301
geography 386, 388-392
Geography (Ptolemy) 389
geonim/gaon
duties of 744-745
exilarchs and 732, 740
outside influences on 741
George (abbot, envoy) 375
Georgius I (r. 758-790) 701
Ghadīr Khumm celebrations 36, 202
ghalaba (ecstasy) 649, 656, 659-660, 667, 669-670, 674-675
Ghanīma, Y.R. 737n32
ghazal (love lyrics) 429
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid (d. 1111)
ideas of 506-507
professor of Niẓāmiyya Madrasa 481, 506
systematizing Ṣūfī thought by 677-678
works of 497, 506
Ghazan (r. 1295-1304) 296, 301, 303-304
Ghiyāthiyya Madrasa (Baghdād) 251
Ghulām Khalīl (d. 888) 505-506, 636, 653, 656, 658, 663, 675
ghulāmiyyāt (page girls) 414
Gil, M. 746-747
Gīlān, people from Daylamites
Gilli-Elewy, Hend xxxvix, 265-281
Ginzā Rbā (The Great Treasure) 767
Gizistag Abālish (The Accursed Abālish) (anon.) 767, 773-775, 781
Gnosticism/Gnostics 40, 766-767 Mandaeism/Mandaeans
God
annihilation with 651, 659, 660-661, 675
celestial realm and 555, 557
existence of 550
as First Cause 551, 556-557
imitation of 551
incomparability of 672
joining with 655
knowledge of 654, 656, 657
love as gift from 644, 676
love for 648, 654, 657, 675
as manifestation of beauty 668
Muḥammad’s sighting of 610-612, 616-617
oneness of oneness of God
reciting the name of 605, 641
subsistence in 651, 660-661, 675
trust in 656-657, 662
Golden Gate Palace (Bāb al-Dhahab) (Baghdād) 3, 71, 73-74
gold-leaf production 746
goldsmiths 746
Gondeshapur Academy of Jundishapur
Gordon, Matthew 159
governors (shiḥna)
Mongol 292, 293, 295, 296, 297-298, 299
Saljūq 242-243
Grabar, Oleg 70n17, 84
grammarians 216, 452, 501, 503, 510
graves shrines/mausolea/tombs
Great Hall (of Khosrow II) 125-126, 815n140, 816
great halls īwāns
Greater Zab River 132
Greek Fire 344, 345
Greek Orthodox Church 684
Greek-Arabic translation movement translation activities
Gregory of Pherat (r. 605-609) 687
Griffith, Sidney 684, 688, 712, 716, 717, 720
Gruendler, Beatrice xxxvix, 426-437
Guangzhou 401-402
Günther, Sebastian xxxvix, 473-513
Gūr 67
Gutas, Dimitri 350
Güyük (r. 1246-1248) 290
Ḥabash al-Ḥāsib (d. after 869) 561, 563
al-Hādī (r. 785-786) 26, 153, 411, 713
al-Hādī, ʿAlī (d. 868) 619, 621
Ḥadīth Bayāḍ wa-Riyāḍ (The Story of Bayāḍ and Riyāḍ) 442
ḥadīths
in general 500-501
collections of
of Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal 610, 611-612
of al-Bukhārī 612
vs. kalām 602-603
Maʿrūf al-Karkhī’s knowledge of 643
predicting Baghdād 796
scholars in 497, 499, 500
Sharīʿa law and 604, 606
subordination of reason and 607-608
Hagia Sophia (Constantinople) 340, 351, 360
ḥājibs (chamberlains) 243
ḥajj (pilgrimage) 276, 289
al-Ḥajjāj b. Yūsuf (d. 714) 57-58, 74, 689, 766
al-Ḥākim (r. 1262-1302) 292
ḥalaqāt/ḥalqa study circles
Ḥalba (or Talismān) Gate 14, 15, 92, 93, 273, 273, 274
al-Ḥallāj (d. 922)
in general 664-665
death of 665, 666, 667, 675
doctrines of 665, 667, 674-675
Ibn ʿAṭāʾ and 667
Naṣr al-Qushūrī and 636
persecution of 665
reputation of 664
al-Shiblī and 669
teachers of 664
works of 665
Halm, Heinz 480
Hamadān (Ecbatana) 115, 136
al-Hamadānī, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 1127) 200
al-Ḥamāsa (The Valor) (al-Buḥturī) 452
Ḥamd Allāh al-Mustawfī Qazwīnī (d. 1349) 287, 815-816
al-Hamdānī, Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan (d. 945) 746
Ḥamdānid dynasty 178, 362
Ḥāmid b. ʿAbbās (d. 923) 210, 667
ḥammāms (bathhouses) 17, 829
Ḥanafism/Ḥanafīs
in Bāb al-Baṣra 239
on jurisprudence 37-38, 217, 255
madrasas of 255
Saljūq religious policies and 255
Ḥanbalism/Ḥanbalīs
ʿAbbāsid religious policies and 230, 271
activism of 240-241
on jurisprudence 38, 217, 256
madrasas of 251, 255-256, 478
persecution of 623
sponsoring by 252
hand bombs 241
happiness 551
Ḥarbiyya Mosque (Baghdād) 12-13
harems, caliphal 414
Ḥarīm al-Ṭāhirī Hospice (Baghdād) 272
al-Ḥarīrī Maqāmāt (al-Ḥarīrī) manuscripts
al-Ḥarīzī, Judah (d. 1225) 734, 745
Ḥarrān (Carrhae) 544, 564
Hārūn b. Yaḥyā (prisoner of war/writer) 391
Hārūn al-Rashīd (r. 786-809)
accession to rule of 153-154
administrative/military education of 153
Barmakid influence on 154
Byzantine emperors and 346
Charlemagne and
in general 371, 378, 384
first mission 374-375
second mission 375-377
sources on 374
Christian prisoners of war of 8, 705, 706-707
construction activities of 154-155, 182
death of 156
geographical studies and 389
al-Kisāʾī and 501, 503
military activities of 154, 346
al-Miṣrī on 411-412
modern myth of 371-372, 467
physician of 713
religious policies of 618, 694
residences of 9, 26, 103, 154-155
sharing rule with son(s) 155-156
succession of 101, 155-156, 416
Sufism and 636
Tang dynasty and 399
translation movement and 496
wife of 43, 413-415
Hārūnī Palace (Sāmarrāʾ) 162
al-Hārūniyya 155
al-Ḥasan al-ʿAskarī (d. 874) 616-617
al-Ḥasan b. Sahl (d. 850/851) 158
al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī (d. 728) 605
Ḥasan-i Buzurg Jalāyirī (r. 1336-1356) 297
Ḥasanī Palace (Baghdād) 159, 173
Hāshimites 244
al-Hāshimiyya 145, 184, 522-523, 524
al-Ḥawādith al-jāmiʿa li-l-miʾa l-sābiʿa (The Collected Events of the Seventh [i.e. 13th] Century) (anon.) 265-266, 286
Hayek, Michael 724
Ḥayya (son of Sherira ben Hananiah) 749, 750, 752
Ḥayya ben David (fl. end of 9th cent.) 733, 741
head police officer (ṣāḥibshurṭa) 243
heaven vs. earth 555-556
Hecatompylos (Simnān) 115
Heern, Z.M. 484n40
Heilo, Olof xxxvix, 339-365
Heimgartner, Martin 690
Heinrichs, W. 474n4
Ḥenanīshōʿ I (r. 686-693) 689
Ḥenanīshōʿ II (r. 773-780) 690
Heraclius (r. 610-641) 126, 340, 341n7, 341
herbal medicine 579, 579 pharmacology
heresy (zandaqa) 505-506, 568, 636, 653, 656, 663, 675
heretics (zanādiqa/zindīq) 767-768, 770-771, 773, 778
Herodotus (d. ca. 425 BCE) 114
Herzfeld, Ernst 15, 69, 70, 102, 104-105
Hibat Allāh b. al-Athradī (d. ca. 1080) 725
Hibat Allāh b. al-Tilmīdh (d. ca. 1165) 715
higher education
in general 474-475, 477
in Baghdād
in general 18-19, 473-475, 484
bookshops and 493
hospitals as sites for 490-491
at Ismāʿīlī centers 486-487
libraries and 488-490, 494
literary salons and 491-493
in madrasas madrasas in Baghdād
mosques as sites for 476
observatories as sites for 491
Shīʿī 485
shrines as sites for 478, 485
centers of
in general 475n6
Ibāḍī 487
Ismāʿīlī 486
forms of 475
materials used in 475-476
of women 476-477
scholars/litterateurs; students/disciples; tutors/teachers
al-Ḥilla 335
al-Ḥillī, al-ʿAllāma (d. 1325) 485
al-Ḥillī, Ṣafī l-Dīn (d. 1349) 427, 459
Ḥilyatawliyāʾ (The Decoration of the Saints) (Abū Nuʿaym al-Iṣfahānī) 677
hinterland of Baghdād (sawād)
agriculture in agriculture
canals/waterways/irrigation in 122, 132-134, 302-303
Islam and 327-328
monasteries in 708, 828
natural disasters in natural disasters
population decline in 330, 334
Qazwīnī on 303
settlement patterns in 320-327
sources on 827-828
Hippodamus (fl. 5th cent. BCE) 118
Hishām b. al-Ḥakam (d. ca. 795) 619
Hishām b. ʿUrwa (d. 763/764) 524, 529
historians 499, 500
historical legends foundation legends
Hodgson, Marshall 532n2, 599, 602, 603
honorific names/titles 171, 176, 179, 203, 655
horoscopes 59, 98-100, 99, 100
horseshoe form 103, 147
hospices (ribāṭs) Ṣūfī lodges in Baghdād
hospitals in Baghdād
in general 566, 578
ʿAḍudī Hospital 7, 219-220, 252, 715, 820
for the mentally ill 569n47, 820
sponsoring of 578
teaching and research at 490-491, 578-579
The Hostiles (al-nāṣiba) 600-601
hotels with storage-rooms (khāns) 16
The House of Our Master in Babylonia (Bet Rabbenu shebbe-Bavel) 745-746
House of Wisdom Bayt al-Ḥikma
Ḥudhayfa b. al-Yaman (d. 656) 127
al-Hujwīrī, ʿAlī (d. 1071 or 1077) 674, 675, 677
Hülegü (d. 1265) 278, 285, 290, 292, 293
human beings
agency of 630-631
knowledge and 506
place in cosmos 569, 586
souls of human souls
spirits of 651, 661
human souls (nafs)
carnal 639-640
immortality of 551-552
primordial covenant and 641
human spirits
human spirits (arwāḥ) 651, 661 human souls
Ḥumayd al-Ṭūsī (d. 825) 434
al-Ḥumaydī, Muḥammad (d. 1095) 717
humoral theory 569
Ḥunayn b. Isḥāq (d. 873) 540, 558, 565, 569, 571, 709, 718
Ḥusām al-Dīn (d. 1259) 290
al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (d. 680) 598, 619, 620
hylomorphism 584-585
Ibāḍism/Ibāḍīs 487
Iblīs (Satan) 665, 667
Ibn ʿAbbād, Ismāʿīl (d. 995) 200, 204, 215, 218
Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih (d. 940) 447n35
Ibn Abī l-ʿAzāqir (d. 934) 37
Ibn Abī Dhiʾb (d. 776) 528
Ibn Abī l-Dunyā (d. 894/895) 722
Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭayfūr (d. 893)
on debate between al-Kinānī and Bishr al-Marīsī 489n63
life of 450-451, 788
on literary salons 492
works of
Kitāb Baghdād 2n5, 50-51, 451, 489n63, 492, 788-789
Kitāb al-manthūr wa-l-manẓūm 451
sources used for 829
used as source 805, 808, 809
Ibn Abī Yaʿlā (d. 1131) 229, 606-607
Ibn Abī l-Zinād (d. 790) 526, 529
Ibn ʿAdī (d. 974) Yaḥyā b. ʿAdī
Ibn al-ʿAlqamī (d. 1258) 290, 482
Ibn al-ʿAmīd (d. 970) 214, 215
Ibn ʿAqīl (d. 1119)
on Baghdād 246-247, 831-832
life of 831
pro-Muʿtazilī sympathies of 240
works of, used as source 830, 831-832
Ibn ʿAsākir (d. 1176) 697
Ibn ʿAṭāʾ al-Ādamī (d. 921 or 923/924) 667-668
Ibn al-Athīr (d. 1233)
on Baghdād 802-803
on foundation of Madīnat al-Salām 56
life of 801
on Muʿizz al-Dawla 219
on al-Nāṣir li-Dīn Allāh 273
on riots in Baghdād 208
works of
al-Kāmil fī l-taʾrīkh 200, 229, 266, 801
al-Lubāb 814
sources used for 801-802
used as source 814
Ibn Bābak (d. 1019) 218
Ibn Bābawayh al-Ṣadūq (d. 991) 617
Ibn Baṭṭūṭa (d. 1368 0r 1377)
on Baghdād
in general 94, 287
madrasas in 458, 482-483
travels of 824-825
works of
al-Riḥla 287, 482-483
sources used for 288
used as source 825
Ibn al-Bawwāb (d. 1032) 76, 77, 78-80
Ibn Buṭlān (d. 1066) 572, 715
Ibn Dāb, ʿĪsā b. Yazīd (d. 787) 528
Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī (d. 1349) 388n71
Ibn Faḍlān, Aḥmad (fl. 10th cent.) 176
Ibn al-Faqīh (fl. 9th cent.) 98, 103, 804-805
Ibn al-Farghānī al-Wāsiṭī, Abū Bakr
Ibn Fūrak, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan (d. 1015) 746-747
Ibn al-Furāt (d. 924) 407-409
Ibn al-Fuwaṭī (d. 1323)
on Baghdād
in general 296, 830-831
reconstruction of 293, 300
life of 286-287, 830
works of 286, 829-830
Ibn Ḥamdūn (d. 1166) 700
Ibn Ḥanbal, Aḥmad (d. 855)
ʿAbbāsid caliphs and 619, 621
on ʿAlī as the fourth caliph 600-601
Bishr al-Ḥāfī and 646
female students of 476
life of 503-505
Maʿrūf al-Karkhī and 643-644
al-Muḥāsibī and 640
shrine of 6
six creeds attributed to 606-607
trial of 504
works of, Musnad 610, 611-612
Ḥanbalism/Ḥanbalīs
Ibn Ḥawqal (d. after 988) 214, 808, 817-818
Ibn al-Haytham (d. ca. 1040) 563, 572, 583-584
Ibn Ḥazm al-Andalusī (d. 1064) 741
Ibn Hubayra (d. 1165) 252
Ibn al-Ikhshīd (d. 938) 721
Ibn Isḥāq, Muḥammad (d. 767/768)
in ʿAbbāsid service 523-524, 617
grave of 153
relocation to Baghdād 523, 529
works of, Kitāb al-maghāzī 523
mention of 441
Ibn al-Jawzī (d. 1201)
on Baghdād
in general 229, 799, 800-801
Christians in 687
climate of 331-333
Manichaeans in 781
natural disasters in 239
Sunnī and Shīʿī conflicts in 750-751
on dress codes for non-Muslims 695, 696, 722, 751
life of 798
on Madīnat al-Salām 799-800
reputation of 508
as teacher 256
works of
falsely ascribed to 830
al-Muntaẓam fī taʾrīkh al-mulūk wa-l-umam 200, 229, 265-266, 331-332, 509, 798
sources used for 798-799
Talbīs Iblīs 722
Talqīḥ fuhūm ahlāthār 509
used as source 801-802, 830
variety of 457
Zād al-masīr fīʿilmtafsīr 508-509
Ibn Jazla (d. 1100) 723
Ibn Jubayr (d. 1217)
in general 230
on Baghdād
in general 94, 246, 247, 466, 821-822
inhabitants of 509
scholarship in 214, 288, 473
on Ibn al-Jawzī 457
on al-Qazwīnī 481
travels of 821
works of, al-Riḥla 246, 821, 825
Ibn Jurayj (d. 768) 443
Ibn Juzayy, Muḥammad (d. between 1355-1357) 825
Ibn Kammūna (d. 1285) 306, 726, 757
Ibn Kathīr (d. 1373) 229, 266, 803
Ibn Khaldūn (d. 1406) 76-77, 448, 698
Ibn Khallikān (d. 1282) 78-79, 200, 803
Ibn Khammār (d. 1012) 215
Ibn al-Khammār/Ibn Suwār (d. 1017) 720
Ibn Khurdādhbih (d. 912) 389-391
Ibn Khuzayma (d. 924) 622
Ibn Killis (d. 991) 486
Ibn Kullāb (d. 854/855) 608
Ibn al-Labbād (d. 1232) 726
Ibn al-Layth (d. ca. 819) 721
Ibn al-Mājishūn, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (d. 788) 524, 529
Ibn Mandawayh, Abū ʿAlī Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān 220
Ibn Maʿrūf (judge) 209
Ibn al-Muʾammal (d. 1194-1195) 715
Ibn al-Mubārak (d. 797) 633, 645
Ibn al-Mubārak Mosque (Baghdād) 476
Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ (d. 756) 443
Ibn Muqla (d. 940) 78-80, 79, 195
Ibn al-Muslima (d. 1058) 231
Ibn al-Nadīm (d. ca. 995/998)
on books 493
on boon companions 420
on diplomatic missions 385-386
on Ibn Muqla 78
on Manichaeans 767-768, 776-778
on religious tolerance of al-Maʾmūn 775
on subdivion of disciplines 419
on synagogues 736
on translation movement 362
works of, al-Fihrist 77, 78, 419, 420, 493, 691, 736, 767, 777
mention of 454, 713
Ibn Nāʿima l-Ḥimsī (fl. early 9th cent.) 576
Ibn al-Najjār al-Baghdādī (d. 1245) 801
Ibn Nubāta (d. 984) 455-456
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya (d. 1350) 697
Ibn Qutayba l-Dīnawarī (d. 889) 450, 509, 722
Ibn Rāʾiq, Abū Bakr Muḥammad (d. 942) 177, 196-197, 418
Ibn Rajab (d. 1392) 229
Ibn al-Rāwandī (fl. 9th cent.) 613
Ibn al-Rūmī (d. 897) 426, 428
Ibn Rusta (d. after 913) 131, 805-806, 808
Ibn Saʿd (d. 845) 453
Ibn Saʿdān (d. 984/985) 201, 214-215, 216, 455
Ibn al-Samḥ (d. 1035) 542n17
Ibn Sarābiyūn Suhrāb
Ibn Sayyār al-Warrāq (fl. 10th cent.) 23n73
Ibn Serapion Suhrāb
Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037)
astrology and 549
al-Bīrūnī and 573
Nūḥ b. Manṣūr and 221
originality of 587
scientific polymathy of 570
works of, al-Qānūn fī l-ṭibb 220, 567, 570
Ibn Sukkara (d. after 1068) 240
Ibn Suwār/Ibn al-Khammār (d. 1017) 554, 720
Ibn Tāwūs (d. 1266) 305
Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328) 305
Ibn al-Ṭayyib, Abū l-Faraj (d. 1043) 714-715
Ibn al-Tilmīdh (d. ca. 1165) 715
Ibn al-Ṭiqṭaqā (d. ca. 1309) 305, 459
Ibn Ṭūlūn, Aḥmad (r. 868-884) 172, 188
Ibn Ṭūlūn Mosque (Fusṭāṭ/Old Cairo) 188
Ibn Waḥb 401
Ibn al-Washshāʾ (d. 937) 452, 510-511
Ibn al-Wāsiṭī (n.d.) 715, 725
Ibn Yumn al-Baghdādī, Abū ʿAlī Naẓīf (d. after 983) 713, 717
Ibn Yūsuf, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (fl. 10th cent.) 200
Ibn Zabr (d. 940) 697
Ibn Zurʿa (d. 1008) 720
Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbdallāh (d. 763) 147, 617
Ibrāhīm b. ʿAdī (fl. 10th cent.) 542n17, 576
Ibrāhīm b. Aḥmad al-Māristānī (d. 921/922) 667
Ibrāhīm b. Isḥāq al-Ḥarbī (d. 898) 722
Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī l-Mubārak (r. 817-819) 158, 431
Ibrāhīm b. Saʿd (d. 799) 526-527
Ibrāhīm b. Yaʿqūb (fl. 10th cent.) 392
Ibrāhīm I (r. 800-812) 374, 378
Ibrāhīm II (r. 875- 902) 358n85
Ibrāhīm al-Khawwāṣ (d. 897/898) 652, 661-662
Ibrāhīm al-Mawṣilī (d. 804) 441
Iconoclasm 349, 354
Idrīs b. ʿAbdallāh (d. 791) 58
al-Idrīsī (d. 1165) 388n71
Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn (The Revitalization of the Study of Religion) (al-Ghazālī) 506
ikhtiyārāt (choices), branch of astrology 100
Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ (Brethren of Purity) 218, 547, 552
Ilkhanid dynasty
ʿAbbāsid dynasty/caliphate and 267, 276-277, 278, 279, 289, 290
administration of Baghdād by administration of Baghdād
conquest by Mongol conquest
construction activities of construction activities
conversion to Islam 281
court of 11, 293, 297
economic situation during 295-296
end of 295
inhabitants of Baghdād and 29
Islamization of 296
Khwārazm dynasty and 289
Mamluk dynasty and 292, 295, 296
religious policies of 308, 726
residences of 11, 293, 307
restoration of Baghdād construction activities
Shīʿīs and 37
sources on 286-287
illuminators 80
illustrated manuscripts from Baghdād
Chinese influence on 307
Dioscorides manuscripts 82
illustration without text in 84
Kitāb al-bayṭara 81, 83
Kitāb naʿt al-ḥayawān 82
Maqāmāt manuscripts
in Bibliothèque National in Paris (1236) 33, 81-82, 83-84, 85, 86
in Saint Petersburg 82, 85, 86
in Süleymaniye Library in Istanbul 82, 84-86
Marzubān-nāma 82
Rasāʾil Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ 82
two-page illustrations in 83-84, 86-87
ʿImād al-Dawla (r. 934-949) 197, 203
Imāmī Shīʿism/Imāmī Shīʿīs (later Twelver Shīʿīs)
in Baghdād 35-36, 37, 598
Būyid dynasty and 198
doctrines of 598-599, 600-601, 602
imāms, legitimacy of 597-602
immitation of God (tashabbuh bi-llāh) 551
immortality, of human soul 551-552
Imperial Byzantine Church (al-Rūm) 685, 703-704
infrastructural projects 2, 4
inhabitants
of Antioch 131-132
of Asoristan 137
of Baghdād
in general 324, 815, 823, 828, 829
Būyid dynasty and 202
Ilkhanid dynasty and 29
lack of etiquette of 509
poetry and 434
segregation and 8-9, 25, 239
social groups social groups in Baghdād
of Constantinople 359
in Ctesiphon urban complex 135-136
of Madīnat al-Salām 28, 71, 146
Inquisition (miḥna) 535n7, 606, 619, 629, 631
Inṣāf fī mā yajibu iʿtiqādahū wa-lā yajūzu l-jahl bi-hī (The Judgment about What Should be Believed and Should not be Ignored) (al-Bāqillānī) 216
inshāʾ (prose style) 447, 449, 456
inspector of the endowments (nāẓir al-awqāf) 298-299
intellectual life knowledge production in Baghdād
intellectuals scholars/litterateurs
international trade 34
inter-religious debates 576-577, 716-717, 720-721, 753-755, 756-757, 773-775
intoxication (sukr) 644, 660, 670, 675
investiture diplomas 699-702
al-ʿIqd al-farīd (The Unique Necklace) (Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih) 447n35
al-Īrānshahrī (fl. 9th cent.) 587
Irbil 268, 276
irrigation 132-134, 302-303, 794
ʿĪsā b. ʿAlī (d. 1001) 419, 454
Isaac (d. 410/411) (bishop) 683
Isaac (Jewish envoy) 374, 375, 391, 690
Isaac Ben Ezra (fl. 10th cent.) 757
al-Isfarāyīnī, Abū Ḥāmid (d. 1016) 476
al-Isfarāyīnī, Nūr al-Dīn (d. 1317) 306
Isḥāq b. Ḥunayn (d. 910) 565, 718, 719
Isḥāq b. Ibrāhīm al-Ṭāhirī (d. 849/850) 710
Īshōʿbokht I (d. 780) 699
Īshōʿyahb bar Malkon (d. 1246) 726
Īshōʿyahb I (r. 582-595) 686
Īshōʿyahb II (628-645) 687, 688, 691
Īshōʿyahb III (649-659) 689
Isidore of Charax (fl. 1st cent.) 122
Islam
apocalyptic traditions in 341
Byzantine Empire and 341-344, 355-356, 357
conversions to
of Christians 696, 711, 723
of Zoroastrians 773-775
disinterest in the non-Muslim other 387
Niketas’s polemic against 357
religious festivals of 23-24
theology theology
Muslims; schools and branches
Islamic/Islamicate, use of terms 532
Ismāʿīl b. ʿUlayya (d. 808/809) 618
Ismāʿīlī Shīʿism/Ismāʿīlī Shīʿīs 36, 290, 485, 486, 598, 602
ʿIṣmat Khātūn (d. 1141) 253
ʿIṣmatiyya Madrasa (Baghdād) 293
Israel of Kashkar (d. 877) 724-725
al-Iṣṭakhrī l-Fārisī, Ibrāhīm (d. 961) 388n71, 808, 817
Ītākh al-Khazarī (d. 849) 159, 163
iʿtibār (experimentation) 583-584
Itinerarium (The Itinerary) (Riccoldo da Montecroce) 771, 823
īwāns (great halls)
in general 10
of Bishriyya Madrasa 90, 91
of Khosrow II 125-126, 815n140, 816
of Mirjāniyya Madrasa 459
of Mustanṣiriyya Madrasa 89, 482-483, 811
of Niẓāmiyya Madrasa (Khargird) 250
in Sasanian Ctesiphon 125-126, 125
ʿIzz al-Dawla (r. 967-978) 206-207, 208, 213
Jacob, Rabbi (fl. 13th cent.) 820n159
Jacob bar Shakkō (d. 1241) 726
Jacob Baradaeus (d. 578) 685
Jacobites West Syrian Church
Jadhwat al-muqtabis (The Firebrand for the Seeker of Illumination) (al-Ḥumaydī) 717
Jaʿfar b. al-Manṣūr (the Elder, d. 767) 151
Jaʿfar b. Yaḥyā l-Barmakī (d. 803) 10, 155, 158
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq (d. 765) 598, 616, 667
al-Jaʿfariyya/al-Mutawakkiliyya (palatial city) 164-165, 184
al-Jāḥiẓ, ʿAmr b. Baḥr (d. 868/869)
on Baghdād 66
life of 448
on Muʿtazilism 629
style of 449-450
works of
advice for teachers 496
al-Bukhalāʾ 28
Kitāb al-bayān wa-tabyīn 449
Kitāb al-ḥayawān 448-450
al-Radd ʿalā l-Naṣārā 721
used as source 805
Jahm b. Ṣafwān (d. 746) 609-612, 616-617
Jalāl al-Dawla (r. 1027-1044) 230
Jalāl al-Dīn Mingbirnī (r. 1220-1231) 288n13, 289
Jalāyirid dynasty 297, 458
jamʿ (joining with God) 655
Jamāl al-Dīn Dastgirdānī (d. 1297) 300
jami 353
Jāmiʿ al-bayān ʿanʾwīl āy Qurʾān (The Comprehensive Collection of Expositions of the Interpretation of the Verses of the Qurʾān) (al-Ṭabarī) 498-499
Jāmiʿ al-Mahdī (Baghdād) 476
Jāmiʿ al-Manṣūr (Baghdād) 476
Jāmiʿ al-Qaṣr (Caliphal Palace Friday Mosque) (Baghdād) 174, 239, 251, 293, 294, 308, 476
Jāmiʿ al-Sulṭān (Sultan’s Friday Mosque) (Baghdād) 11, 12, 249
Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh (The Compendium of Chronicles) (Rashīd al-Dīn) 285, 287, 384n50
Janos, Damien xl, 531-588, 718
Jarīriyya (Ṣūfī order) 38
jāriyas (female slaves) 34-35
al-Jarmī (prisoner of war/writer) 391
Jāthilīq Monastery (Baghdād) 705, 707, 709
al-Jawād, Muḥammad (d. 835) 619
Jawad, Muṣṭafā 102
al-Jawharī, al‐ʿAbbās b. Saʿīd (fl. 9th cent.) 563
Jazīra 697-698
Jerusalem 340, 377
Jesus, Prophet 683
Jewish academies
in Babylonia 731, 732
in Baghdād Pumbedita Yeshiva; Sura Yeshiva
Jewish communities
in Babylonia 731-733
in Baghdād
academies of Pumbedita Yeshiva; Sura Yeshiva
in Bāb al-Muḥawwal 735
during Būyid rule 748
in Darb al-ʿAwn quarter 736
demography of 735-737
economic life of 733, 746
exilarchate/exilarchs exilarchate/exilarchs
during Ilkhanid rule 306
in al-Karkh 39, 735
Mongol administration and 295, 297
prosperity of 247
during Saljūq rule 750-751
security of 752-753
size of 736-737
sources on 733-734
synagogues of 736, 745-746
in Vēh Ardashīr 128-129, 138
Jews; Judaism
Jews
conversion to Islam of 757
dress codes for 751
knowledge production by knowledge production in Baghdād
occupations of 746-748
openness towards Christians 756-757
persecution/abuse of 295, 307, 732, 748-752
taxation of 303, 748
Jewish communities; Judaism; Jews
Jia Dan (d. 805) 400
Jibrīl (Gabriel) 611
Jibrīl b. Bakhtīshūʿ (d. 829) 713, 718
jihād (religiously sanctioned war) 276
jizya (poll tax) 303, 692, 693, 697, 701
Job of Edessa (d. after 832) 718
Johannes-Ovadiah (fl. 12th cent.) 751
John IV Ṣalība (r. 1075-1106) 703
John of Damascus (d. 749) 344
John the Grammarian (fl. 510-520) 351, 352-353, 352
joining with God (jamʿ) 655
Joseph (r. 790-792) 701-702
al-Jubbāʾī (d. 915) 721
Judaism
ʿAbbāsid dynasty and 738
Christian refutation of 725, 726
Constantine’s refutation of 357
Islamic refutations of 725-726
Sasanian dynasty and 731-732
Jewish communities; Jews
Judeo-Arabic language 755
judges (qāḍīs) 29, 298, 299, 527 chief judges
judiciary in Baghdād 24 law
Julian (r. 360-363) 124
al-Jumaḥī (d. 845) 451
al-Junayd (d. 910)
in general 658
disciples of 668, 671, 673
division of pious by 634
doctrines of 659-660, 674
Ibn ʿAṭāʾ and 667
on al-Nassāj 652
on al-Nūrī 654, 655
on Ruwaym 656-657
Ṣūfī terminology of 659, 661n158, 676
teachers of 647, 658
on al-Wāsiṭī 673
Jundishapur
synod at 684
Academy of Jundishapur
al-Jurayrī (d. 924) 663, 667
Jurjūth Monastery (Qaṭrabbul) 708
Justinian I (r. 527-565) 340
Juwaynī, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn (d. 1283)
as Baghdād’s governor 293, 295, 300
construction activities of 37, 301, 302-303
life of 293
works of, Taʾrīkh-i Jahān Gushā 266
Juwaynī, Hārūn b. Shams al-Dīn (d. 1286) 295
Juwaynī family 295
al-Kāfī (The Sufficient [Work]) (al-Kulaynī) 36
al-Kalābādhī, Abū Bakr (d. between 990-995) 657, 677
al-Kalbī, Abū Thawr (d. 854) 658
Kalīlīshūʿ Monastery (Baghdād) 705, 707, 709
Kallfelz, Wolfgang 695
Kallinikos of Heliopolis (fl. 650) 344
al-Kāmil fī l-adab (The Perfection of Cultivated Behavior and Learning) (al-Mubarrad) 451-452
al-Kāmil fī l-taʾrīkh (The Complete [Work] on History) (Ibn al-Athīr) 200, 229, 266, 801
Kanz mulūk fī kayfiyyat al-sulūk (The Treasure of Princes or the Fashion of Behavior) (Sibṭ b. al-Jawzī) 498
karāma (mystical charisma) 649
Karkar 490
al-Karkh (city) 2
al-Karkh (neighborhood of Baghdād)
book trade in 31
building of 796
churches in 708
as commercial center 6-7
Jewish community in 39, 735
library in 490
markets in 15
monasteries in 707, 709
Saljūq building activities in 249
Shīʿī community in 8, 36, 239, 240
sources on 811-812
tensions between Baṣra Gate and 208-209
wall around 16
Kashfmaḥjūb (The Unveiling of the Veiled) (al-Hujwīrī) 675, 677
Katah Bridge (Baghdād) 819
al-Kātib al-Iṣfahānī (d. 1201) 229
Kaysāniyya (sect) 599
Kāẓimayn Shrines (Baghdād) 615
construction of 6, 36
reconstruction of 37, 293
as Shīʿī center 305
Kennedy, Hugh 125, 136, 146, 150, 169, 173, 386
khabar (prose style) 443, 453
Khadīja bt. Muḥammad (fl. 11th cent.) 35
Khālid b. ʿAbd al-Malik al-Marwarrūdhī (fl. 830s) 564
Khālid b. Barmak (d. 782) 71
Khālid b. Yazīd (d. 704/709) 345n22
Khālid al-Qaṣrī (d. 743/744) 766
al-Khallāl, Abū Bakr (d. 923) 217, 610-611, 698
Khan al-Mirjān (Baghdād) 16, 17
khānqāhs Ṣūfī lodges in Baghdād
khāns (hotels with storage-rooms) 16, 17
kharāj (land tax) 303, 317
Khargird 249n49, 250
Khārijite Muslims 602
al-Kharrāz, Abū Saʿīd (d. 899) 649-651
Khāṣikī Mosque (Baghdād) 75-76, 75
khāṣṣ (The Elect) 635
al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī (d. 1071)
on Baghdād
in general 50-51, 796, 797-798
on Anbārī Mosque Quarter 8-9
caliphs not dying in 47, 59
as center of world 513
on Jewish quarter 735
on al-Bukhārī 500-501
on Byzantine-ʿAbbāsid contacts 362
on ḥadīth 497
on al-Junayd 659
on Khadīja bt. Muḥammad 35
life of 499-500, 796
on Madīnat al-Salām
in general 69, 796
foundation of 53
security arrangements for 72
on Wakīʿ 102, 103
works of
sources used for 796-797
Taqyīdʿilm 497, 500
Taʾrīkh Baghdād 35, 50-51, 199, 229, 500, 513, 735, 796
used as source 799, 831
al-khaṭṭ al-mansūb script 78, 79
al-Khayzurān bt. ʿAṭāʾ al-Jurashiyya (d. 789) 34, 414-415, 416
Khayzurān Cemetery 152-153, 239
Khayzurān Cemetery (Baghdād) 8
Khiḍr (wise figure) 661-662
Khizānat al-Kutub (The Treasury of Books) (Karkar) 490
Khosrow I (r. 531-579) 2, 117, 131-132, 686
Khosrow II (r. 590-628)
arrest of 126
construction activities of 124, 125, 125, 126
Lakhmid dynasty and 123
military activities of 117
refuge of, in Vēh Ardashīr 131
religious policies of 686-687, 703
al-Khujandī (d. 1000) 221
Khuld Palace (Baghdād) 26, 74, 154-155, 158n72
al-Khuldī, Jaʿfar (d. 959) 673-674
Khurāsān 152, 154, 156, 671, 677
Khurāsānians 26, 28, 258, 634
khuṭba (oratory) style 443, 449
Khuṭbat al-manām (The Sermon on Dreams) (Ibn Nubāta) 456
Khwārazmian dynasty 266-267, 288-289
al-Khwārizmī, Muḥammad b. Mūsā (d. 840/845) 389, 559, 572
khwarrah (divine grace) 135
Kibāb Monastery (Baghdād) 707
al-Kinānī, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (d. 854) 488-489
al-Kindī (d. ca. 873)
astrology and 549
on celestial realm 555, 557
collaboration with Christians of 576
on debt to previous thinkers 546
experience and observation and 583
on hylomorphism 585
immortality of the human soul and 552
on philosophy and religion 547-548, 554
scientific polymathy of 571
self-perception of 587
supervising translations from Greek 541, 547
on theory of aether 584
works of
The Book of Pure Good 541, 550, 585-586
al-Radd ʿalā l-Naṣārā 721
The Theology of Aristotle 541, 547, 550, 585-586
