Author:
Daniela Marcu-Istrate
Search for other papers by Daniela Marcu-Istrate in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Free access

Index

Locations in present-day Romania use their official Romanian name, followed, in parentheses, by the Hungarian and German variants1 – when available. Only the official / most commonly used names are listed – each location has a plethora of other outdated, informal or less commonly used denominations. Locations outside the borders of present-day Romania are followed by their country.

abbeys ( monasteries ) 80–81, 84n.75, 94n.112, 118, 124n.62, 125n.64, 185, 232, 243n.25, 245n.33, 254, 322
Abram (h. Érábrány) 69, 94, 264
Acâș (h. Ákos, g. Fürstendorf) 38, 69, 94, 122, 179, 200–201
ad sanctos 382
Adrian II, pope (867–872) 70
Agârbiciu (h. Szászegerbegy, g. Arbegen) 264, 291n.88, 333, 344
Agnita (h. Szentágota, g. Agnetheln) 179, 204n.128, 205n.130, 207
Ahtonmonustura 91
Ahtum, duke of Morisena 45, 47, 58–59, 73, 82, 83n.71, 84–85, 89, 91n.104, 106, 113n.26
aisles 4, 41, 102, 107, 120–121, 125, 127, 130, 159, 161–163, 171, 173, 199–200, 202–203, 205–208, 210–214, 237, 245–246, 248, 278, 282, 290–291, 295–301, 303n.122, 304, 311, 317–318, 320, 323, 328, 350, 352–354, 382, 420
Aita Mare (h. Nagyajta, g. Aitau) 333, 336
Aiud (h. Nagyenyed, g. Straßburg am Mieresch) 34, 36, 41, 264, 266n.5, 267, 269, 272, 283–284, 302, 330, 333, 342, 360, 422
Ákos, noble house 90, 114
Alba Iulia (Bălgrad, h. Gyulafehérvár, g. Karlsburg, Weißenburg) 3, 6–7, 19, 26, 30–31, 33–36, 39, 44, 45n.12, 48–51, 58, 60, 63, 69–71, 73, 77, 79–82, 85–86, 95, 96n.128, 104–107, 109–111, 113, 121–122, 138–139, 140–173, 177, 179, 184, 187, 199–200, 207, 208n.144, 217, 219–222, 224–225, 235–236, 239, 243, 258, 261–262, 264, 266n.5, 267, 296n.103, 306, 333, 375, 418–420
the pillared (Greek-cross) church 77, 82, 107, 109–111, 143, 145, 151–158, 160–162, 172
the rotunda 48, 73, 82, 107n.11, 122, 145, 146–150, 156n.40, 159, 160n.54, 163, 172, 217, 219–222, 224–225
the first cathedral 121, 145–150, 158–163, 187
the second cathedral 163–173, 262
Albert Huet, constable of the Saxons 326
Albești (h. Fehéregyháza, g. Weissenkirch) 69, 91, 179, 192, 333, 339
Albiș (h. Albis) 38–39, 179, 197–198, 264, 280n.61, 333, 362
Almaș (h. Háromalmás, g. Almasch) 69, 94
Almașu Mare – Joseni (h. Nagyalmás, g. Groß-Obstdorf) 375, 389–392, 407, 410–411
Alțâna (h. Alcina, g. Alzen) 179, 205, 208, 333, 352, 354
altars 119–120, 198, 222, 314, 322n.38, 329, 408–409
Aluniș (Chiced; h. Kecsed) 264, 274
ambulatories 202, 298, 300n.113, 323
Amnaș (h. Omlás, g. Hamlesch) 179, 333, 352
Ampellum ( Zlatna ) 44
Ampoița (h. Kisompoly, g. Ampoifluß) 375, 389
Anca, noble lady 379, 382
Andreas Lapicida, master mason 300n.113
Andrew I of Hungary (1046–1060) 59, 79, 85, 98
Andrew II of Hungary (1205–1235) 53, 95n.122, 215n.152, 236n.1
Andrew III of Hungary (1290–1301) 266, 341
Anjou, dynasty 264, 266
Anonymous, chronicler 55
Anselm of Braz, colonizer 232
Antoni, Erhard 136n.93
Apahida (h. Apahida, g. Bruckendorf) 68n.8, 69
