1.1a Zigzag pavement in the castle’s parade, circa 1900 42

1.1b Calceteiros, 1907 43

1.2 Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro’s political cartoon 44

1.3 Map with the indication of sidewalk pavements 45

1.4 Wide Sea Portuguese Pavement at Plaza Dom Pedro IV-Rossio, 1977 47

1.5 Pavement of Plaza Luís de Camões, n/d 49

1.6 Moulds at the warehouse of Lisbon’s city council, 1940–1 53

2.1 Map of Lisbon with tree lined streets and boulevards. 72

2.2 Project for the embellishment of King D. Pedro IV Plaza 76

2.3a Public Promenade, 1913 83

2.3b View from the Park of Liberty towards the Avenue of Liberty and the river Tagus, 1914 83

2.4 Profiles of public streets 87

2.5 Distances between aligned trees in streets 91

3.1 Map with working-class neighbourhoods 98

3.2a A view of industrial Lisbon at the other side of the river Tagus 104

3.2b Underwater tunnel and train connecting Lisbon to Seixal, 1906 105

3.3a–b The two-platform bridge connecting the two Lisbons of the future and working-class neighbourhood of the hygienic type, 1906 107

3.4a–b Working-class houses in Grandella neighbourhood, c.1910; and School at the main central avenue 113

4.1 Road plan for the Sun Coast according to Agache (1936) 138

4.2 Main communication axes of the Lisbon 1948 urban plan 141

4.3 Lisbon’s imagined population growth in 20 years and its extensions (1948) 142

5.1 Location of Lisbon and of the Lazaretto 153

5.2 General view of the old and new lazarettos 156

5.3 Plan of the new Lazaretto 159

5.4a–b Comparison between the New Lazaretto and the French Mazas Prison 164

5.5a–b 1st, 2nd and 3rd classes of the lazaretto bedrooms – “three different classes, one real one;” The businessman, before and after being in charge of the lazaretto 168

5.6a–b Inside the Lazaretto quarantine rooms, showing gridded windows; Passengers of the Lanfranc ship, c.1910 171

5.7 Aerial view of the Lazaretto in 2020. 177

6.1 Old grain warehouse at Terreiro do Trigo, venue of the customs laboratory of Lisbon 183

6.2 The collection of scientific instruments at the customs laboratory in 2018 191

6.3 The commercial, and customs cluster of the Lisbon’s port 200

7.1 Health Stations in Portugal according to the 1901 legislation 208

7.2 Health Station Building in Lisbon (1901–1918) 209

7.3 Disinfection Station’s wharf (Lisbon 1906–1910) 216

8.1 Map with main institutions and spaces mentioned in this chapter 234

8.2a–b Partial view of the Colonial Garden with the Tagus river at the back, 1928; Colonial Garden’s entrance in 1939 238

8.3 Inside the greenhouse 239

8.4a–b Partial view of the Colonial Garden with the Palácio da Calheta at the left, 1928; Colonial Garden. Partial view of the lake, [1939?] 242

8.5 Inside the Colonial Agricultural Museum 250

8.6a–b Portuguese Timor dwelling; Native village of the Typungo from Angola (at the left the African brewery) 254

8.7 Sewing lesson: Missionary sister of Mary with Mozambican women and children at the Colonial Section of the PWE 256

8.8 Experimental agricultural field 258

9.1 Plan of the Portuguese World Exhibition of 1940 265

9.2a Aerial image of the Belém area before the PWE 272

9.2b Image of the PWE preparation works 272

9.3 Esfera dos Descobrimentos (Discoveries Sphere) 277

9.4 Epic Room – Discoveries Pavilion 279

9.5 Image of the statue called “sovereignty” with an armillary sphere in the hands and other armillary spheres at the top of the Portuguese people in the World’s pavilion (Portuguese World Exhibition, 1940) 281

9.6a Armillary spheres on the balconies of Praça do Areeiro (Lisbon) 284

9.6b Photograph of the Monumental Cine-Theater in the Duke of Saldanha square (Lisbon) with an armillary sphere at the top 285

10.1 Map of Lisbon by J. Henshall, indicating the Passeio Publico in green and the future location of the Estrela Garden in blue, 1833. Detail from the Estrela Garden made in c.1910, based on the map by Filipe Folque in 1858. 299

10.2 Project of the greenhouse by Burnay, 1877 306

10.3 Project of a urinal for Lisbon public gardens, 1869 309

10.4 Froebel School at the Estrela Garden, 1883 315

10.5 Views from the Party Flower organized in 1918 320

11.1 Cart for driving dogs and cats (Model 1887) 334

11.2 “Muzzle the dog and let your child drown.” 339

12.1 Map with the indication of places where the Cenacles’ group stopped, including their residences 346

12.2 Atalaia Street in Bairro Alto, between 1898 and 1907 348

12.3 Members of the Cenacle in 1884. From left to right: Eça de Queirós, Oliveira Martins, Antero de Quental, Ramalho Ortigão, and Guerra Junqueiro 353

13.1 Fialho de Almeida’s monumental bridge, 1906 367

13.2 The Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon 372

13.3a–b The headquarters of the Free University, Plaza Luís de Camões, Chiado; Portuguese Popular University headquarters 377

13.4 Map of Lisbon with the location of the Faculty of Sciences and the Faculty of Medicine, as well as the sections of the Free and Popular universities 383

14.1a–b Eduardo VII Park in 1934: Aerial view; Close-up of the roller coaster Vertigo 398

14.2a–b Different advertisements at Luna Park 402

14.3a–b Fascist echoes and national grandeur in the urbanization of Eduardo VII Park 406

14.4a–b The Exhibition of the Portuguese World. Maquette and map of the final project including the amusement park 409

14.5a–b Sketches of the 1940 Exhibition of the Portuguese World: The projected captive balloon and the mural decorations at the amusement park 410

14.6a–b Fun, technology, and diplomacy at the Feira Popular. New Circus (and new mechanical rides) for the New State in 1943; Members of the Portuguese government and ambassadors of allied powers right before the end of WWII 415

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