King Gotarzes I (r. 91-ca. 80 BCE) 118
King of Kings (shāhānshāh) 204
King’s Canal 118, 122, 123, 124
kiosks (kushks) 251
al-Kirmānī, Ḥamīd al-Dīn (d. ca. 1020) 486
al-Kisāʾī, Abū l-Ḥasan (d. 805) 501, 503
kitab 10
al-Kitāb (The Book) (Sībawayh) 452
Kitāb al-aghānī (The Book of Songs) (Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī) 201, 455, 511, 512, 826
Kitāb ʿajāʾib al-aqālīm al-sabʿa (The Book about the Marvels of the Seven Climes) (Suhrāb) 807
Kitāb al-aʿlāq al-nafīsa (The Book of Precious Things) (Ibn Rusta) 806
Kitāb al-āthār al-bāqiya ʿan al-qurūn al-khāliya (The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries) (al-Bīrūnī) 98-100, 99, 100
Kitāb al-awrāq (The Book of the Leaves) (al-Ṣūlī) 151, 420, 451, 792-793
Kitāb al-badʾ wa-l-taʾrīkh (The Book of the Origin [of the World] and the History) (al-Maqdisī) 793
Kitāb Baghdād (The Book of Baghdād) (Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭayfūr) 2n5, 50-51, 451, 489n63, 492, 788-789
Kitāb al-bayān wa-tabyīn (The Book of Clarity and Clarification) (al-Jāḥiẓ) 449
Kitāb al-bayṭara (The Book of Animal Treatment) 81, 83
Kitāb al-buldān (The Book of Regions) (Ibn al-Faqīh) 98, 804-805
Kitāb al-buldān (The Book of Regions) (al-Yaʿqūbī) 50-51, 102, 805-806
Kitāb al-dīn wa-l-dawla (The Book of the Religion and Empire) (Rabban al-Ṭabarī) 723
Kitāb al-diyārāt (The Book of Monasteries) (al-Shābushtī) 687, 706, 710, 828
Kitābdurar (The Book in Praise of God) (al-Ḥarīzī) 735n18
Kitāb faḍāʾil Baghdād al-ʿIrāq (The Book about the Virtues of Baghdād in Iraq) (Yazdgird b. Mihbandār al-Fārisī) 805, 829
Kitāb fī Qurʾān (The Book of Understanding the Qurʾān) (Ibn ʿAṭā) 668
Kitāb fī jawāmiʿ ʿilm al-nujūm (The Compendium of the Science of the Stars) (al-Farghānī) 561, 563
Kitāb al-hadāyā wa-l-tuḥaf (The Book of Gifts and Rarities) (anon.) 151
Kitāb al-ḥawādith (The Book of Events) (anon.) 265-266, 286
Kitāb al-ḥāwī fī l-ṭibb (The Comprehensive Book on Medicine) (al-Rāzī) 491, 566, 570
Kitāb al-ḥayawān (The Book of the Living or The Book of the Animals) (al-Jāḥiẓ) 448-450
Kitābḥayda (The Book of Evasion) (al-Kinānī) 489
Kitāb al-imtāʿ wa-l-muʾānasa (The Book of Delight and Conviviality) (al-Tawḥīdī) 201, 455
Kitāb al-jam ʿbayna raʾyay al-ḥakīmayn (On the Harmonization of the Views of the Divine Plato and Aristotle) (al-Fārābī) 554
Kitāb kāmil al-ṣināʿa l-ṭibbiyya (The Comprehensive Book of the Medicinal Art) (al-Majūsī) 220, 567
Kitāb al-kashf wa-l-bayān (The Book of Unveiling and Elucidation) (al-Kharrāz) 649
Kitāb al-kharāj (The Book of Taxes) (Abū Yūsuf) 604, 691-692, 694
Kitāb lumaʿ ī l-taṣawwuf (The Book of Flashes of Sufism) (al-Sarrāj) 647, 662, 668, 677
Kitābmaʿārif (The Book of Knowledge) (Ibn Qutayba) 509
Kitāb al-maghāzī (The Book of Campaigns or The Biography of the Prophet) (Ibn Isḥāq) 523
Kitāb al-majdal (The Book of the Tower) (ʿAmr b. Mattā) 688
Kitāb al-majdal (The Book of the Tower) (Mārī b. Sulaymān) 687-688
Kitāb al-manthūr wa-l-manẓūm (The Book of Prose and Poetry) (Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭayfūr) 451
Kitāb maqātilṬālibiyyīn (The Book of the Killing of the Ṭālibids) (Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī) 512n136
Kitāb al-masālik wa-l-mamālik (The Book of Itineraries and Reigns) (Ibn Khurdādhbih) 389-391
Kitāb al-masālik wa-l-mamālik (The Book of the Itineraries and Reigns) (al-Bakrī) 808
Kitāb al-masālik wa-l-mamālik (The Book of the Itineraries and Reigns) (Ibn Ḥawqal) 817-818
Kitāb al-masālik wa-l-mamālik (The Book of the Itineraries and Reigns) (al-Iṣṭakhrī) 388n71, 817
Kitāb al-milal wa-l-niḥal (The Book about the Religions and Sects) (al-Shahrastānī) 723
Kitāb al-muwashshā (The Book of the Embroidered Dress) (Ibn al-Washshāʾ) 452, 511
Kitābʿ (The Treatise on Abrogation of the Law) (Samuel ben Ḥophni) 754
Kitāb naʿt al-ḥayawān (The Book of the Characteristics of Animals) 82
Kitābḥ al-sunna (The Explanation of the Prophet’s Customs) (Ghulām Khalīl) 505
Kitābṣidq (The Book of Truthfulness) (al-Kharrāz) 650
Kitābsirr (The Book of Secrets) (al-Kharrāz) 651
Kitāb ṣūrat al-arḍ (The Book of the Image of the World) (Ibn Ḥawqal) 817-818
Kitāb al-ṭabaqāt al-kabīr (The Great Book of Classes) (Ibn Saʿd) 453
Kitāb al-ṭabīkh (The Book of Cooked Food) (Ibn Sayyār al-Warrāq) 23n73
Kitāb al-tājī (The Book of the Crown) (al-Ṣābiʾ) 200
Kitāb al-tanbīh wa-l-ishrāf (The Book of Notification and Supervision) (al-Masʿūdī) 791
Kitāb ṭawāsīn (The Book of the Eleven Traits) (al-Ḥallāj) 665
Kitāb al-tawfīq (The Book about the Concordance) (Ibn al-Khammār/Ibn Suwār) 554, 720
Kitāb uṣūl al-dīn (The Fundamental Issues of the Religion) (Elias II b. al-Muqlī) 725
Kitāb al-wuzarāʾ (The Book of Viziers) (al-Ṣūlī) 451
knowledge (ʿilm)
adab and ʿamal and 497
classification of 474n4
of God 654, 656, 657
light and 641-642
production of knowledge production
cognition
knowledge production
in general 531-532
in Alexandria 544
in Baghdād knowledge production in Baghdād
in Baṣra 218
in Byzantine Empire 349, 354
diversity of 535
inter-disciplinary nature of 534-535
medicine and 569-570
in Medina Medinan scholars
religion and 533-534, 553-555, 560
translation activities and
in general 539-541
from Greek 539, 541-542
vocabulary for 541
knowledge production in Baghdād
in general 588
astrology astrology
astronomy astronomy
book production/trade and 538-539
during Būyid rule 211-219, 220, 221, 222, 717
Byzantine influence on 537
by Christians 715-726
in general 536-537, 715-716, 717-718, 727
apologetical treatises 723-725, 726
astronomers/astrologers 713
in debate with Muslims 576-577, 716-717
in exchange with Muslims 716, 727
physicians 713, 714
theological debates 716-717, 720-721
translation activities 536-537, 565, 718-719
commentaries 542-543, 547, 557
disciplinary overlap and 570-572
geography geography
in hospitals hospitals
during Ilkhanid rule 307
institutional context of 574-581
by Jews 753-757
apologetical treatises 726, 754
astrology 753
astronomers/astrologers 753
legal treatises 755-756
theological debates 753-755, 756-757
by Manichaeans 776
mathematics 549
Medinan scholars and Medinan scholars
metaphysics metaphysics
methodological approaches to 546, 581-582
Muʿtazilism and 574
in observatories observatories
originality and innovativeness of 586-587
Persian influence on 537
philosophers philosophers
philosophy philosophy
physics 549, 583
reasons for 218-219
reliance on authority and 584-585
Responsa literature 558
by scholars/litterateurs scholars/litterateurs
short epistles and essays 558
sponsoring of 538
Summae literature 557-558
systemic contradictions and 572-573
translation activities translation activities
by Zoroastrians 773-775
book production/trade; literary activities in Baghdād; specific subjects of knowledge
Knüttel, Christoph 104n6
Kōkhē Vēh Ardashīr
König, Daniel 387
Kraemer, Joel 454, 575
Kratchkovsky, Ignaty 392
Kūfa
birth of Arabo-Islamic culture in 439-440
as center of Shīʿī traditionalism 614-616
construction activities at 145
foundation legends of 52, 58
grammar school of 501
Ibāḍī education centers in 487
kufr (unbelief) 602, 651
al-Kulaynī (d. 941) 36, 616-617, 624
kushks (kiosks) 251
kuttāb/kātib ʿAbbāsid officials/bureaucrats; Saljūq officials/bureaucrats
Lakhmid dynasty 123
land grants 146, 161, 207
land tax (kharāj) 303, 317
languages
usage of
in Jewish legal treatises 755-756
in Zoroastrianism 768-769
translation activities; specific langauges
Laoust, Henri 606-607
Lassner, Jacob 50, 68, 69-71, 102, 105, 145, 789
law
Zoroastrian 769
legal treatises; Sharīʿa law
Law of Deposits (Saʿadya) 755
law schools in Baghdād specific law schools
Le Strange, Guy 2n5, 20, 102, 104, 153, 158n72, 178, 707, 708, 709, 807
learning education
legal treatises
on Christians’ status 691-692
Jewish 755-756
Zoroastrian 769-770
Leo Choirosphaktes (d. 919) 360
Leo III (r. 717-741) 343, 350
Leo VI (r. 886-912) 358, 359
Leo the Mathematician/Leo the Philosopher (d. 869) 353
Lesser Zab River 132
Lewis, Bernard 301
lexicographers/lexicography 440
Li Mi (d. 789) 400
Liber peregrinationis (The Book of Travel) (Riccoldo da Montecroce) 771, 823
libraries
ʿAbbāsid sponsorship of 82
in Baghdād
Bayt al-Ḥikma 447-448, 488-490, 577
Dār al-ʿIlm 490
private 494
book reading in 446
of Būyid amīrs and viziers 221
higher education and 488-490, 494
of Marāgha Observatory 304
of monasteries 544, 709
of mosques and madrasas 490
of Mustanṣiriyya Madrasa 304-305, 483
(semi) public 221, 490
sponsoring of 82, 490
Life of Alexander (Plutarch) 62
light (nūr) 641-642
literary activities in Baghdād
in general 221, 460-461
anthologies 451-452
apologetical treatises apologetical treatises
artistic prose prose
decline of 454, 456, 460
plain prose prose
poetry poetry
poets and 427
revival of 454, 458
self-supporting author/book entrepreneurs and 31, 445
book trade/production; libraries
literature, subdivisions of 419
litterateurs scholars/litterateurs
Liudprand of Cremona (d. 972) 409
logic 546, 581-584, 716
L’Orange, Hans Peter 103
Louis the Pious (r. 814-840) 376-377
love (ḥubb)
for God 648, 654, 657, 675
knowledge of God and 656
zuhd and 644
love lyrics (ghazal) 429
Lower Harbour Quarter (Baghdād) 6, 7
al-Lubāb (The Essence) (Ibn al-Athīr) 814
Maʿānī Qurʾān (The Meaning of the Qurʾān) (al-Farrāʾ) 503
al-Maʿarrī (d. 1057/1058) 427, 490
Mabrakta 134
Macedonian Renaissance 354
al-Madāʾin (the cities) 114 Ctesiphon urban complex
Madelung, Wilferd 603, 614
madhhabs study circles
Madīnat al-Salām (The City of Peace)
abandonment of 9, 26, 466
as ʿAbbāsid residence 9
al-Anbār as precursor to 145
arcades (ṭāqāt) of 70
buildings in
in general 70
Golden Gate Palace 3, 73-74
Manṣūr Mosque Manṣūr Mosque
as circular/round shaped 53-54, 67, 102-105, 803-804, 826, 832
construction of 3-4, 804
damage to 157, 178, 467
dimensions of 67n3, 70-71
domed chambers in 69
expansions of 74
foundation of
in general 111, 323, 790-791, 799-800
legends surrounding foundation legends
reason for 121
functions of 74
gates 60-61, 69, 74
as imagined city 785
inhabitants of 28, 71, 146
judge appointed to 209
location of 52-53
longevity of 184
markets banned from 72-73
name of 3, 73-74
open spaces in 69-70
as oval shaped 104, 105, 106
planning of 53, 71, 466
prayer niche (miḥrāb) from 75-76, 75
reconstruction of 67-76, 68
security arrangements for 72
as symbol of ʿAbbāsid sovereignty 74-75
Vēh Ardashīr as inspiration for 63, 112, 128, 138
mention of 6
constructions
Madīnat Ṭughril (palatial complex) 248-249
Madīnat al-Zahrāʾ (palatial city) 188
madrasas
in Baghdād madrasas in Baghdād
cohesiveness or religious learning and 484
connection with shrines 480
curriculum at 479n20
far eastern origin of 480
libraries at 490
purpose of 479, 480
sponsoring of 251, 252, 253, 293, 479
spread of 478
study framework at 479-480
madrasas in Baghdād
in general 18-19, 32, 305, 457
Abū Ḥanīfa Madrasa 251, 255, 478, 800
Bishriyya Madrasa 90-91, 91
decoration of 90-91, 91
Ghiyāthiyya Madrasa 251
during Ilkhanid rule 458
ʿIṣmatiyya Madrasa 293
local impact of 256
Mirjāniyya Madrasa 18, 19, 458, 458, 459
Mustanṣiriyya Madrasa Mustanṣiriyya Madrasa
Nāṣiriyya Madrasa 272
Niẓāmiyya Madrasa Niẓāmiyya Madrasa
religious affiliations of
in general 254, 478
Ḥanafī 255
Ḥanbalī 255-256, 478
Shāfiʿī 255, 478
sponsoring of
by ʿAbbāsid officials 251
by Ḥanbalīs 252
by Saljūq officials 249
by women 253, 293
Ṣūfī lodges and 271-272
madrasas
Madrid Skylitzes 345, 348, 352, 409
al-Maghribī, Samawʾal (d. 1175) 757
al-Mahānī (fl. 9th cent.) 563
al-Mahdī (r. 775-785)
administrative/military education of 152
astrology and 715
coinage of 468
construction activities of
in general 12, 74, 152, 789, 802
correlation between military activities and 153, 182
as governor of Khurāsān 152
inviting Medinan scholars to Baghdād 524, 526
military activities of 152, 183
al-Miṣrī on 411
pilgrimage to Mecca 153
poetry and 429, 435
regnal name of 152
religious policies of 618, 690, 701, 766
sharing rule with son(s) 153
succession of 153-154, 416
Timothy I and 577, 691, 716-717
tutor of 440
mention of 4, 72
al-mahdī (The Rightly Guided One) 598, 599
al-Mahdiyya (palatial city) 188
Maḥmūd II (r. 1118-1131) 249, 696, 751
Māḥōzē Vēh Ardashīr
al-Majālis al-Baghdādiyya wa-l-Baṣriyya (The Baghdādī and Baṣran Lectures) (al-Kirmānī) 486
majālisḥikma (sessions of wisdom) 486-487
majālis/majlis scholarly sessions; study circles
Majmaʿ al-ādāb fī muʿjam al-alqāb (The Abridgement of the Collected Literatures: The Dictionary of Nicknames) (Ibn al-Fuwaṭī) 286
Makdisi, George 479n20, 480, 831
al-Makkī, Abū Ṭālib (d. 996) 658, 677
al-Makkī, ʿAmr (d. 908) 664
Makkīkhā I b. Sulaymān al-Qankānī (r. 1092-1110) 700, 725
Malāmatiyya (The Blamers) 634, 671
Mālik b. Anas (d. 795) 525-526, 528, 529, 601, 645
al-Malik al-Raḥīm (r. 1048-1055) 231
Malik Shāh (r. 1073-1092) 11, 231, 233, 249
Maʿmar b. Rāshid (d. 770) 611
Mamluk dynasty 292, 295, 296
al-Maʾmūn (r. 813-833)
accession to rule of 157, 416
administrative/military education of 156
affinity for learning 492
alleged Christian martyrdom of 712
as arbitrator in debates 489
astronomy/astrology and 491, 564, 580, 715
Carolingian dynasty and 377
construction activities of 10, 159, 185
death of 158, 160
al-Kinānī and 489
literary salons and 491-492
military activities of 158, 347
military personnel of 28
al-Miṣrī on 411
Muʿtazilī sympathies of 574
philosophy and 574
physicians of 718
poetry and 433
religious policies of 503-504, 535n7, 618-619, 701-702, 738