Apold (h. Apold, g. Trappold) 179, 205n.131, 333, 336
apses ( chancels, sanctuaries ) 19, 86–88, 95n.122, 99n.136, 102–103, 106, 109, 111, 117–118, 120–123, 125, 127–128, 130, 134–137, 146–148, 150, 152–155, 159, 163, 165–168, 170, 184, 186–189, 191–192, 194, 196–200, 202, 205–207, 210–211, 214, 217n.161, 219–220, 222–225, 229–230, 235, 237, 240–242, 246, 248, 250–251, 253–255, 258, 274, 276–280, 282, 284n.68, 288, 290–291, 293–294, 295n.96, 297, 300–301, 303n.122, 306, 313–314, 318–320, 322, 325, 328, 339n.33, 345, 349–350, 352–354, 365n.134, 377, 382, 386–387, 389–391, 399, 403–404, 406–407, 410, 415
Apulum ( Alba Iulia ) 44, 68n.5, 69, 140
Arad (h. Arad, Óarad, g. Arad, Altarad) 69, 89, 93
archaeological churches 15, 87, 110, 119, 129–130, 187, 192, 205, 229, 231, 234, 280, 378–379, 380, 395–396, 400
archdeacon(rie)s 59, 61, 86–87, 118
Archita (h. Erked, g. Arkeden) 333, 336, 349, 352
archpriests 62, 376, 392
Arcuș (h. Árkos) 333, 338, 364
Armășeni (h. Csíkménaság) 179, 190, 264, 280–281
Arnulf of Carinthia, Frankish king (887–899) and emperor (896–899) 46
Árpád, dynasty 76, 185, 266
Árpádian 30–31, 50, 162, 182n.12
artefacts (pottery, jewellery, engolpions, etc) ( coins, grave goods ) 11, 28, 34, 38, 46, 49, 68, 70–71, 73, 75n.32, 77–78, 103, 117, 127, 130, 134, 137–138, 140, 142n.6, 160, 177, 182n.12, 318, 367, 395
ashlars ( stone ) 41, 125, 148, 166, 168, 222, 224, 256, 301, 318, 409
Ațel (h. Ecel, g. Hetzeldorf) 264, 276, 290, 333, 349
atrium 163, 171
Augustinian(s) 22, 80, 95n.121, 288–289
Avradaka , Preslav
Avram, Alexandru 32
Avrămești (h. Szentábrahám) 69, 128, 130, 179
Avrig (h. Felek, g. Freck) 179, 200, 205n.130, 207n.137, 208n.144, 333, 346n.59, 354, 360
Axente Sever (h. Asszonyfalva, g. Frauendorf) 179, 192, 194, 264, 333, 344
Baán, Istvan 77
Bács (Bač, Serbia) 77
Bădeni (h. Bágy) 69, 98, 179, 196, 264, 279
Bădești (h. Bádok) 239, 251n.42
Băgaciu (h. Kisbogács, g. Disteldorf) 264
Bágyuj, Lajos 165n.73
Baia Mare (h. Nagybánya, g. Frauenbach) 36, 53, 179, 264, 266n.5, 267, 270, 272, 275, 284, 330, 422
Băiești (h. Bajesd, g. Bayeschd) 375, 393
Balc of Moldavia (1359/1364), voivode of Maramureş 385
Bălcaciu (h. Bolkács, g. Bulkesch) 333, 352
Balea, knez 379
Bălgrad , Alba Iulia ( Voivodeship of B. )
Balkan(s) 50, 106, 155n.34, 157, 266
Banat, region 2, 4–5, 32, 57–58, 82, 113, 114n.27, 266
baptism 67–68, 76, 78–79, 81–82, 99, 104, 148, 227, 416
baptismal font 196, 313
baptisteries 84n.75, 105, 124–125, 147–150, 171, 225, 227, 235, 325
Bărăbanț (h. Borbánd, g. Weindorf) 179, 189n.49
Baraolt (h. Barót) 52
Baroque, style 42, 163, 167, 170–171, 197n.91, 203, 229, 283, 285, 302, 311, 416
Bârsa, Land of 1, 22, 29, 51, 53–54, 57, 60, 181–182, 239, 244, 245n.34, 272, 337, 341, 346, 361
Bârsău (h. Berekszó) 375, 404n.117
Basarab, dynasty 404
Basil I, Byzantine emperor (867–886) 155n.34
Basilian(s) 81, 91