religious tolerance of 775
residences of 9, 26-27, 158
spending of revenues by 186
sponsoring by 538, 564, 574
succession of 157-158, 169
Sufism and 636
Theophilos and 353
translation movement and 496
world map of 388n71
Manāqib al-aʾimma l-arbaʿa (The Virtues of the Four Imāms) (al-Bāqillānī) 216
Manāqib Baghdād (The Virtues of Baghdād) (Ibn al-Fuwaṭī) 829-830
Mandaeism/Mandaeans
emergence of 767
place of worship 772
religious system of 780-781
residences of 771-772
Mani (d. 276) 766, 771-772, 776, 780-781
Manichaeism/Manichaeans
in Baghdād 40, 778-779, 781-782
centers of 776-777, 779
Chinese connection and 779
at Ctesiphon urban complex 766, 777
dualist worldview 770
knowledge production by 776
organizational structure of 766
persecution of 653, 766, 770, 778, 781
Sasanian dynasty and 770
schism within 776-777
sources on 767-768
Turkic connections and 779
urban focus of 771
Zoroastrianism and 770-771
al-Manṣūr (r. 754-775)
astronomy/astrology and 98-100, 466, 715
on Baghdād 401
Carolingian dynasty and 373-374
construction activities of
correlation between military activities and 147, 182
infrastructural projects 4
Khuld Palace 26, 74
Madīnat al-Salām Madīnat al-Salām
Manṣūr Mosque Manṣūr Mosque
al-Rāfiqa al-Rāfiqa
al-Ruṣāfa 792
geographical studies and 389
inviting Medinan scholars to Baghdād 523, 524
military activities of 146-147, 183
military personnel of 6, 28, 146
al-Miṣrī on 411
nicknames of 55-57
poetry and 429
regnal name of 147
religious policies of 617-618, 701
sharing rule with son(s) 151-152
Tang emperor and 3n12
Manṣūr b. ʿAmmār (d. 840) 636, 638
al-Manṣūr bi-Naṣr Allāh (r. 946-953) 188
Manṣūr Mosque (Baghdād)
in general 12
debates in 217
extension of 155
higher education at 458
prayer niche (miḥrāb) from 75-76, 75
qibla of 69n10
renovation of 173, 176
mention of 3
al-Manṣūriyya (palatial city) 188
manuscripts Qurʾān production in Baghdād
Mappae Mundi 382
maps
of Asoristan 133
of Baghdād
medieval 382-383, 383
neighborhoods 5
of Byzantine Empire 343
of Ctesiphon urban complex 120
of the world 388n71
maqālas (essays) 558
Maqāmāt (al-Ḥarīrī) manuscripts xiv, 33, 86, 212, 318, 321, 332, 402, 421, 430, 446, 477, 508, 525, 527
in Bibliothèque National in Paris (1237) 81-82, 83-84
in Saint Petersburg 82, 85, 86
in Süleymaniye Library in Istanbul 82, 84-86
Maqāmāt (The Sessions) (Badīʿ al-Zamān al-Hamadhānī) 456
Maqāmāt qulūb (The Stations of the Heart) (al-Nūrī) 652, 655
al-Maqdisī (al-Muqaddasī) (d. ca. 1000) 214, 816
al-Maqdisī, Abū Sulaymān (fl. 10th cent.) 218
al-Maqdisī, al-Muṭahhar b. Ṭāhir (fl. 10th cent.) 793
al-Maqrīzī 304-305
Mār Bākhūs Church (Baghdād) 708
Mār Fathyūn Monastery (Baghdād) 705, 709
Mār Jirjis Monastery (north of Baghdād) 708
Mār Sarjīs Church (Baghdād) 708
Mār Tūmā Church (Baghdād) 706, 708, 710
Mār Tūmā Monastery (Sāmarrāʾ) 708
Marāgha Observatory (Baghdād) 304
Marāṣid al-iṭṭilāʿ (The Observatories for Examination) (ʿAbd al-Muʾmin b. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq al-Baghdādī) 813-814
Mardāvīj b. Ziyār (d. 935) 196, 203
Mārī b. Sulaymān (fl. 12th cent.) 229, 687-688, 700
maʿrifa (cognition) 646, 654, 656, 657, 661, 669-670 knowledge
Marin Sanudo (d. 1338) 301
al-Marīsī, Bishr (d. 833) 638
maritime trade 401-403
Mark Anthony (d. 30 BCE) 116
markets in Baghdād
in general 2, 15-16, 318, 318
in Arabic sources 791, 793, 802
Bookseller’s Market 31, 217-218, 445, 446, 451
Sūq al-ʿAtīqa 735
Sūq al-Thulathāʾ 317
Sūq al-Ṭīb 16
marriage 642-643
al-Marrūdhī, Abū Bakr (d. 888) 622
Maʿrūf al-Karkhī (d. 815)
in general 642-643
acceptance by Sunnī traditionalists 643-644
disciples of 647
doctrines of 644
opposition to marriage of 642-643
shrine of 7, 7, 251, 643, 643
Mārūthā (r. 629-649) 702
Marwān b. Abī Ḥafṣa (d. ca. 797) 434
Marwān II (r. 744-750) 143
Mary (daughter of Emperor Maurice) 130
Marzūbāniyya Hospice (Baghdād) 272, 272
Marzubān-nāma (The Writing of the Marzubān) 82
Masālik al-abṣār fī mamālik al-amṣār (The Itineraries of Insight: The Reigns of the Cities) (Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī) 388n71
Māshāʾ Allāh b. Atharī (d. ca. 815) 59, 98, 101, 753
mashrabiyyas (window lattices) 22, 23
Masjid al-Khulafāʾ (The Caliphs’ Mosque) (Baghdād) 12, 13
Masliah (Jewish judge from Palermo) 756-757
Massignon, Louis 665
master-disciple relationship 558, 574-575
Masʿūd (r. 1134-1152) 235, 249
al-Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn (d. 956/957)
on ʿAbbāsid court 415
Abū Zakariyyāʾ Denḥā and 717
on Baghdād 791
on Byzantine-ʿAbbāsid contacts 362
on Frankish emperors/Franks 384-385
on Madīnat al-Salām 792
on al-Miṣrī 418-419
on al-Mutawakkil 162n89
works of
Kitāb al-tanbīh wa-l-ishrāf 791
Murūj al-dhahab wa-maʿādin al-jawhar 199, 384-385, 456, 791
used as source 808
mathematics 535, 543, 548-549, 570
Maude Bridge (Baghdād) 433
Maurice (r. 582-602) 132
Mauro, Fra (d. 1556) 381, 383
mausolea shrines/mausolea/tombs
al-Māwardī, Abū l-Ḥasan (d.1058) 498
Mayhanī family 258
Mazyadid dynasty 187, 234, 236, 335
medaillons 166
medicine
experience and observation in 582, 583
Galen’s humoral theory of 569
Greek legacies in 567-568
Indian-Persian legacies in 537, 566, 567
monasteries and education in 709
philosophy and 569-570
psychology and 569
translations of works on 539, 565
works used in 566-567
physicians
Medina (formerly Yathrib) 117
scholars from Medinan scholars
Medinan scholars
in general 521-522
in Baghdād
ʿAbbāsids’ invitation for relocation to 522-528, 529
ʿAbbāsids’ poor relationship with 528
integration of 528-529
sponsoring of 524, 525, 526
Meinas Sabatha/Sābāṭ Madāʾin/Valāsh-Ābād 123
Melchert, Christopher xl, 476n8, 597-625, 653
Melkite Christians 684, 702, 703-704, 705, 706
membership, of religious communities 682
mental hospitals 569n47, 820
mercantile money-lending 747
merchants 210, 252, 299, 390-391, 400, 746
metallurgical production 319 mints
metaphysics 549-550
Metaphysics (Aristotle) 543, 547, 549, 550
Methodios (d. 885) 356-357
Mez, Adam 454
miaphysitism 683-684, 685, 686
Middle Persian language 768-769
miḥna (Inquisition) 535n7, 606, 619, 629, 631
miḥrāb (prayer niche) 75-76, 75
Il Milione ([The Book by Marco Polo, who is called] the Million-[Man]) (Polo) 824
military activities
of ʿAbbāsid dynasty
in general 149-150
al-Amīn 157, 183
against Byzantine Empire 154, 164, 176, 187, 342, 345-349
in correlation between construction activities 153, 155, 161, 165, 168, 173, 176-177, 181-187
Hārūn al-Rashīd 154, 346
al-Mahdī 152, 183
al-Maʾmūn 158, 347
al-Manṣūr 146-147, 183
al-Muqtadir 175, 176, 183, 412-413
al-Muqtafī 236
al-Mustaḍīʾ 236
al-Mustaʿīn 169, 183
al-Mustarshid 187, 236
al-Muʿtaḍid 28-29, 171, 172-173, 183, 358
al-Muʿtaṣim 156, 159-160, 183, 347
al-Mutawakkil 164
al-Muwaffaq 170, 171
al-Nāṣir li-Dīn Allāh 187
of Būyid dynasty 197
of Sasanian dynasty 117
military camps 433
military governors (shiḥnas) 242-243
military personnel/troops/armies
of ʿAbbāsid dynasty
abnāʾ al-dawla 28, 143, 153, 154, 156-157, 163
futuwwa groups and 29, 30
lands granted to 146, 161, 317
of al-Maʾmūn 28
of al-Manṣūr 6, 28, 146
of al-Muqtadir 29
of al-Muqtafī 29
of al-Muʿtaḍid 172
of al-Mutawakkil 163-164
of al-Nāṣir li-Dīn Allāh 29, 30
non-Iraqī origin of 28-29
palatial cities build for 186
payment of 29
Turkish/mamlūk army 28-29, 159, 160, 161, 163-164, 170, 172, 236
of Būyid dynasty 29, 202, 206
of Hülegü 290
of Ilkhanid dynasty 29
of Saljūq dynasty 29, 243
urban militia
military service, of Christians 693
Minhāj al-karāma fī maʿrifat al-imāma (The Miraculous Way of Knowledge of the Imamate) (al-ʿAllāma l-Ḥillī) 305
mints 166, 249, 300, 319 coinage; currency reforms
Miqlāṣ (fl. 8th cent) 766, 777
Miqlāṣ story 55-56
Mirʾāt al-zamān fī ʾrīkh aʿyān (The Mirror of the Times: The History of Notable Men) (Sibṭ b. al-Jawzī) 229, 266
Mirbad (Baṣra) 440
Mirjāniyya Madrasa (Baghdād) 18, 19, 458, 458, 459
Mirror of Princes literature (adab al-mulūk) 497-498
Miskawayh, Abū ʿAlī (d. 1030)
on Baghdād
in general 793-795
famine in 207
social unrest in 210
on Baghdād’s hinterland 330
on ethics 509-510
immortality of the human soul and 552
on ʿIzz al-Dawla 207
life of 509-510, 793
scientific polymathy of 571
synthetic philosophy of 547
works of
Tahdhīb al-akhlāq 509-510
Tajārib al-umam 151, 199, 330, 571, 793-794
mention of 455
misreadings 372
al-Miṣrī, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī 411, 413-414, 416, 418-419
mīthāq (primordial covenant) 641, 651, 661
Mithridates I (r. ca. 165-132 BCE) 115
Mīzānʿamal (The Criterion of Action) (al-Ghazālī) 497, 506
monasteries
in Baghdād
in general 2, 828
building of 694, 705-706
educational function of 709
libraries in 544, 709
overview of 706-707
periods of use of 708-709
pleasure function of 709-710
refuge function of 710-711
monasteries
in Baghdād’s hinterland 708, 828
money changers 746
money lenders 747
Möngke (r. 1251-1259) 290
Mongol conquest
in general 289-290
Badr al-Dīn Luʾluʾ and 268-269
of Baghdād
in general 278-279, 279, 280, 285-286, 285, 290, 513
influence on Latin texts 380-381
mythical dimensions of 285-286
Ilkhanid dynasty
monks 56, 57-58
monotheism 499
Morony, Michael G. xl, 137, 316, 682-727
mosques
in Baghdād
Barāthā Mosque 12
construction of, as legitimizing policy 186
higher education at 458, 476, 486
Ibn al-Mubārak Mosque 476
Jāmiʿ al-Qaṣr 10, 174, 239, 251, 293, 294, 308, 476
Jāmiʿ al-Sulṭān 11, 12, 249
Khāṣikī Mosque 75-76, 75
libraries at 490
Manṣūr Mosque Manṣūr Mosque
poetry performances at 432
prayer niches in 75-76, 75
Qamariyya Mosque 275
qibla of 69n10
Ruṣāfa Mosque 8, 12
sources on 793, 797, 799, 800, 802, 827
Umm Jaʿfar Mosque 12-13
in Cairo 486
in Constantinople 344, 355
Mosul 268-269, 703
mowbeds (Zoroastrian high priests) 765
Muʿammar b. ʿAbbād (d. 830) 630
Muʿāwiya b. Abī Sufyān (r. 661- 680)
cursing of 619, 622-623
legitimacy of 600-601, 616
mention of 342
Muʿaẓẓam Gate (Baghdād) 820
al-Mubārak (The Blessed One) (palatial complex) 155
al-Mubarrad (d. 898) 451-452, 494n85
mudawwara (round) circularity of cities
Mudyān Monastery (Baghdād) 707, 710
al-Mufaḍḍal al-Ḍabbī (d. 786) 440-441
Mufaḍḍaliyyāt (al-Mufaḍḍal’s Anthology of Qaṣīdas) (al-Mufaḍḍal al-Ḍabbī) 440-441
al-Mufīd, al-Shaykh (d. 1022) 484, 613
al-mughtasila (The Bathers) 767
muḥāḍara (practice of) 444n27, 452 adab
al-Muhallabī, Abū Muḥammad (d. 963) 201, 211-212, 454-455, 512, 826
Muḥammad (Prophet)
Companions of 612-613
laudable station of 622
sighting of God by 610-612, 616-617
Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh b. Ḥamdūn (d. 922) 420
Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Ṭanjī Ibn Baṭṭūṭa
Muḥammad b. Malik Shāh (r. 1105-1118) 249, 251
Muḥammad b. Mūsā b. Shākir (d. 873) 563
Muḥammad b. Rāʾiq (d. 942) 177
Muḥammad b. al-Ṭiqṭaqā (d. 1309) 459
Muḥammad b. al-Zayyāt (d. 847) 448
Muḥammad II (r. 1200-1220) 266-267, 288
Muḥammad al-Shāfiʿī (d. 820) 604
Muḥammad Shāh (r. 1153-1160) 236
Muḥammad al-Taqī (d. 835) 6
Muḥammadiyya Rayy
al-Muḥāsibī, al-Ḥārith (d. 857)
in general 638-639
disciples of 652, 658
doctrines of 639-640, 659
persecution of 640
Ṣūfī terminology of 640
works of 639
Muḥawwal Gate (neighborhood of Baghdād) 293 Bāb al-Muḥawwal
al-Muhtadī bi-llāh (r. 869-870) 169
Muʿizz al-Dawla (r. 945-967)
charity of 219
construction activities of 10, 219, 706
honorific name of 179, 203
land granted to viziers by 207
military activities of 197
religious policies of 202
Mujāhid al-Dīn Bahrūz (d. 1145) 243
Muʿjamal-buldān (The Dictionary of the Regions) (Yāqūt) 51, 708, 736, 809-810
Mukhāriq (singer) 432-433, 434-435
al-Mukharrim (Bāb al-Ṭāq) (neighborhood of Baghdād)
in general 7, 8, 14, 246-247, 810-811
palatial city/complex in 10-11 Dār al-Khilāfa
Sunnī Muslims in 8
al-Mukhtaṣar fī ʿilm al-ṭibb (The Summary in the Science of Medicine) (Ibn Mandawayh) 220
al-Muktafī bi-llāh (r. 902- 908)
accession to rule of 174
administrative/military education of 174
boon companion of 792
construction activities of 10, 174, 183, 194
death of 174
letter of Bertha to 385-386
military activities of, lack of 174
mention of 359
mukūs/maks (tolls) 693
al-Munajjim, ʿAlī b. Yaḥyā (d. 888) 490
munāẓaras (disputations) debates
municipal authority in Baghdād 21-22
Muʾnis al-Khādim/al-Muẓaffar (d. 933)
dress rules for Christians and 695-696
honorific names of 176
power at court of 175-177, 195, 408, 417
mention of 4, 173
al-Muntaṣif bi-llāh (r. 908) 175, 622
al-Muntaṣir bi-llāh (r. 861- 862)
accession to rule of 166-167, 621
administrative/military education of 165
death of 167
regnal name of 166-167
religious policies of 621-622
al-Muntaẓam fī taʾrīkh al-mulūk wa-l-umam (The Well-Arranged [Book]: The History of the Kings and Communities) (Ibn al-Jawzī) 200, 229, 265-266, 331-332, 509, 798
al-Muqābasāt (The Torches of Fire) (al-Tawḥīdī) 201, 455
al-Muqaddasī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad (d. ca. 1000) 214, 816
muqarnas (stalactite vaults) 22, 91, 92
al-Muqtadī bi-Amr Allāh (r. 1075-1094) 11, 233, 251, 696, 700
al-Muqtadir bi-llāh (r. 908-932) 409
accession to rule of 174-175
conflicts during reign of 176, 195
construction activities of 176-177
death of 176, 413
diplomatic missions and 195, 360, 408-409
military activities of 175, 176, 183, 412-413
military personnel of 29
mother of 415
Muʾnis al-Khādim influence on 175-176, 195n4
reception given by 87-88
relation between military and construction activities of 176-177
religious policies of 622, 695, 702, 703, 704, 781
al-Muqtafī li-Amr Allāh (r. 1136-1160) 29, 236, 700
murjiʾa (The Postponers) 601
Murjiʾism/Murjiʾīs 489, 535n7, 609, 616, 618
al-Murtaḍā, al-Sharīf (d. 1044) 484
Murūj al-dhahab wa-maʿādin al-jawhar (The Meadows of Gold and Mines of Jewels) (al-Masʿūdī) 199, 384-385, 456, 791
Mūsā b. Būghā l-Kabīr (d. 877) 170
Mūsā l-Kāẓim (d. 799) 6, 598, 618
al-Mushtarik (The [Book of] Shared [Names]) (Yāqūt) 814
Muslim b. al-Walīd (d. 823) 436
Muslim communities in Baghdād
during Ilkhanid rule 308
size of 711
Muslims; Shīʿī community in Baghdād; Ṣūfī community in Baghdād; Sunnī community in Baghdād
Muslims
Byzantine terminology for 343-344
in canon law 698-699
in Constantinople 359
conversion to Christianity of 712-713
in debate with Christians 576-577, 716-717
interest in non-Muslim world of 388-390
as prisoners of war 359, 361-362, 391, 712
use of term 532
Muslim communities
Musnad (The Supported, i.e. The [Book Including Traditions] Supported with a Chain of Transmitters) (Ibn Ḥanbal) 610, 611-612
al-Mustaḍīʾ bi-Amr Allāh (r. 1170-1180) 34, 236, 251, 253
al-Mustaʿīn bi-llāh (r. 862-866)
accession to rule of 167-168
construction activities of 14, 168, 169, 182
death of 168
military activities of 169, 183
residences of 168
al-Mustakfī bi-llāh (r. 944-946) 178-179, 197
al-Mustanjid bi-llāh (r. 1160-1170) 237, 251
al-Mustanṣir (r. 1036-1094) (Fāṭimid Imām-Caliph) 231
al-Mustanṣir I bi-llāh (r. 1226-1242)
construction activities of
in general 275-276
Dār al-Khilāfa’s walls 269
hospital 7
Mustanṣiriyya Madrasa 88-89, 89, 275, 276, 288, 482
expansion of the territories by 276
Ilkhanid dynasty and 276-277, 289
religious policies of 275
rule of 274, 277
sponsorship of 82
al-Mustanṣir II (r. 1261) 292
Mustanṣiriyya Madrasa (Baghdād) 89
in general 18-19
as center of Muslim community 308
compared to Bishriyya Madrasa 90
construction of 88-89, 276, 288
decorations of 90-91, 275
deputy vizier’s visit to 483
design of 89-90
foundation inscription on 90
founding of 482, 578
great hall of 89, 482-483, 811
hospital of 7
library of 304-305, 483
philosophy and 574n49
survival of 484
mention of 458, 813
Mustanṣiriyya University 484n36
al-Mustarshid bi-llāh (r. 1118-1135)
construction activities of 269
military activities of 187, 236
religious policies of 696, 703, 751
repossessing of Madīnat Ṭughril by 249
al-Mustaʿṣim bi-llāh (r. 1242-1258)
currency reform in 277-278
death of 290, 823
Ilkhanid dynasty and 278, 279, 289, 290
rule of 277, 289
social unrest during reign of 278, 289
sponsorship by 82
territory of reign of 288
tombstone of 291
al-Mustawfī Qazwīnī, Ḥamd Allāh (d. 1349) 287, 815-816
al-Mustaẓhir bi-llāh (r. 1078-1118)
construction activities of 14-15, 251, 269
physician of 715
repossessing of Madīnat Ṭughril by 249
Saljūq power and 234
al-Muʿtaḍid bi-llāh (r. 892-902)
accession to rule of 172
affinity for learning 491
boon companion of 719
construction activities of 10, 173, 182, 491 Dār al-Khilāfa
death of 174
Jewish money lenders and 747
literary salons and 493
military activities of 28-29, 171, 172-173, 183, 358
military personnel of 172
religious policies of 622
return to Baghdād by 194
sharing rule with son(s) 174
succession of 174
al-Muʿtamid bi-llāh (r. 870-892)
accession to rule of 169
brother’s dominance and 171-172, 622
on coinage 171
construction activities of 170
death of 172
military activities of, lack of 169-170
succession of 172
al-Muʾtamin/al-Qāsim b. Hārūn al-Rashīd (n.d.) 156
al-Muʿtamir, Bishr (d. 825) 629
al-Mutanabbī (d. 965) 427, 461, 756n109
al-Muʿtaṣim bi-llāh (r. 833-842)
accession to rule of 158
construction activities of 121, 161, 182
insurrection against 160
mamlūk army of 28, 159, 160
military activities of 156, 159-160, 183, 347
al-Miṣrī on 411
philosophy and 574
physician of 718
religious policies of 504, 619
residences of 161
in Sāmarrāʾ’s foundation legends 58
sharing rule with son(s) 161-162
sponsoring by 574
succession of 162
al-Mutawakkil ʿalā llāh (r. 847-861) 166
accession to rule of 162
administrative/military education of 161-162
boon companion of 165
coinage of 621
construction activities of 164-165, 182
death of 164, 166
literary salons and 493
military activities of 164
military personnel of 163-164
physician of 718
regnal name of 162n89
religious debates hosted by 356
religious policies of 505, 619, 621, 693, 694-695, 702
sharing rule with son(s) 165
succession of 165, 621-622
al-Mutawakkiliyya/al-Jaʿfariyya (palatial city) 164-165, 184
Muʿtazilism/Muʿtazilīs
in general 629
ʿAbbāsid dynasty and 230, 535n7, 618, 629
Ashʿarism/Ashʿarites and 216, 574n49
attacks on Christianity by 720-721
doctrines of
cosmological structure and 630
expansions of 552
five principles of 629-630
human agency in 630-631
on legitimate ruler 602
figurative art and 354-355
persecution of 618
philosophy and 574, 630
rationalist views in 573-574, 582, 603, 605, 616, 625
scientific research and 545n22
Muʿtazilīs
al-Muʿtazz bi-llāh (r. 866-869)
accession to rule of 168
administrative/military education of 165
on coinage 621
construction activities of 14, 168
death of 168
granting of palace to 164
military activities of, lack of 168
regnal name of 165
succession of 169
al-Muthammina (The Precious) (Baghdād) 251
Muṭīʿ b. Iyās (d. 785) 429, 435-436
al-Muṭīʿ li-llāh (r. 946- 974) 179, 693, 704
al-Muttaqī li-llāh (r. 940-944)
accession to rule of 197
boon companions, not wanting 421-422
conflicts during reign of 178
disposing of 197, 623
political struggles during reign of 792
al-Ṣūlī on 421-422
al-Muwaffaq bi-llāh (Ṭalḥa) (d. 891)
on coinage 171
construction activities of 171, 182
death of 172
honorific title of 171, 176
military activities of 170, 171
as al-Muʿtamid’s co-caliph 171-172, 622
sharing rule with son(s) 170-171
Sufism and 636, 653
mention of 622
al-Muwaffaqiyya (palatial city) 171
al-Muwaṭṭaʾ (The Well-Trodden [Path]) (Ibn al-Mājishūn) 524
al-Muwaṭṭaʾ (The Well-Trodden [Path]) (Mālik b. Anas) 526
mystical charisma (karāma) 649
Mžik, Hans von 807
nafs human souls
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya, Muḥammad (d. 762) 617
nahḍa (revival) movement 467
Nahrawān Canal (Qaṭāl-Nahrawān) 2, 133-134
nāʾib (viceroy) 292, 298
Najaf 36, 76, 485
al-Najāshī (d. 1058), Aḥmad b. ʿAlī 615
names honorific names/titles; nicknames; regnal names
Narsai (d. 503) 684
Narseh I (r. 293-302) 135
Narsinka (Andragoras) 115
Naṣāʾikhdīniyya (The Book of Religious Counsels) (al-Muḥāsibī) 639
al-Nāshiʾ al-Akbar (d. 906) 722
al-nāṣiba (The Hostiles) 600-601
Nasīḥatmulūk (The Advice to Rulers) (al-Māwardī) 498
al-Nāṣir li-Dīn Allāh (honoric title of al-Muwaffaq bi-llāh) 171, 176
al-Nāṣir li-Dīn Allāh (r. 1180-1225)
ʿAbbāsid revival and 228, 266, 288
construction activities of
in general 272-273
Dār al-Khilāfa’s walls 269
Nāṣiriyya Madrasa 272
restoration projects of 92, 93, 272, 273, 273, 274
shrine of Zumurrud Khātūn 269, 272
Ṣūfī lodges 272, 272
external policies of 267-269, 288
gaon appointment and 744-745
Ilkhanid dynasty and 267, 289
Khwārazm dynasty and 266-267, 288
library sponsorship by 82
military activities of 187
military personnel of 29, 30
physicians and 715
reforms of
in general 237
of futuwwa groups 269-270, 280
religious policies 37, 271-272, 280
religious policies of 696, 703
rule of 273
Nāṣiriyya Madrasa (Baghdād) 272
naskh script 80
Naṣr (or Yaḥyā) b. Yaḥyā l-Mutaṭabbib (d. 1193 or 1163) 712, 723
Naṣr b. Hurmuzd al-Samarqandī (fl. 9th cent.)) 777-778
Naṣr al-Qushūrī (d. 928) 408-409, 409, 417, 636, 717
naṣṣ (designation) 598, 600
al-Nassāj, Khayr (d. 934) 651-652, 668
Nathan the Babylonian (fl. 2nd cent.) 734, 743
Naṭronay ben Emmunah (fl. 8th cent.) 735
natural disasters 20-21, 237-239, 277, 289, 296, 300, 330-334
navy construction 295, 301
Nawas, John 158n71
Nawbakht (d. before 775) 59, 98, 100
al-Nawbakhtī, Abū Sahl Ismāʿīl (d. 923) 615-616
al-Nawbakhtī, Ḥusayn b. Rawḥ (d. 938) 599, 615
Nawbakhtī family 615-616
Naẓīf b. Yumn al-Baghdādī (d. after 983) 713, 717
nāẓir al-awqāf (inspector of the endowments) 298-299
Naẓm al-jawhar (The String of Jewels) (Eutychios) 695
al-Naẓẓām (d. ca. 845) 629, 630
Neggaz, Nassima 36
neighborhoods/quarters of Baghdād
in general 245
Anbārī Mosque Quarter 8-9
al-ʿAttābiyya 87
Bāb al-Azaj 239
Bāb al-Baṣra Bāb al-Baṣra
Bāb al-Ḥadīd 707
Bāb al-Ḥarb 6, 28, 146
Bāb al-Marātib 239
Bāb al-Muḥawwal 6, 11, 293, 735, 812
Bāb al-Ṭāq al-Mukharrim
Darb al-ʿAwn 708
inhabitants shifts in 9
al-Karkh al-Karkh
Lower Harbour Quarter 6, 7
map of 5
al-Mukharrim al-Mukharrim
overview of 5-10
al-Ruṣāfa al-Ruṣāfa
segregation in 8-9, 25, 239
al-Shammāsiyya al-Shammāsiyya
al-Shāriʿ 6
sinners quarter 308
social functions of 8
sources on 791, 793, 794, 796, 799, 802, 810-812, 813-815, 827
tensions between 208-209
al-Waddāh 78
Neoplatonic philosophy 547, 549, 550, 556, 573, 585-586
Nestorians East Syrian Church
Nestorius (d. 451) 683
Neṭīra family 747
New Seleucia Vēh Ardashīr
Newman, Andrew 599, 613, 614
Nicephorus (d. 828) 349n41
Nicholas I Mystikos (d. 925) 352, 360
nicknames 55-57, 645, 652, 658
Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle) 551
Niebuhr, Carsten 8
Nikephoros II Phokas (r. 963-969) 409-410
Nikephoros Ouranos (d. ca. 1010) 362
Niketas (fl. 9th cent.) 357
Nishapurī family 258
Nishwār al-muḥāḍara (The Table Talk [of a Mesopotamian Judge]) (al-Tanūkhī) 200-201
Niẓām al-Mulk (d. 1092)
founding/sponsoring of madrasa by 240, 249, 480
pro-Ashʿarī policy of 258
residence of 4, 249
mention of 232, 234
Niẓāmiyya Madrasa (Baghdād)
in general 255, 480-481
appointment of teachers at 482n30
manuscript produced at 82
renovation of 272
scholarly sessions at 481
sponsoring of 240, 249, 480
Sunnī–Shīʿī tensions and 482
mention of 458
Niẓāmiyya Madrasa (Khargird) 249n49, 250
nomadism 335
Northedge, Alastair 4, 102
Noth, Albrecht 697
Notker (d. 912) 376-377
Nūḥ b. Manṣūr (r. 976-997) 221
al-Nuʿmān III b. al-Mundhir (r. 582-602) 123
nūr (light) 641-642
al-Nūrī, Abū l-Ḥusayn (d.907) 652-655, 671, 674-675
Nuṣratfatra (The Support of the Era) (al-Kātib al-Iṣfahānī) 229
Nuzhat al-mushtāq (The Pleasure Excursion) (al-Idrīsī) 388n71
Nuzhat al-qulūb (The Entertainment for the Hearts) (Ḥamd Allāh al-Mustawfī) 815-816
Nuzhat al-qulūb (The Entertainment for the Hearts) (Ḥamd Allāh al-Mustawfī Qazwīnī) 287
observations
in astronomy 562-563, 564, 582-583
in medicine 582, 583
observatories (marāṣid/marṣad)
ʿAbbāsid dynasty and 579-580
Būyid dynasty and 220-221, 562, 580
higher education at 491
occultations 598, 599
Ode to the Conquest of Amorion Amorio (Abū Tammām) 347-348, 364
officials ʿAbbāsid officials/bureaucrats; Saljūq officials/bureaucrats
O’Kane, Bernard xl, 66-94, 105
O’Meara, Simon 52, 61
On the Soul (Aristotle) 551
One Thousand and One Nights (Alfylalayla) 371-372, 512
oneness of God (tawḥīd)
in general 648, 657, 661
al-Ḥallāj on 665
al-Junayd on 659, 675-676
al-Jurayrī on 663
al-Kharrāz on 650
al-Wāsiṭī on 672
Opis (Upija) 113, 118
oratories (masjids) 249, 251, 252
Organon (The Instrument) (Aristotle) 543, 548, 716, 719
organs (musical instrument) 372
Orientalism 467, 580-581
orthodoxy vs. orthopraxy 602
Oschema, Klaus xl–xli, 371-393
Osroes I (r. 89-128) 122
Osti, Letizia xli, 407-423
oud player 442
Our Lady of al-ʿUqba Church (Baghdād) 708
Ovadiah the Proselyte (fl. 12th century) 751
ovality of cities 104, 105, 106, 118, 128n90
Oyirat tribe 296
Pact of ʿUmar 697-698, 727
pagans/paganism 343-344, 351, 360
page girls (ghulāmiyyāt) 414
Pahlavi script 768-769
Palace Friday Mosque (Jāmiʿ al-Qaṣr) (Baghdād) 10, 174, 239, 251, 293, 294, 308, 476
palaces
in Baghdād
in general 4
Golden Gate Palace 3, 73-74
Ḥasanī Palace 159, 173
Khuld Palace 26, 74, 154-155, 158n72
al-Muthammina 251
Ruṣāfa Palace 168
sources on 810
Ṭāhirid Palace 173
Tāj Palace 10, 174, 408
Zubayda Palace 176
in Sāmarrāʾ 162, 164, 170, 170
in Sasanian Ctesiphon 125-126
palatial cities/complexes
palatial cities/complexes
in general 188
of ʿAbbāsid dynasty
construction of, military activities and 147-148, 181-183, 184-187
Dār al-Khilāfa Dār al-Khilāfa
al-Jaʿfariyya/al-Mutawakkiliyya 164-165, 184
Madīnat al-Salām Madīnat al-Salām
al-Mubārak (al-Qāṭūl) 155
al-Muwaffaqiyya 171
al-Rāfiqa al-Rāfiqa
al-Ruṣāfa al-Ruṣāfa
Sāmarrāʾ Sāmarrāʾ
of Būyid dynasty 10-11, 219, 810
functions of
as legitimizing policy 186-187
for military personnel 186
of Saljūq dynasty 11, 248-249, 810
walls of 13-14, 269
palaces; al-Rāfiqa
panegyric odes 429
Pāpā (d. ca. 330) (bishop) 129-130, 683
paper money 295-296
paper production 76, 78, 302, 538-539
Paradise 552
parallelism 449
parchment 76
Parthian Ctesiphon 63, 119, 121, 122 Sasanian Ctesiphon
Parthian dynasty
in general 114-116
cities/villages of
Darzindan 123n62
Parthian Ctesiphon 63, 119, 121, 122
Valāsh-Ābād/Meinas Sabatha/Sābāṭ Madāʾin 123, 137
descendants of 135
Parthian Stations (Isidore of Charax) 122
Partisans of ʿAbd al-Ṣamad 240-241
Passio sancti Romani (Passion of Saint Roman) 379
pastoralism 334-335
patriarchs catholicos, East Syrian
patronage sponsoring
Paulicians 348, 358
payment, of courtiers 419
The People of Affirmation (ahl al-ithbāt) 624
The People of the Book (ahl al-kitāb) 692
peregrinations, double 674
persecution/abuse/discrimination
of Christians 307, 693-696
of Ḥanbalīs 623
of Jews 295, 732, 748-752
of Manichaeans 653, 766, 770, 778, 781
of Murjiʾīs 618
of Muʿtazilīs 618
of Ṣūfīs 505-506 636, 640, 653, 656, 658, 663, 665, 675
by Zoroastrians 766, 770
Petachiah ben Jaʿaqov (fl. 12th cent.) Petachiah of Regensburg
Petachiah of Regensburg (fl. 12th cent.)