basilicas 7, 17, 19–21, 23, 34, 73, 76n.34, 84n.75, 88, 93n.111, 95n.122, 102, 109, 121–125, 127, 130, 134–135, 139n.105, 145, 148, 159, 161–162, 166, 172–173, 183, 186, 190–192, 199–200, 202–216, 232, 235, 237, 241, 245–246, 248, 260, 263n.70, 282–283, 290–295, 298, 301–305, 309, 311, 313, 316, 318–321, 323, 324n.45, 336, 338, 341, 344–347, 348n.66 and 67, 349–354, 359, 379, 382, 384, 420–421
Batu Khan, Mongol ruler (1227–1255) 183
bays 102, 107, 111, 115, 117, 152, 154–155, 165, 200, 205, 207–208, 214, 237, 246, 248, 256, 258, 262, 282, 286, 288, 291, 295, 297, 299–300, 303n.122, 311, 318, 323, 346, 350, 387, 413
Bazna (h. Bázna, g. Baassen) 333, 336, 352
Bedeu , Bedevlia
Bedevlia (Ukraine) 377
Beia (h. Homoródbene, g. Meeburg) 333, 336
Béla I of Hungary (1060–1063) 124
Béla II of Hungary (1131–1141) 98n.132
Béla III of Hungary (1172–1196) 46n.18, 80n.61, 125n.66, 130, 232, 236n.1
Bela, knez 75
belfries 107, 184, 344, 400
Belgium 232
Belin (h. Bölön, g. Blumendorf) 333
Bencze, Ünige 39, 237n.9
Benedictine(s) 12, 78, 80–81, 84n.75, 85, 90, 93–94, 95n.122, 106, 118, 120, 123n.57, 124–126, 128, 182, 185–186, 200–201, 202n.104 and 105, 233, 236n.1, 241, 243n.25, 421
Benkő, Elek 30, 39, 196, 202, 234
Berea (h. Bere) 179, 278n.45
Berehove (Ukraine) 298n.104
Berivoi (h. Berivoj; g. Berwein) 375, 377n.22
Beşliu, Petre 39, 240, 309n.9, 322, 324
Biertan (h. Berethalom, g. Birthälm) 69, 70n.14, 264, 267, 304, 333, 336, 367
Biharia (h. Bihar) 47, 58–59, 63, 69, 73, 81–82, 85, 106–107, 138, 155
Bila Cerkva (Ukraine) 377
Biserica Albă , Bila Cerkva
Bisericani , Turda
bishoprics , dioceses
(arch)bishops 50, 60–61, 71, 75–76, 78–79, 84–85, 93, 98, 102n.143, 124n.64, 144n.11, 147, 158, 161n.61, 163, 170, 404, 419
Bistrița (h. Beszterce, g. Bistritz) 21–22, 53, 57, 179, 182–183, 191, 239, 243–244, 264, 266–267, 269, 272, 275–276, 284, 291–292, 305, 333, 338, 342
Bizere , Frumușeni
Blandiana (h. Maroskarna, g. Stumpach) 48n.24, 69, 73n.26
Bogdan Vodă (Cuhea, h. Izakonyha) 5n.4, 375, 377, 379, 381, 399–401, 407–408
Boian (h. Alsóbajom, g. Bonnesdorf) 333, 336
Bonțida (h. Bonchida, g. Bruck) 264, 268
borderland 51, 55, 172, 416
Borsa, noble house 90, 127
Botár, István 39, 102
boyars 379
Boz (h. Buzd, g. Bußd) 333, 336
Bozieș (h. Magyarborzás; g. Hollerthal) 264, 274
Brădeni (h. Hégen, g. Henndorf) 333, 336
Brașov (Corona, h. Brassó, g. Kronstadt) 3, 20–21, 28–29, 36–37, 39, 51, 53–54, 57, 61, 69, 72n.22, 94–95, 98n.129, 101–103, 123, 179, 181–182, 217, 220–222, 226, 239, 244–245, 251–252, 254, 260, 262–264, 266–269, 272–276, 295–296, 299–301, 303, 306, 330, 333, 342, 375, 381, 399, 402, 421–422
Brașov-Bartolomeu (h. Brassóbertalan, g. Bartolomä) 4, 179, 205, 239, 244–245, 247, 262
Brașov-Șchei (Șcheii Brașovului, h. Bolgárszeg, g. Belgerei, Obere Vorstadt) 34, 403, 404n.117, 406, 413
Brateiu (h. Baráthely, g. Pretai) 264, 291n.88, 333
Bratislava (Slovakia) 298
brick, architecture 25, 95n.122, 109–111, 117, 128, 131–132, 134–135, 152, 177, 188, 214, 223–224, 229–230, 256, 278, 285, 313, 322–323, 328, 348, 350, 352, 362, 406, 408–412
Bruiu (h. Brulya, g. Braler) 179, 205n.130
Bruno (Prunward), bishop 78
Bucharest 35, 71n.20, 416
Buda , Budapest
Budapest (Hungary) 27, 243n.25, 323n.40