on Baghdād 23, 247, 737, 739-740
travels of 734, 821
works of, Sibbuv 821
mention of 230
Peter III of Antioch (1052-1056?) 704
petitions 697-698, 727
pharmacology 568, 583
philology/philologists 389, 451
philosophers (falāsifa/faylasūf)
Aristotelian movement and 547, 719
Baghdād School of 542, 547, 557, 719
Christian 719-720
common ideas of 546
on cosmology 555-557
education of 548-549
issues tackle by 551-553
on philosophy and religion 553-555
proper ethical conduct of citizens and 552-553
scientific polymathy of 570-571
self-perception of 587
sponsoring of 216, 574
status of 545-546
synthetic philosophical system of 547-548
knowledge production; philosophy
philosophy (falsafa)
Christian theology and 716
Islamic theology and 573-574
monasteries and education in 709
Muʿtazilism/Muʿtazilīs and 630
religion and 533-534, 547-548, 553-555
philosophers
Photios I (d. 893) 351-352, 357
physicians (aṭibbāʾ) 714
in general 558-559
at ʿAbbāsid court 713, 715, 718
East Syrian Christian 565, 713-715
education of 220, 567
humoral theory and 569
pharmacological project of 568
scientific polymathy of 571
sponsoring of 566
writing medical literature 566-567
hospitals; medicine; under specific physicians
physics 549, 583
Physics (Aristotle) 542
pious foundations waqfs
Pippin (r. 751-768) 373-374
pirates 258-359
Planetary Hypothese (Ptolemy) 561, 563
Plato (d. 347 BCE) 551 Neoplatonic philosophy; Platonic philosophy
Platonic philosophy 547, 551, 553, 569, 586
Pliny the Elder (d. 79) 121
Plotinus (d. 270) 541, 547, 550, 556
Plutarch (d. after 119) 62
poetry
in general 426, 427-428, 436-437, 442
Byzantine 363-364
exchange of
at ʿAbbāsid court 428-429
in private realm 435-436
in public realm 429, 430, 431-435, 437
Sāmarrāʾ in 426
political theory, ethics and 553
poll tax (jizya) 303, 692, 693, 697, 701
Polo, Marco (d. 1324) 287, 301, 382, 824
polytheism 499
population inhabitants
porcelain bowls 204
Porphyry (d. ca. 305) 543, 548
Posterior Analytics (Aristotle) 543, 582
The Postponers (al-murjiʾa) 601
Pourshariati, Parvaneh xli, 111-139
poverty (faqr) 634, 786
prayer niche (miḥrāb) 75-76, 75
preachers 508
predestination (qadar)
in Shīʿī Islam 613-614, 616
in Sufism 651
in Sunnī Islam 552, 607, 608-609
primary schools (maktabs) 494-495
primogeniture 180
primordial covenant (mīthāq) 641, 651, 661
prisoners of war
Chinese 400
Christian 8, 705, 706-707
exchange between ʿAbbāsids and Byzantines 346, 348, 356
Muslim 359, 361-362, 391, 712
private homes, scholarly sessions/teaching at 211, 218, 475, 491, 575, 709
Proclus (d. 485) 541, 550, 556
production in Baghdād
in general 318-319
of art 93-94
of books 31, 33, 78, 302, 445, 484, 538-539
funding of 319-320
of knowledge knowledge production in Baghdād
metallurgical 319
of paper 76, 78, 302, 538-539
of Qurʾāns Qurʾān production in Baghdād
of sugar 319
of textiles 87-88, 302, 319
proofs of the prophethood (dalāʾil al-nubuwwa) genre 721-722, 723
property taxes (ʿushr) 693
prophecies, in foundation narratives 55-58
Prophetic traditions ḥadīths
prose
artistic/literary
in general 439
in the 8th century 443-444
in the 9th century 447-453
in the 10th century 454-456
in the 11th & 12th century 454-457
in the 13th & 14th century 457-460
adab works 449, 450, 497-498, 826-832
bureaucrats and 433-444
plain
in general 442-443
apologetical treatises apologetical treatises
commentaries 542-543, 547, 586-587
geographical works 804-816
historiographies 452-453, 788-804
legal treatises legal treatises
Responsa 558
short epistles and essays 558
short narratives 428
shukūk (doubts) literature 584
Summae 557-558
super-commentaries 543
travel accounts travel writing/writers
proselytes 130
psychology 569, 639-640
Ptolemy (d. ca. 170)
criticism of 584
scientific polymathy of 572
system of 387-388, 560, 573
works of
in general 560
Almagest 561, 562, 563
Geography 389
Planetary Hypothese 561, 563
public libraries 221
Pumbedita Yeshiva
in general 129, 732, 735
educational activities at 743-744, 744
income of 742
move to Baghdād 733, 741
sending of queries to 741-742
Sura Yeshiva and 742
al-Qaddaḥāt, Muḥammad 830
al-Qādir (r. 991-1031) 12-13, 38, 230, 702-703
Qādiriyya (Ṣūfī order) 271, 678
qāḍīs (judges) 29, 298, 299, 527 chief judges
al-Qāhir bi-llāh (r. 929 & 932-934) 176-177, 195, 411, 704
qahramānas (stewardesses) 414
al-Qāʾim bi-Amr Allāh (r. 1031-1075)
on coinage 232
construction activities of 251
disposition and reinstatement of 231, 236, 363
religious policies of 230, 696, 699-700, 739
al-Qalānisī, Abū Aḥmad Muṣʿab (d. 883/884) 658
Qamariyya Mosque (Baghdād) 275
al-Qanūn fī l-ṭibb (The Canon of Medicine) (Ibn Sīnā) 220, 567, 570
Qara Qoyunlu tribe 297
Qaraqorum 290
Qarmaṭians 598
al-Qāshānī (fl. 1304-1316) 287, 302
al-Qāsim b. Hārūn al-Rashīd/al-Muʾtamin (n.d.) 156
al-Qāsim b. ʿUbayd Allāh (d. 904) 719
al-Qaṣṣār, Ḥamdūn (d. 884) 634
Qaṭāl-Nahrawān (Nahrawān Canal) 2, 133-134
qaṭīʿat al-Naṣārā (Christian quarter) (Baghdād) 706, 707, 710
Qaṭrabbul 708, 710
al-Qāṭūl 155
Qaymāz, Quṭb al-Dīn (d. 1175) 237
al-Qazwīnī, Abū Yūsuf (d. 1095) 494
al-Qazwīnī, Rāḍī l-Dīn Aḥmad (d. 1194) 481
al-Qazwīnī, Zakariyāʾ b. Muḥammad (d. 1283)
on Baghdād’s hinterland 303
life of 812
on Madīnat al-Salām 75
on taxation 303-304
works of
Ajāʾib al-makhlūqāt 307
Āthār al-bilād wa-akhbār al-ʿibād 812
sources used by 812
quarters neighborhoods/quarters of Baghdād
al-Qūhī, Abū Sahl (d. 1014) 220, 580
Qumm (Qom) 485, 614-616
Qunnā Monastery (Baghdād’s hinterland) 708
Qurʾān
on Byzantines 340
cosmological pursuits and 560
createdness/uncreatedness of 488-489, 503-504, 507, 535n7, 606, 619, 631
Paradise in 552
Sharīʿa law and 606
subordination of reason and 607-608
al-Tustarī’s methods of understanding 641
Qurʾān production in Baghdād; Qurʾānic verses
Qurʾān production in Baghdād
in general 302
caligraphed/illuminated by Ibn al-Bawwāb 76-77, 77, 80
in Chester Beatty Library 79-80
Chinese influence on 307
in the Rampur Raza Library 78, 79
by Yāqūt al-Mustaʿṣimī 305
Qurʾānic verses
2:164 560
6:103 617
6:127 73
7:72 651
10:25 73
10:25-26 3
17:1 610
17:60 610
17:79 622
21:23 608
21:32 560
53:6-11 611
71:19 645
Qurʾān
al-Qurashī, Rawḥ (fl. 9th cent.) 712
Quraysh Cemetery (Baghdād) 6, 36
al-Qushayrī, Abū l-Qāsim (d. 1072) 677
Qusṭā b. Lūqā (d. ca. 920) 717, 719
Qūt al-qulūb (The Nourishment of the Hearts) (al-Makkī) 677
Qūṭā Monastery (north of Baghdād) 708
Quṭuz (d. 1260) 292
Rabban Ṣawmā (d. 1294) 306
Rabban al-Ṭabarī al-Ṭabarī, Alī b. Sahl Rabban
rabbinic courts 731-732
rabbis 731-732 rabbis
Rābiʿa l-ʿAdawiyya (d. 801) 644
Rabīʿa l-Raʾy (d. ca. 760) 523, 528-529
al-Radd ʿalā l-Naṣārā (The Refutation of the Christians) (Bishr b. al-Muʿtamir) 721
al-Radd ʿalā l-Naṣārā (The Refutation of the Christians) (Ibn Jazla) 723
al-Radd ʿalā l-Naṣārā (The Refutation of the Christians) (al-Jāḥiẓ) 721
al-Radd ʿalā l-Naṣārā (The Refutation of the Christians) (al-Jubbāʾī) 721
al-Radd ʿalā l-Naṣārā (The Refutation of the Christians) (al-Kindī) 721
al-Radd ʿalā l-Naṣārā (The Refutation of the Christians) (Rabban al-Ṭabarī) 723
al-Radd ʿalā l-thalātha firaq min al-Naṣārā (The Refutation of the Three Christian Sects) (Abū ʿĪsā al-Warrāq) 721
The Radhanites (al-rādhāniyya) 390-391, 746
al-Rāḍī bi-llāh (r. 934-940)
boon companions of 420, 421, 792
death of 197, 420
establishment of amīr al-umarāʾ by 196, 418
military activities of, lack of 177-178
political struggles during reign of 195-196
religious policies of 37, 623
al-Ṣūlī on 420
Rāfiḍīs (The Rejectors) 209-210, 613
al-Rāfiqa (palatial complex) (near Raqqa)
as ʿAbbāsid residence 9, 26, 156
construction of
by Hārūn al-Rashīd 155, 182
by al-Manṣūr 147
foundation legends of 56
horseshoe form of 103, 147
Rāḥatʿaql (The Comfort of Reason) (al-Kirmānī) 486
Raqqa 67n3, 292, 346 al-Rāfiqa
al-Rasāʾil (The Epistles) (Ibn ʿAbbād) 200, 218
al-Rasāʾil (The Epistles) (al-Junayd) 659
Rasāʾil Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ (The Epistles of the Brethren of Purity) 82
al-Rashīd (r. 786-809) Hārūn al-Rashīd (r. 786-809)
al-Rāshid bi-llāh (r. 1135-1136) 235
Rashīd al-Dīn (d. 1318) 285, 287, 290, 384n50
Rāshidūn Caliphs 399, 600-602 caliphs
rationalism
in Muʿtazilism 573-574, 582, 603, 605, 616, 625
in Shīʿī Islam 605, 624-625
Sufism and 635
in Sunnī Islam 605, 624-625
Rava (Abba ben Joseph bar Ḥama) (ca. 280-352) 128-129
al-Rawḍa l-anīqa (The Splendid Garden) (al-Ḥarīzī) 735n18
Rayy (Rhages) 115, 152n37, 214, 221, 615
al-Rāzī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Zakariyyāʾ (d. 925)
Būyids and 213
on celestial realm 556
experience and observation and 583
immortality of the human soul and 552
life of 490-491
medical achievements of 565
medical observations of 566
originality of 587
psychology and 569
religion and 533, 534n5
scientific polymathy of 570-571
synthetic philosophy of 547, 565
on theory of aether 584
on theory of matter 585
works of 491, 566, 570, 584
reason (raʾy or ʿaql), vs. revelations 605, 607-608
reciting God’s name (dhikr) 605, 641
reforms
of currencies 277-278
of futuwwa groups 269-270, 280
of religious policies 37, 271-272, 280
of taxation 303-304
regnal names
in ʿAbbāsid dynasty 143n3, 147, 148, 152, 156, 162n89, 165, 166-167, 186, 188
in Fāṭimid dynasty 188
in Latin texts 375
The Rejectors (Rāfiḍīs) 209-210, 613
religion
astronomy and 560
persecution and persecution/abuse/discrimination
philosophy and 533-534, 547-548, 553-555
faiths
religious communities, in general 682 religious communities
religious endowments waqfs
religious festivals
Christian 24, 709-710
Islamic 23-24, 36, 202, 260
religious policies
of ʿAbbāsid dynasty
Christians in general and 692-696
createdness of Qurʾān and 503-504, 505
dress codes dress codes, for non-Muslims
East Syrian Church and 689-690
Imperial Byzantine Church and 703-704
Inquisition and Inquisition
Judaism and 738
Manichaeism/Manichaeans and 766, 781
Melkite Christians and 702, 703-704
Murjiʾism and 535n7, 618
Muʿtazilism and 230, 535n7, 618, 629
reforms of 37, 271-272, 280
religious leadership and 738
Shīʿī Islam and 35-36, 37, 230, 275
Sufism and 271-272, 636, 653
Sunnī/Shīʿī Islam 617-619, 621-623
Syrian Orthodox Church and 701-702
West Syrian Church and 700, 702-703
of Būyid dynasty 36, 198, 202, 623, 694
of caliphs towards Jews 738
of Saljūq dynasty
Ashʿarism and 243, 244, 258, 480
East Syrian Church and 699-701
Shīʿī Islam and 36, 37, 260
Sufism and 244, 257, 258
Sunnī Islam and 227
of Sasanian dynasty
Christianity and 683, 685-687
Judaism and 731-732
tolerance in 770
Zoroastrianism and 765, 768
of Umayyad dynasty 688-689
religious scholars
in Baghdād
professional opportunities for 31-32, 461
scientific research and 545n22
teaching in madrasas 480
scholars
religious tolerance 36, 37, 275, 576, 770, 775
religious unrest social/religious unrest
Renan, Ernest 354n62
Renterghem, Vanessa Van xliii, 227-261
renunciation (zuhd)
in general 605, 634-635, 637, 674-675
Bishr al-Ḥāfī on 646
al-Khuldī on 674
love and 644
Maʿrūf al-Karkhī on 644
al-Sarrāj on 647-648
residences
of ʿAbbāsid dynasty
Dār al-Khilāfa Dār al-Khilāfa
Hārūn al-Rashīd 9, 26, 103, 154-155
Madīnat al-Salām Madīnat al-Salām
al-Maʾmūn 9, 26-27, 158
al-Mustaʿīn 168
al-Muʿtaṣim 161
al-Rāfiqa al-Rāfiqa
of catholicos catholicos, East Syrian
of exilarchate/exilarchs 39, 129, 247, 735
of Ilkhanid dynasty 11, 293, 307
of Mandaeans 771-772
of Saljūq officials/bureaucrats 4, 249
Responsa literature 558
revelations vs. reason 605, 607-608
Rhazes al-Rāzī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Zakariyyāʾ
ribāṭs Ṣūfī lodges in Baghdād
Riccoldo da Montecroce (d. 1320)
on Baghdād 287, 381-382, 823-824
on Mandaeans 771-772
travels of 823
works of
Contra legem Sarracenorum 306
Liber peregrinationis 771, 823
Rifāʿiyya (Ṣūfī order) 271
al-Riḥla (The Travel) (Ibn Baṭṭūṭa) 482-483
al-Riḥla (The Travel) (Ibn Jubayr) 246, 821
al-Riḥla (The Travel) (Ibn Juzayy) 825
al-Rijāl (The Men) (al-Najāshī) 615
riots (fitan/fitna) social/religious unrest
al-Risāla (The Epistle) (al-Qushayrī) 677
risālas (epistles) 558
Rivāyat-ī Ēmēd-ī Ashwahishtān (The Rivāyat [i.e. Letter] of Ēmēd, the Ashwahishtān) 769-770
Roman Empire 116-117, 122, 339
Rosenthal, Franz 497
round (mudawwara) circularity of cities
rowboats 321
The Royal Book or The ʿAḍudī Law in Medicine (al-Majūsī) 220, 567
al-Rūdhrāwarī, Abū Shujāʿ (d. 1095) 199, 696, 748-749, 795
Rukn al-Dawla (r. 935-976) 197, 203
al-Rūm (Imperial [Byzantine] Church) 685, 703-704
Rūm Monastery (Baghdād) 705-706, 709
Rūmiyyāt (The Greek or Byzantine [Poems]) (Abū Firās) 362
al-Rūmiyya/Vēh Antioch Khosrow 131-132, 137
al-Rummānī (d. 994) 721
al-Ruṣāfa (ʿAskar al-Mahdī) (neighborhood of Baghdād)
in general 4, 7, 8, 810
as central burial place for ʿAbbāsid caliphs 76, 173
construction activities in
of al-Mahdī 12, 74, 152, 789, 802
of al-Manṣūr 792
of al-Muʿtaḍid 173
destructions at 168, 278
longevity of 184
Ruṣāfa Mosque (Baghdād) 8, 12
Ruṣāfa Palace (Baghdād) 168
Rustichello da Pisa (d. early 14th cent.) 824
Rusūm Dār al-Khilāfa (The Illustrations of the Abode of the Caliphate) (al-Ṣābiʾ) 199, 795-796, 828
Ruwaym (d. 915) 635, 655-656
Saʿadya (gaon of Sura Yeshiva) 741, 746, 754, 755
al-sabab al-awwal (The First Cause) 551, 556
Sābāṭ Madāʾin/Valāsh-Ābād/Meinas Sabatha 123
Sabeans Ṣābians
al-Ṣābiʾ, Hilāl (d. 1056)
on ʿAbbāsid court 829
on Baghdād 829
correspondence of 200
works of
Kitāb al-tājī 200
Rusūm Dār al-Khilāfa 199, 795-796, 828
sources used by 829
used as source 797, 831
Ṣābians 38, 40, 475n5, 767
Sabrīshōʿ I (r. 596-604) 686
Sabuktakīn (d. 997) 206
Sābūr b. Sahl (d. 869) 566
Sābur Monastery (Bazūghā) 708
Sachau, Eduard 707
sack of Baghdād attacks on Baghdād
Saʿd al-Dawla (d. 1291) 295, 300, 306
Ṣadaqa (r. 1086-1108) 240
al-Ṣadāqa wa-l-ṣadīq (The Friendship and the Friend) (al-Tawḥīdī) 201
al-Saffāḥ (r. 749-754) 144
construction activities of 145, 183, 184
inviting Medinan scholars to Baghdād 522-523
military activities of, lack of 145
al-Miṣrī on 411
regnal name of 143n3
religious policies of 690
Tang dynasty and 399
victory over Marwān II by 143
Ṣafī l-Dīn al-Urmawī (d. 1294) 22, 307
ṣāḥib al-dīwān (chief financial administrator) 292, 293, 297, 298, 299
ṣāḥibshurṭa (head police officer) 243
al-Ṣaḥīḥ (al-Bukhārī) 612
Sahl b. Hārūn b. Rāhawayh (d. 830) 447-448
al-Sahl al-Nishapurī (fl. 13th cent.) 60
ṣaḥw (sobriety) 660, 661, 675
Saʿīd (b.) al-ʿAllāf (fl. early 9th cent.) 487
saints, Christian 699
sajʿ rhymes 455
Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn (r. 1171/1174-1193) 268
Ṣalīb Monastery (Baghdād) 707
Saljūq dynasty
ʿAbbāsid caliphate and 227, 232-237
Byzantine Empire and 363
construction activities of 11, 245-259
end of, in Iran and Iraq 237, 266
establishment of 231-232
income of 233
military personnel of military personnel/troops/armies
palatial cities/complexes of 11, 248-249, 810
political struggles during reign of 234
religious policies of religious policies
representatives in Baghdād 233, 242-243
social/religious unrest during 239-243
sources on 228-230
sponsoring by 248-249
Saljūq officials/elites 249, 251, 259
Salm b. Sālim (d. ca. 810) 618
Salmān al-Fārisī (d. 657) 127
Salmān-i Sawājī (d. 1376) 459
salons debates
salons (majālis/majlis) scholarly sessions
Samālū Church (Baghdād) 705
Samālū Monastery (Baghdād) 706-707
Samarkand 778-779
Sāmarrāʾ
in general 9, 161
ʿAbbāsid rule from, end of 172
foundation of
legend concerning 58
reason for 121, 161
longevity of 184
monastery in 708
palaces in 162, 164, 170, 170
patriarchal see in 695
in poetry 426
Shīʿī imāms at 621
size of 164-165
mention of 325, 381
Samawʾal al-Maghribī (d. 1175) 757
Samosas (d. after 908) 359
Ṣamṣām al-Dawla (d. 998) 214
Samuel ben Ḥophni (d. 1034) 742, 749, 754
Samuel Ha-Nagid b. Naghrillah (d. 1055) 741
Sanad b. ʿAlī (fl. 9th cent.) 563
Sander, Paul 603
al-Sarhan, Saud 607
Sarī l-Saqaṭī (d. 867) 647-648, 649, 651, 652, 658
al-Sarrāj, Abū Naṣr (d. 988)
on Ruwaym 657
teacher of 674
on al-Wāsiṭī 673
works of, Kitāblumaʿ 647, 662, 668, 677
Sasanian Ctesiphon
bridges in 124
churches in 124-125
as circular shaped 67
foundation of 112
functions of 123-124
īwān in 125, 125, 126
palaces in 125-126
residential quarters of 124-127, 137
scholarship on 117-118
walls of 124
Sasanian dynasty
in general 116
agriculture during 322-327
Baghdād during 1-2
Byzantine Empire and 116-117
cities/villages of
Mabrakta 134
Vēh Antioch Khosrow 131-132
Sasanian Ctesiphon; Vēh Ardashīr
construction activities of 124, 125, 125, 126, 127, 128
court of 135-136
naming of 116
Parthian dynasty and 116
religious policies of
Christianity and 683, 685-686
Judaism and 731-732
tolerance in 770
Zoroastrianism and 765, 768
Roman Empire and 116-117
territory of 117
use of Seleucia by 127
Satan (Iblīs) 665, 667
Sayf al-Dawla (r. 945-967) 362, 704
Scheiner, Jens xli, 1-40, 102-106, 143-188, 785-832
Schmid, H. 90
scholarly receptions 213-214
scholarly sessions (majālis/majlis)
in general 211, 214-215, 475, 491-492, 581
example of 481
inter-religious debates in 576-577
at private homes 211, 218, 475, 491, 575, 709
scholarly receptions; sessions of wisdom; study circles
scholars/litterateurs
in Baghdād
in general 30, 211, 447, 813
at ʿAbbāsid court 440-441, 442
astronomers/astrologers astronomers/astrologers
Būyid court and 211-216
on ethics 509
grammarians 216, 452, 501, 503, 510
historians 499, 500
during Ilkhanid rule 307, 309
as independent authors 445, 450-451
knowledge-based groups 216-217
from Kūfa and Baṣra 440-441
literary salons and 491-492
from Medina Medinan scholars
philosophers philosophers
professional opportunities for 31-32, 445, 455
receptions for 213-214
religious scholars religious scholars
relocating from Baghdād 459-460, 461
relocating to Baghdād 440, 522-528, 529, 536
sponsoring of 31, 211-212, 445-446, 450, 460, 538
translation activities and 541
as tutors 31, 440, 446-447, 501, 503
in Byzantine Empire, sponsoring of 353-354
in Kūfa and al-Baṣra 439-440
scholars/litterateurs
Scholia (Comments) (Theodore bar Konai) 779-781
Schottenhammer, Angela xlii, 399-403
scientific knowledge knowledge production
sea routes 400
Sefer ha-massaʿot (The Book of Travels) (Benjamin of Tudela) 819
segregation in Baghdād 8-9, 25, 239
Seleucia
abandonment of 123
design of 62
foundation of 112, 118
Hippodamian plan for 118, 119
as main city 116
Sasanian use of 127
Ctesiphon urban complex
Seleucid dynasty 111-112, 115 Seleucia
Seleucus I Nicator (r. 306-280 BCE) 111-112n2, 118
Seleucus II (r. 246-225 BCE) 115
self-perception, of philosophers 587
Septimius Severus (r. 193-211) 122
service sector 320
sessions of wisdom (majālisḥikma) 486-487
Severus the Great (d. 538) 685
Shābuhragān (The [Book] for Shābuhr) (al-Bīrūnī) 776
al-Shābushtī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad (d. ca. 1000) 687, 706, 707, 708, 710, 828
al-Shāfiʿī (d. 820) 513
Shāfiʿism/Shāfiʿīs
on jurisprudence 38, 217, 604
in al-Karkh 239
madrasas of 255, 478 Niẓāmiyya Madrasa
Shaghab (d. 933) (mother of al-Muqtadir) 415, 704
shāhānshāh (King of Kings) 204
Shāhdost (r. 341-343) 127
al-Shahrastānī, Muḥammad (d. 1153) 723
al-Shammāsiyya (neighborhood of Baghdād)
in general 7-8
Christian quarter in 8, 39-40, 705
palatial city/complex in
Dār al-Khilāfa Dār al-Khilāfa
Shams al-Dīn Juwaynī (d. 1284) 293
Shams al-Duhā (n.d.) 293
Shāpūr I (r. 240-271/272) 117, 135, 770
Shāpūr II (r. 309-379) 2
Sharaf al-Dawla (r. 983-989) 214, 220, 491, 580
al-Shāriʿ (neighborhood of Baghdād) 6
Sharīʿa law
elaboration of 604
ḥadīths as source for 604
mystical truth and 671
Sufism/Ṣūfīs and 605
sharing rule with son(s) 296
shaṭḥiyyāt (ecstatic utterances) 654-655, 665, 668, 669-670, 673
Shawqī, Aḥmad 467
al-Shaykh al-Mufīd (d. 1022) 613
Sherira ben Hananiah (d. 1006) 740, 741, 742-743, 749
al-Shiblī, Abū Bakr (d. 946)
in general 668
doctrines of 669-670
ecstasy and 668
al-Ḥallāj and 669
al-Nassāj and 668
mention of 652
shiḥnas (military governors) 242-243
Shīʿī community in Baghdād
in general 35-37, 305
ʿAbbāsid dynasty and 35-36
ʿAbbāsid religious policies and 271, 275
Būyid dynasty and 36, 202
conflicts with Sunnī community and 36, 37, 239-240, 278, 305-306, 482, 622-623, 750-751
extremist groups in 37
in al-Karkh 8, 36, 239
religious celebrations of 36, 202, 260
Saljūq dynasty and 36, 37, 260
Shīʿī Islam
ʿAbbāsid dynasty and 35-36, 617-618, 619, 621, 622
in Baghdād Shīʿī community in Baghdād
Būyid dynasty and 36, 198, 202, 622
doctrines of 597
factions of 597-599
madrasas and 479, 480, 484
rationalist views in 605, 624-625
Saljūq dynasty and 36, 37, 260
semi-rationalist views in 606, 624
theological seminaries of 485
traditionalist views in 613-617
in general 603, 606, 624
ʿAlī and his family in 616
attacks on Christianity and 722
Jahmī concepts and 616-617
Muḥammad’s sighting of God 616-617
predestination in 613-614, 616
role of cities in 614-616
ships/ship construction 295, 301, 402, 403
Shīrīn (wife of Khosrow II) (d. 628) 130, 687
Shkand gumānīg wizār (The Doubt-Resolving Decisions) (anon.) 767
short narratives (akhbār) 428
shrines/mausolea/tombs
in Baghdād
of ʿAbbāsid dynasty 76, 173
of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī 253
of Abū Ḥanīfa 8, 153, 251, 800-801, 800
of Ḥudhayfa b. al-Yaman 127
of Ibn Ḥanbal 6
of Ibn Isḥāq 153
of al-Kāẓimayn 305
of Maʿrūf al-Karkhī 7, 7, 251, 643, 643
of Salmān al-Fārisī 127
of ʿUmar al-Suhrawardī 17n53, 92
of Zumurrud Khātūn 17n53, 18, 91-92, 92, 269, 272
higher education at 478, 480, 485
in Iṣfahān, al-Rāshid bi-llāh 235
in Karbalāʾ, al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib 619, 620
in Najaf, of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib 76, 485
veneration of 308
Shuhda bt. al-Ibarī (d. 1178) 254
Shuhda l-Kātiba (d. 1178) 35
shukūk (doubts) literature 584
al-Shukūk ʿalā Baṭlamiyūs (The Doubts Concerning Ptolemy) (Ibn al-Haytham) 584
al-Shukūk ʿalā Jālīnūs (The Doubts Concerning Galen) (al-Rāzī) 584
Shūnīziyya Cemetery (Baghdād) 306
Shurūṭ al-Naṣārā (The Stipulations for the Christians) (Ibn Zabr) 697
Sibbuv (The Circuit) (Petachiah of Regensburg) 821
Sibṭ b. al-Jawzī (d. 1256/1257) 229, 266, 498
sieges attacks
al-Sijistānī, Abū Sulaymān (d. 985)
Baghdād School of Philosophers and 542n17, 720
al-Baṣrī and 218
circle of 215, 454
on ruler’s legitimacy 213
synthetic philosophy of 547
Ṣilat taʾrīkh al-Ṭabarī (The Sequel to al-Ṭabarī’s History) (ʿArīb al-Qurṭubī) 151, 791
Silencing the Jews (al-Maghribī) 757
silk textiles 87-88, 302, 401
silver 277-278
Silvers, Laury 671, 672-673
Simnān (Hecatompylos) 115
al-Sindī b. Shāhak 694
sinners quarter, in Baghdād 308
Sīrāf 401
al-Sīrāfī, Abū Saʿīd (d. 979) 216, 572, 577
Sklare, David 754
slave soldiers Turkish/mamlūk army
slavery 391
Slavonic alphabet 356-357
snow fall 331, 333
sobriety (ṣaḥw) 660, 661, 675
social groups in Baghdād
in general 24, 25-26, 205-206
ʿAbbāsid caliphs and court ʿAbbāsid caliphs; ʿAbbāsid court
craftsmen/artisans 32, 78-80
cultural agents 30-32, 211-218 scholars/litterateurs
merchants 210, 252, 299, 390-391, 400, 746
military personnel military personnel/troops/armies
religious communities in specific religious communities
urban militia 29-30, 244-245
women 23, 34-35, 413-415
social networks scholarly sessions; study circles
social/religious unrest 2, 206-210, 221-222, 230-231, 239-242, 454, 802
soldiers military personnel/troops/armies
Sons of the Revolution (abnāʾ al-dawla) 28, 143, 153, 154, 156-157, 163
souls human souls
sources
on Baghdād
during ʿAbbāsid rule 150-151, 265-266
adab works 826-832
during Būyid rule 199-200
Christian communities in 687-688
geographical works 804-816
historiographical works 788-804
during Ilkhanid rule 286-287
Jewish community in 733-734
during Saljūq rule 228-230
time of writing of 808
travel accounts travel writing/writers
on Byzantine-ʿAbbāsid contacts 386
on Carolingian-ʿAbbāsid contacts 384-392
on European-ʿAbbāsid contacts 385-386
Latin
Baghdād in 378-381
on contact between Carolingian and ʿAbbāsid courts 374-378, 392
regnal titles in 375
on Madīnat al-Salām 49-51
on Mandaeism/Mandaeans 767
on Manichaeism/Manichaeans 767-768
on Zoroastrianism/Zoroastrians 767
Sourdel, Dominique 621
sponsoring
by ʿAbbāsid caliphs 82, 251, 412, 524, 525, 526, 538, 564, 574
by ʿAbbāsid officials/bureaucrats 251-252, 538
of astronomers/astrologers 564
by Būyid dynasty 211-212, 213, 215-216, 259, 512, 826
in Byzantine Empire 353-354
by Ḥanbalīs 252
of hospitals/physicians 566, 578
of libraries 82, 490
of madrasas 249, 251, 252, 253, 293, 479
of Medinan scholars 524, 525, 526
of oratories 249, 251, 252
of philosophers 216, 574
of religious scholars 461
by Saljūq dynasty 248-249
by Saljūq officials/elites 249, 251, 259
of scholars/litterateurs 31, 211-212, 353-354, 445-446, 450, 460, 538
of students/disciples 480
of Ṣūfī lodges in Baghdād 251, 253, 254, 257
of translation activities 216, 350, 539
by Umayyad dynasty 538, 539
by women 253-254, 293
waqfs (pious endowments)
Stampfer, Y. Zvi xlii, 731-758
status of Baghdād 4-5, 14, 19-20, 94, 297, 310
stewardesses (qahramānas) 414
Stillman, N. 682
Strabo (63 BCE-23 ce) 120, 121
Strohmaier, Gotthard 709
students/disciples 502
female 476-477, 656
relationship with teacher 558, 574-575
rules of conduct for 495-496
sponsoring of 480
study circles (ḥalaqāt)
for philosophical learning
in general 574-576, 581
interfaith collaboration in 576
for theological and legal learning 475, 476n8, 480, 484, 486, 575
Sublunary World 555-556
subsistence in God (baqāʾ) 651, 660-661, 675
suburbs neighborhoods/quarters of Baghdād
succession
in ʿAbbāsid dynasty
of al-Amīn 9, 26, 156-157, 416
genealogical principle in 148, 179-180
of Hārūn al-Rashīd 101, 155-156, 416
of al-Mahdī 153-154, 416
of al-Maʾmūn 157-158, 169
of al-Muʿtaḍid 174
of al-Muʿtamid 172
of al-Muʿtaṣim 162
of al-Mutawakkil 165, 621-622
of al-Muʿtazz 169
of catholicos 686-687, 689-690, 695
Suermann, Harald 129
Ṣūfī community in Baghdād
in general 38-39, 257-258, 306, 677-678
futuwwa groups and 270
grandmaster of 507
lodges of Ṣūfī lodges in Baghdād
Saljūq dynasty and 257
Ṣūfī school in Baghdād
Ṣūfī lodges in Baghdād
in general 18, 256, 677
construction of 243, 272, 272
functions of 256-257
of Ibn Saʿd 251, 258
institutionalization of 281
merging with madrasas 271-272
naming of 257
sponsoring of 251, 253, 254, 257
for women 253, 254
lodges
Ṣūfī school of Baghdād
in general 633-634, 636
ʿAbbāsid dynasty and 636
antinomian tendencies of 676
disciples of al-Junayd and contemporaries
Abū ʿAlī l-Rūdhabārī 670-671
al-Bazzāz 663-664
Ibn ʿAṭāʾ al-Ādamī 667-668
al-Jurayrī 663
al-Khuldī 673-674
al-Shiblī 668-670
al-Wāsiṭī 671-673
doctrines of Sufism/Ṣūfīs
end of 677
first generation of thinkers of
Bishr al-Ḥāfī 644-646
Maʿrūf al-Karkhī 642-644
Sarī l-Saqaṭī 647-649
as heterogeneous group 634
influence of 634
influences on
in general 637
of al-Ḥallāj 664-665, 666, 667
of Manṣūr b. ʿAmmār 638
of al-Muḥāsibī 638-640
of al-Tustarī 640-642
of al-Zāhid 637-638
members of
mutual bond between 676
social situation of 635
persecution of 636, 653
rationalist views and 635
second generation of thinkers of
Ibrāhīm al-Khawwāṣ 661-663
al-Junayd 658-661
al-Kharrāz 649-652
al-Nassāj 651-652
al-Nūrī 652-655
Ruwaym 656-657
Sumnūn al-Muḥibb 655-656
as spiritual elite 635
traditions of, shift to the East 671, 677
Sufism/Ṣūfīs
ʿAbbāsid religious policies and 271-272, 636, 653
in Baghdād Ṣūfī school of Baghdād
definitions of
by Abū ʿAlī l-Rūdhabārī 671
by Bishr al-Ḥāfī 646
by al-Junayd 659-660
by al-Jurayrī 663
by Maʿrūf al-Karkhī 644
by al-Sarrāj 648
doctrines of
annihilation with God in 651, 659, 660-661, 675
ecstasy in ecstasy
intoxication in 644, 660, 670, 675
love in love
oneness of God in oneness of God
predestination in 651
renunciation in renunciation
sobriety in 660, 661, 675
subsistence in God in 651, 660-661, 675
Ilkhanid’s conversion to Islam and 281
opposition to marriage of 671-673
persecution of 505-506 636, 640, 653, 656, 658, 663, 665, 675
psychological doctrine of 639-640
Saljūq dynasty and 244, 258
sayings of, works on 673
science of 677
Sharīʿa law and 605
terminology used in 640, 650-651, 659, 661n158, 676
Ṣūfīs
sugar 319
Suhrāb (d. after 908) 797, 806-807
al-Suhrawardī, ʿUmar (d. 1234) 17n53, 92, 270, 272, 507
Suhrawardī family 258
Suhrawardiyya (Ṣūfī order) 271
sukr (intoxication) 644, 660, 670, 675
al-Sulamī, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (d. 1021) 677
Sulaymān (merchant) 401-402
Sulaymān b. Mahārish (n.d.) 236
Sulaymān b. Mujālid (Miqlāṣ story) 55, 56
al-Ṣūlī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad (d. 947)
on Baghdād 733, 792-793
as boon companion 451, 792
on court life 420
life of 451, 792
on Muslim b. al-Walīd 436
on al-Muttaqī li-llāh 421-422
on persecution of Jews 748
works of
Kitāb al-awrāq 151, 420, 451, 792-793
Kitāb al-wuzarāʾ 451
on Zoroastrians 781
Sultan’s Friday Mosque (Jāmiʿ al-Sulṭān) (Baghdād) 11, 12, 249
Summae literature 557-558
Sumnūn al-Muḥibb (d. 910) 655-656
sunna (Prophet’s Customs) 505-506, 597, 606, 607-608, 609
Sunnī, use of term 599-600
Sunnī community in Baghdād
in general 37-38, 304
in Bāb al-Baṣra 8, 39
conflicts with Shīʿī community and 36, 37, 239-240, 278, 305-306, 482, 622-623, 750-751
in al-Mukharrim 8
Sunnī Islam
ʿAbbāsid dynasty and 617-619, 622-623
in Baghdād Sunnī community in Baghdād
doctrines of
ḥadīth vs. kalām in 602-603
on legitimate ruler 597, 600, 601
role of Sharīʿa law in 604-605
unbelief and 602
law schools of
development of 604-605
Ḥanafism/Ḥanafīs; Ḥanbalism/Ḥanbalīs; Shāfiʿism/Shāfiʿīs
madrasas and 478, 480
rationalist views in 605, 624-625
Saljūq dynasty and 227
semi-rationalist views in 606, 624
traditionalist views in 606-613
in general 603, 606, 624
ʿAlī and his family in 612-613
anthropomorphism and 609-610, 612
attacks on Christianity and 722
attribution of creeds of 606-607
increase and decrease of faith in 609
Jahmī concepts and 609-612
Maʿrūf al-Karkhī and 643-644
Muḥammad’s sighting of God in 610-612
predestination in 552, 607, 608-609
revelation vs. reason in 607-608
traditionalists
super-commentaries 543
Superlunary World 555-556
Sūq al-ʿAtīqa (Baghdād) 735
Sūq al-Thulathāʾ (Baghdād) 317
Sūq al-Ṭīb (Baghdād) 16
Sūq al-Warrāqīn (Bookseller’s Market) (Baghdād) 31, 217-218, 445, 446, 451
Sura Yeshiva
in general 732
educational activities at 743-744, 744
income of 742
move to Baghdād 733, 741
Pumbedita Yeshiva and 742
sending of queries to 741-742
Sūsa, Aḥmad 102
al-Suyūṭī (d. 1505) 200, 266, 277
synagogues 736, 745-746, 820n159
syndics 244
Syria 292, 341-342 cities
Syrian Orthodox Church 685, 686, 688, 701
Taʿarrufmadhhab ahl al-taṣawwuf (The Introduction to the Doctrine of the Ṣūfīs) (al-Kalābādhī) 677
ṬabaqātḤanābila (The Generations of Ḥanbalī [Jurists]) (Ibn Abī Yaʿlā) 229
Ṭabaqāt al-shuʿarāʾ (The Classes of the Poets) (al-Jumaḥī) 451
al-Ṭabarī, Abū Jaʿfar (d. 923)
on Baghdād 14