building (construction) process 122–123, 135, 137, 149, 160, 166–167, 198, 203, 205, 207–208, 214, 230, 232, 234, 240–241, 246, 298–299, 301, 319–320, 322–323, 325, 356, 387n.60, 401, 406, 408
rebuilding 84n.75, 184, 298, 302, 324, 325n.52
Bulci (h. Bulcs) 69, 89n.97, 91, 106
Bulcsú (Boulosudes), Hungarian prince 76, 78
Bulgaria(ns) 1, 3, 45–47, 50, 70, 73, 106, 120, 142, 147, 155, 157
Bulgars 44
Bunești (h. Szászbuda, g. Bodendorf) 333, 336
burial grounds ( cemeteries; cf. graveyards ) 49–51, 96, 98–99, 102n.143, 420
burials ( graves, grave goods ) 73, 79, 84, 86, 88, 96, 99, 125–126, 131, 160, 166, 191, 194, 227, 325n.50, 359n.106, 381, 383, 395, 403n.115
vaults (i.e., tombs) 131, 316, 318
Burnichioiu, Ileana 32
Busuioc – von Hasselbach, Nicolae 32
buttresses 132, 134, 137n.95, 165–167, 170, 189, 198, 214, 240, 243, 248, 276, 280, 284n.69, 285, 287–288, 290, 298, 300n.113, 301–302, 306, 325–326, 328, 350–351, 354, 356, 397–398, 399n.108, 404
Buzd (h. Szászbuzd, g. Bußd ) 264, 279, 333, 354
Byal Bryag (Smyadovo, Bulgaria) 117
Byzantine(s) 1, 3, 22, 45–47, 50, 55, 62, 67, 70, 73, 75–78, 109, 118, 139, 157, 172, 419
architecture (layouts, murals, structural design etc.) 7, 17, 29, 31–32, 36, 38, 47, 50, 87–88, 90, 104–105, 106–120, 138–139, 145, 154–157, 161–162, 172–173, 185, 187, 232n.193, 256, 385–386, 386–388, 395, 404, 410, 415–416, 419–420, 424
artefacts 46, 50, 70–71, 77, 87, 142, 157n.46
Cacuciu Nou (h. Nagykakucs) 179, 189
Calnic (h. Kálnok) 179, 187, 197, 333, 361
Câlnic (h. Kelnek, g. Kelling) 21, 34, 69, 91, 138, 179, 182, 184, 191–192, 333, 339–340, 367
Câmpia Turzii (Ghiriş, h. Aranyosgyéres, g. Gieresch, Jerichmarkt) 333, 342
Cândeşti (Kendeffi), noble house 256, 376n.6, 380
Cantacuzino, Gheorghe I. 34
capitals, architecture 88, 125, 127n.74, 203, 208n.144, 214, 232
Căpleni (h. Kaplony, g. Kaplan) 69, 94, 179, 202
Caransebeș (h. Karánsebes, g. Karanschebesch) 382
Carmen Miserabile 183
Cârnești (h. Kernyesd, g. Kernescht) 375, 393
Carolingian(s) 3, 67, 75–76
Carpathian(s) 1, 3, 20, 26, 49–50, 54, 58, 61, 72n.22, 94, 120, 155, 181, 244n.32, 307, 342, 417
Carpathian Basin 31, 44n.4, 46–47, 49, 63, 77, 106, 144, 156, 158, 172–173, 184, 216n.155, 224, 419
Cârța (h. Kerc, g. Kerz) 5n.4, 7–8, 22, 27–28, 32, 34, 69, 95, 123, 179, 181, 185, 215–216, 235–237, 239–240, 242–246, 251, 258, 260–264, 322, 395, 422
Cârța-Csíkkarcfalva (Cârța, h. Csíkkarcfalva) 5n.4, 179, 194, 264, 282n.61, 333, 338, 361n.121
Cașinu Mic (h. Kiskászon) 179, 196
Cașolț (h. Hermány, g. Kastenholz) 179, 203, 204n.128
Castrum Almage 246n.37
Castrum Sanctae Mariae 253n.46
Cața (h. Kaca, g. Katzendorf) 179, 205n.131, 264, 295
Catalogus Ninivensis 94
cathedrals 3, 7, 19, 30, 35–36, 60, 80–82, 84–85, 105, 121, 140–141, 142n.5, 143, 145–151, 154, 157–166, 170–171, 173, 177, 184, 187, 207, 208n.144, 225, 233, 235–236, 243n.25, 258, 261–262, 269, 295, 296n.100 and 103, 418, 420
Catholic(ism) ( Latin(s), Western (Christianity) ) 5, 7, 9, 12, 17, 19, 45, 58, 62, 75n.30, 78–79, 81–82, 84, 86, 88, 90n.98, 91, 93–94, 114n.27, 118, 139, 141–142, 144–145, 380, 382, 415–416, 419–420, 424