on conversion to Christianity 712
on createdness of Qurʾān 606
on dress rules for Christians 694, 695
followers of 622
on Jews of Jerusalem 341n7
law school of 38
life of 498, 790
on literary salons 492
on Madīnat al-Salām
in general 70, 790-791
demolition of houses in 71
foundation of 51-53
Miqlāṣ story and 54-56
not mentioning horoscope 98
qibla of the mosque 69n10
as round city 103-104
security arrangements for 72-73
on Manichaeans 781
on al-Manṣūr 400-401
on monotheism vs. polytheism 499
use of Kitāb Baghdād by 451
used as source 808
works of
in general 687
Jāmiʿ al-bayān ʿanʾwīl āy Qurʾān 498-499
Taʾrīkh al-rusul wa-l-mulūk wa-l-khulafāʾ 51, 150, 400, 492, 499, 790
writing style of 453
al-Ṭabarī, Alī b. Sahl Rabban (d. ca. 860-870) 567, 569, 712, 723
Tabbaa, Yasser 10
al-Tadhkira (The Message) (Ibn Ḥamdūn) 700
Tadhkiratal-awliyāʾ (The Memorial of the Saints) (ʿAṭṭār) 657
Tafsīr (The Commentary [to the Qurʾān]) (Dhū l-Nūn al-Miṣrī) 641
Tahdhībalakhlāq (The Refinement of Character Traits) (Miskawayh) 509-510
Ṭāhir b. al-Ḥusayn (d. 822) 9, 157, 718
Ṭāhirid dynasty 167-168, 172
Ṭāhirid Palace (Baghdād) 173
Taizong (r. 627-649) 399
Tāj al-Mulk (d. 1093) 249, 251
Tāj Palace (Baghdād) 10, 174, 408
Tajārib al-umam (The Experiences of the Communities) (Miskawayh) 151, 199, 330, 571, 793-794
Tājiyya Madrasa (Baghdād) 249, 251
tajriba (experience) 582-584
Takmilat taʾrīkh al-Ṭabarī (The Supplement to the History of al-Ṭabarī) (al-Hamadānī) 200
Takrīt 702-703
Taktika (The Tactics) (Leo VI) 358
Talas, Battle of (751) 399
Talbīs Iblīs (The Devil’s Deception) (Ibn al-Jawzī) 722
Ṭalḥa al-Muwaffaq bi-llāh
Ṭālibids 244
Talismān Gate (Baghdād) 14, 15, 92, 93, 273, 273, 274
talismans 53, 60-61
Talqīḥ fuhūm ahlāthār (The Nourishing of the Minds of Those Engaged in Historical Research) (Ibn al-Jawzī) 509
Tamannī bt. al-Dabbās (d. 1162) 254
tamgha (trade tax) 299, 303
al-Tamhīd (The Introduction) (al-Bāqillānī) 722
Tang dynasty 399-400
Tangherlini, Timothy 48-49
Tangshu (The Official History of the Tang Dynasty) 400
Tanqīh al-abḥāth li-l-milal al-thalāth (The Examination of the Three Faiths) (Ibn Kammūna) 306
al-Tanūkhī, Muḥammad b. Saḥnūn (d. 870) 495
al-Tanūkhī, al-Muḥassin b. ʿAlī (d. 994) 200-201, 415, 455
tapestries 699
ṭāqāt (arcades) 70
Ṭāq-i Kisrā (The Arch of Khosrow) 125-126
Taqwīm al-buldān (The Survey of the Regions) (Abū l-Fidā) 814-815
Taqyīdʿilm (The Fettering of Knowledge) (al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī) 497, 500
al-Taʾrīkh (The History) (al-Yaʿqūbī) 51, 150
Taʾrīkh Baghdād (The History of Baghdād) (al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī) 35, 50-51, 199, 229, 500, 513, 735, 796
Taʾrīkh al-Islām (The History of Islam) (al-Dhahabī) 229, 266
Taʾrīkh al-khulafāʾ (The History of the Caliphs) (al-Suyūṭī) 200, 266
Taʾrīkh al-rusul wa-l-mulūk wa-l-khulafāʾ (The History of the Prophets, Kings and Caliphs) (al-Ṭabarī) 51, 150, 400, 492, 499, 790
Taʾrīkh-i Alfi (The History of One Thousand [Years]) (anon.) 163, 620
Taʾrīkh-i guzīda (The Selected History) (Ḥamd Allāh al-Mustawfī Qazwīnī) 815n140
Taʾrīkh-i Jahān Gushā (The History of the World Conqueror) (Juwaynī) 266
Taʾrīkh-i Uljāytū (The History of Öljeitü) (al-Qāshānī) 287
Taʾrīkhnāma (The History Book) (Balʿamī) 144
Tarkān Khātūn (d. 1094) 253
tashabbuh bi-llāh (immitation of God) 551
tashbīh (anthropomorphism) 609-610, 612, 613
tawakkul (trust in God) 656-657, 662
tawḥīd oneness of God
al-Tawḥīdī, Abū Ḥayyān (d. 1023)
on Abū Ḥāmid al-Marwarrūdhī 213
admirer of al-Jāḥiẓ 455
on Brethren of Purity 218
on debates 218
on Ibn ʿAbbād 204
on ʿIzz al-Dawla 207
on patronage by Ibn Saʿdān 215
scientific polymathy of 571
sponsoring of 215
teacher of 674
on tensions between neighborhoods of Baghdād 208-209
works of 201, 455
mention of 449, 454
taxation
commercial tax 299, 303
Ilkhanate reforms of 303-304
land tax 303, 317
of non-Muslims 303, 692, 693, 697, 701, 748
property taxes 693
teachers tutors/teachers
teaching education
teaching circles study circles
technical terms 541
Tekesh (r. 1172-1200) 266, 288
terminology
in general 532-533, 534n6, 599-600
Byzantine, for Muslims 343-344
of Sufism 640, 650-651, 659, 661n58, 676
technical 541
textile production 87-88, 302, 319
Thaʿālab Monastery (Baghdād) 707
al-Thaʿālibī, Abū Manṣūr (d. 1038) 201
Thābit b. Qurra (d. 901) 540, 561, 577
Thābit b. Sinān (d. ca. 974) 199
Theodor of Mopsuestia (d. 428) 683
Theodore bar Konai (d. ca. 800) 767, 779-781, 782
theologians religious scholars
theological seminaries, Shīʿī (ḥawzas) 485
theology (kalām)
vs. ḥadīth 602-603
vs. metaphysics 550
Muʿtazilī influence on 629-630
opposition to 607-608
philosophy and 573-574, 580
The Theology of Aristotle (al-Kindī) 541, 547, 550, 585-586
Theophanes Continuatus (d. 817/818) 353n57, 358n85, 362
Theophilos (r. 829-842) 347, 352-353, 352
Theophilus of Edessa (d. 785) 145, 539n14, 715
Thomann, Johannes xlii, 59, 98-100
thulth script 80
Thumāma b. Ashras (d. 828) 618
Tibetans 400
Ṭībī family 301
Tigris River
in general 113
Baghdād and 1, 20, 238, 245
canals between Euphrates and 122, 123, 133
flooding of 20, 237-238
tributaries of 132
Timothy I (r. 780-823)
apologetical treatise by 724
al-Mahdī and 577, 716-717
missionary activities of 691
as patriarch 690
theological school and 709
Timothy II (r. 1318-1332) 690
ṭirāz (inscribed textiles) 87-88
ṭirāz workshops 33
tithes 317
Tolan, John 711
Töllner, Helmut 162, 170
tolls (mukūs/maks) 693
tombs shrines/mausolea/tombs
Tongdian (Comprehensive Institutions) (Du You) 400
Topoi (Aristotle) 691
Toral, Isabel xlii–xliii, 1-40, 47-64, 439-461, 466-468
trade
in Baghdād 319
in general 24, 824
during ʿAbbāsid rule 317, 391, 746
book production/trade 31, 33, 78, 302, 445, 484, 538-539
during Ilkhanid rule 295, 301-302
markets in Baghdād; production in Baghdād
in Byzantine Empire 359
between China and Islamicate World 401-403
in Ctesiphon urban complex 136
Parthian Ctesiphon and 119, 122
Valāsh-Ābād and 123
merchants
trade routes 301-302
trade tax (tamgha) 299, 303
Trajan (r. 98-117) 122
trance 649
translation activities
in general 496, 539-542
at Bayt al-Ḥikma 488
of Christians 536-537, 565, 718-719
institutions involved in 534-544
of medical literature 539, 565
origin of texts used in 544
sponsoring of 216, 350, 539
of works on logic 581-582
translators 540, 544
travel writing/writers
on Baghdād 103, 214, 230, 246-247, 287, 381-382, 734
overview of 816-826
on China 401
by Chinese prisoners of war 400
by Muslim prisoners of war 391
travel writers
Trench of Ṭāhir (Baghdād) 6, 14
trinity 554-555, 723-724
troops military personnel/troops/armies
trust in God (tawakkul) 656-657, 662
Ṭughril Beg (r. 1055-1063)
ʿAbbāsid caliphs and 231, 232-233
coinage of 232
construction activities of 11, 248-249
religious policies of 696
Ṭughril III (r. 1174-1194) 237, 266
Tuḥfat al-nuẓẓār fī gharāʾib al-amṣār wa-ʿajāʾib al-asfār (A Gift for the Curious: The Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of the Journeys) (Ibn Juzayy) 825
Turkish commanders
Būyid dynasty and 206
construction activities of 188
influences on ʿAbbāsid dynasty of 162, 164-165, 167-169, 180, 237
Turkish/mamlūk army
Turkish slave soldiers Turkish/mamlūk army
Turkish/mamlūk army
of ʿAbbāsid caliphate 28-29, 159, 160, 161, 163-164, 170, 172, 236
Būyid dynasty and 206
composition of 194n1
emergence of 194n2
Ibn Rāʾiq and 196
of Saljūq dynasty 243
Turkish commanders
al-Turtūshī (d. 1126) 697
al-Ṭūsī, Abū Jaʿfar (d. 1067) 36, 484, 485, 614
al-Ṭūsī, Naṣīr al-Dīn (d. 1274) 286, 290, 299, 307
al-Tustarī, Sahl (d. 896) 640-642, 651, 667
tutors/teachers
of primary schools 495
relationship with student 558, 574-575
rules of conduct for 495-496
scholars/litterateurs as 31, 440, 446-447, 501, 503
Tūzūn (d. 945) 178-179, 196, 197
Twelver Shīʿism/Twelver Shīʿīs 598-599
two-page illustrations 83-84, 86-87
ʿUdhārā Monastery (Baghdād) 707, 709
ʿUlayya bt. al-Mahdī (d. 825) 34
ʿUmar b. Farrukhān (d. ca. 815) 540
ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb (r. 634-644)
Christian petition to 697-698, 727
foundation of Baṣra and Kūfa 52
legitimacy of 600-602
religious policies of 738
ʿUmar II (r. 717-720) 343
ʿUmāra b. ʿAqīl (d. 853) 492
al-ʿUmarī, Yāsīn (d. 1820) 737n32
ʿUmar’s Stipulations 697-698, 727
Umayyad dynasty
Byzantine Empire and 341-345
religious policies of 688-689
sponsoring by 538, 539
Umm Jaʿfar Mosque (Baghdād) 12-13
Umm Mūsā (fl. 10th cent.) 415
unbelief (kufr) 602, 651
Upton, Joseph 138
urban complexes
of Ctesiphon Ctesiphon urban complex
palatial complexes palatial cities/complexes
urban control of Baghdād
by ʿAbbāsid agents 243-244
by civilian groups 29-30, 244-245
by Saljūq military governors 242-243
urban development of Baghdād
during ʿAbbāsid rule Madīnat al-Salām
during Būyid rule 219-221
funding of 19-20
during Saljūq rule 246
in general 245-248
sponsoring of 248-249, 251-254
administration of Baghdād
urban militia 29-30, 244-245 military personnel/troops/armies
urbanity of Baghdād 21-25
criteria for definition of 21
as Islamic city 22-24
municipal authority in 21-22
al-Urmawī, Ṣafī l-Dīn (d. 1294) 299
ʿushr (property taxes) 693
ʿUthmān b. ʿAffān (r. 644-656) 399, 600-602
Uyghurs 779
Vajda, Georges 617
Valāsh i/Vologeses I (r. 50/51-76/77) 122, 123
Valāsh-Ābād/Meinas Sabatha/Sābāṭ Madāʾin 123, 137
Valerian (r. 253- 260) 117
van Ess, Josef 489, 619, 624
Vēh Antioch Khosrow/al-Rūmiyya 131-132, 137
Vēh Ardashīr
in general 137
Christian community in 129-130, 685, 709
as circular shaped 63, 128, 138
foundation of 127
functions of 128
Jewish community in 128-129, 138
location of 127
Madīnat al-Salām inspired by 63, 112, 128, 138
names for 127-128
as oval shaped 128n90
surroundings of 131
survival of 131
Zoroastrians in 131
veiling, of women 23
Velletri Map 383
viceroy (nāʾib) 292, 298
Vincent of Beauvais 380
violence persecution/abuse/discrimination; social/religious unrest
Vita Karoli Magni (Life of Charlemagne) (Einhard) 374
vocabularies 440, 541
Vologeses i/Valāsh I (r. 50/51-76/77) 122, 123
al-Waddāh (neighborhood of Baghdād) 78
Wafayāt al-aʿyān (The Demise of Famous Persons) (Ibn Khallikān) 803
Wakīʿ (d. 918) 67n3, 102, 103-104, 796
Wali, Najem 785
walls
of Baghdād
city walls 14, 168, 169
of palatial complexes in 13-14, 269
of Madīnat al-Salām 157
of Sasanian Ctesiphon 124
waqfs (pious endowments)
in general 227-228, 248, 252
for hospitals 578
for libraries 221, 490
for madrasas 16, 255, 256, 479
manipulations of 304
for oratories 252
of stipends for students 480
for Ṣūfī lodges 34
by women 253
sponsoring
al-Wāqidī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar (d. 822) 452-453, 526-528
al-Warrāq, Abū ʿĪsā (d. after 864) 721
warrāqūn/warrāq (booksellers) 78, 218, 221, 493
Waṣīf al-Turkī (d. 867) 159, 164, 168, 621
Wāsiṭ
foundation legends of 57-58
founding of 74
gates of 60, 74
as Shīʿī center 614-615
al-Wāsiṭī, Abū Bakr (d. 932) 671-673
Wassāf (d. 1328) 287, 307
Wasṭānī (or Dhaʿfariyya) Gate (Baghdād) 15, 16
water clocks (clepsidras) 372
water wheels 332, 332
al-Wāthiq bi-llāh (r. 842-847)
accession to rule of 162
administrative/military education of 161-162
Byzantine emperors and 348
construction activities of 162
death of 162, 163
geographical studies and 389
Ibn Ḥanbal and 504
physician of 718
Watson, Andrew 324, 328
The Weepers (al-bakkāʾūn) 648
Wendell, Charles 103
West Syrian Church
in general 306
ʿAbbāsid dynasty and 700, 702-703
archbishopric of 702-703
churches of 706
influences on 685
investiture diplomas of 689
monasteries of 707
Western Europe
Carolingian dynasty Carolingian dynasty
in Islamic geographical studies 391-392
wheat 328, 333
White Palace (Ctesiphon) 125-126
Why-ʾrdhšyr Vēh Ardashīr
William of Tyre (d. 1186) 381
window lattices (mashrabiyyas) 22, 23
women
at ʿAbbāsid court 413-415
in Baghdād 34-35
Byzantine 364
as disciples 656
elementary education for 495
higher education for 476-477
sponsoring by 253-254, 293
veiling of 23
Xerxes I (r. 486-465 or 464 BCE) 114
Yahballaha II (r. 1190-1222) 708
Yahballaha III (r. 1281-1317) 306
Yaḥyā b. Abī Manṣūr (d. ca. 830) 559, 563
Yaḥyā b. ʿAdī (d. 974)
Baghdād School of Philosophers and 542n17, 547, 719-720
circle of 215, 454
disciples of 719-720
al-Fārābī and 576
Miskawayh and 510
on philosophy and religion 554-555
self-perception of 587
sponsoring of 216
mention of 713
Yaḥyā b. ʿĪsā b. Jazla (d. 1100) 712
Yaḥyā b. Khālid al-Barmakī (d. 806) 4, 487, 713
Yaḥyā b. Saʿīd al-Anṣārī (d. ca. 760) 522-523, 529
Yaḥyā b. Saʿīd al-Qaṭṭān (d. 813) 601
Yaḥyā l-Wāsiṭī xiv, 33, 81-82, 83-87, 86, 212, 318, 321, 332, 402, 421, 430, 446, 477, 508, 525, 527
Yang Liangyao (d. 806) 399-400
Yangzhou 401
al-Yaʿqūbī, Aḥmad (d. after 908)
on Baghdād
in general 50-51, 806
booksellers in 78
education in 495
on Baṣra 401
life of 805-806
on Madīnat al-Salām
in general 69-70, 71
astrologers consulted for 98
craftsmen for 32
foundation of 53, 54, 57
as round city 102, 103-104
works of
Kitāb al-buldān 50-51, 102
al-Taʾrīkh 51, 150
used as source 51, 808
mention of 453
Yāqūt al-Hamawī l-Rūmī (d. 1229)
on Baghdād 51, 76, 708, 710, 736, 809-812
on Ibn al-Bawwāb 79
life of 809
on Madīnat al-Salām 56-57, 809
works of
Muʿjambuldān 51, 708, 736, 809-810
al-Mushtarik 814
used as source 812-813, 814, 816
Yāqūt al-Mustaʿṣimī (d. 1298) 80, 305, 307
Yathrib (later Medina) 117
Yatīmat al-dahr fī maḥāsin ahl al-ʿar (The Unique Pearl Concerning the Excellence of Contemporary People) (al-Thaʿālibī) 201
Yazdgird b. Mihbandār al-Fārisī (fl. late 9th century) 805, 829
Yazdgird I (r. 399-420) 683
Yazīd b. Hārūn (d. 821) 601
yeshivas Sura Yeshiva
Yoḥannan (r. 691-693) 689
Yoḥannan III (r. 846-873) 702
Yoḥannan V (r. 1000-1011) 702-703
Yokkaichi, Y. 301
young men futuwwa groups; gangs
Yūḥanna (fl. late 10th cent.) 704
Yūḥannā b. Ḥaylān (d. ca. 920) 576
Yūḥannā b. Māsawayh (d. 857) 566, 571, 709
Yūnis b. ʿAbd al-Aʿlā (d. 877) 513
Yūsuf b. Yaḥyā 420
Yūwānīs (r. 893-899) 705
Zād Hurmuz (fl. 8th cent.) 766, 777
Zād al-masīr fī ʿilmtafsīr (The Provisions for the Journey [of those Acquiring] Knowledge of Qurʾānic Exegesis) (Ibn al-Jawzī) 508-509
al-Zāhid, Abū Hāshim (d. 767/768) 637-638
al-Ẓāhir bi-Amr Allāh (r. 1225-1226) 274
al-Zāhir Garden (Baghdād) 17
Zandaward Monastery (Baghdād) 707
zandīg (Arab. zindīq) 770-771, 773
Zanj (African slaves) 171, 329, 428
Zawzanī family 258
Zawzanī Ribāṭ (Baghdād) 257, 258
Zaydī Shīʿīs 36-37, 597-598, 602
Zaynabī family 255
zījāt/zīj (astronomical tables) 99-100, 562, 564, 580
Ziyārid dynasty 203
Zoroaster (n.d.) 780
Zoroastrianism/Zoroastrians
in general 40
in Baghdād 781
conversions to Islam of 773-775
dualist worldview 770
knowledge production by 773-775
legal system of 769
Manichaeism and 770-771
Muslims and 327
organizational structure of 765
persecution of other religions by 766, 770
rural-urban dichotomy in 769-770
Sasanian dynasty and 765, 768
sources on 767
Turkic connections and 780
in Vēh Ardashīr 131
Zosimos (d. 520) 123
Zubayda bt. Jaʿfar (d. 831/832) 34, 413-415, 636, 638
Zubayda Palace (Baghdād) 176
Zubdat al-nuṣra wa-nukhbat al-ʿuṣra (The Quintessence of the Nuṣra and Finest Part of the Period) (al-Bundārī) 229
zuhd renunciation
Zumurrud Khātūn (d. 1202)
shrine of 17n53, 18, 91-92, 92, 269, 272
sponsoring by 253
zunnār belts 694-695
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Baghdād

From Its Beginnings to the 14th Century

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