architecture 6–7, 19–25, 38, 84n.75, 88, 104–105, 120–138, 140–141, 142n.5, 145, 150, 154, 158–173, 175–369, 373, 375n.4, 377, 380, 382, 384, 386, 400, 404, 414, 417, 420
Cefa (h. Cséffa) 179, 189
ceilings 200, 214, 224–225, 229, 256, 285, 356, 397, 407
cemeteries ( burial grounds, graveyards ) 45n.12, 49, 51, 54n.58, 71, 73n.27, 87–89, 93n.111, 94n.112, 96, 98–103, 140, 142, 154, 160–162, 166, 173, 180, 188n.44, 197, 220–221, 225, 227, 230, 253–254, 261–262, 270, 283, 309, 311, 313, 316, 324–329, 342, 356, 359, 362–364, 366–368, 379n.28, 380–382, 393n.82, 399n.108, 409, 418
Cenad (Morisena, h. Nagycsanád, g. Tschanad) 37, 39, 47, 58–59, 61, 63, 69, 73, 79–83, 85, 89, 91, 93, 106, 113n.26, 121, 155, 158, 179, 375, 420
Cenade (h, Szászcsanád, g. Scholten) 179, 204n.128
centrally-planned architecture 7, 17, 19, 79, 82, 106, 111n.17, 121, 154, 162, 216–234, 235, 324
cross-shaped layouts 17, 19, 132, 245, 256, 260, 313, 346
(poly)lobed layouts 23, 79, 106, 111, 113, 232–233, 243, 259, 411
rotundas 48, 73, 82, 105, 107n.11, 122–125, 127, 130, 132, 134–135, 145–150, 156n.40, 159, 160n.54, 163, 172, 213–214, 216–222, 224–225, 227, 229–232, 234, 309, 324–325, 328, 339, 366, 421
chairs (sedes), Saxon 55–57
chairs (sedes), Szekler 30, 55–57, 100
chancels ( apses, sanctuaries ) 23, 81, 87–88, 114–115, 122, 187, 189, 192, 197–198, 207, 222, 235, 243, 256, 274, 279–280, 333, 335, 354, 386, 392–395, 397–399, 410–411, 415
chapels 15, 33, 48, 72, 76n.34, 90, 105, 107, 122, 126–127, 132, 137, 147–148, 155, 159, 161n.63, 162–163, 171, 183–184, 188, 192n.62, 193–194, 196, 200, 211, 219, 221–222, 225–227, 230–231, 233–234, 237, 240–241, 243, 246, 248, 251–254, 262–263, 269, 272, 274–275, 283, 286–287, 291, 293, 295, 298, 300–301, 304, 306, 308–309, 311, 313–314, 316, 322–329, 331, 334, 336n.6, 338–339–340, 341n.39, 343, 344n.55, 347, 352n.87, 360, 364–367, 376n.6, 380–382, 393, 398, 399n.108, 401, 404
chapters (capitula) 60, 93, 320
Charles Robert of Hungary (1301/08–1342) 57, 266, 278n.48
Chavarria Arnau, Alexandra 417
Chefneux, Eugene 109
Chirpăr (h. Kürpöd, g. Kirchberg) 179, 205n.131, 207, 333, 352
choirs ( sanctuaries ) 7, 102–103, 117, 131, 135, 136n.93, 137n.95, 163–168, 170, 188, 191, 193, 197n.91, 198, 200, 205, 207, 210–211, 214, 237, 248–249, 269, 276, 279–280, 282, 285–286, 288, 294–295, 297–300, 302, 303n.122, 313, 317–318, 320, 323, 349–350, 354, 356n.99, 357, 382, 391, 409
Chrasťnad Hornádom (Slovakia) 233n.202
Christian(ity) 3–4, 11–12, 42, 86, 90, 95–96, 98–99, 102–104, 130, 139–140, 147, 149, 154, 157, 161, 177, 185, 227, 229, 235, 240, 307n.3, 375, 416, 418–421
Christianization ( baptism, mission(arie)s ) 3, 6–7, 46–48, 50, 58–59, 61–63, 67–81, 93–94, 99n.138, 109, 140, 157, 225, 227, 417, 419–420
Chorographia Transylvanniae 27
chronology 4, 11, 15, 17, 22, 38, 72, 80, 83n.71, 86–87, 99, 105, 109, 111, 113–114, 120, 123, 125, 130, 134, 135n.89, 138, 146–147, 156n.40, 159, 165, 170, 172–173, 177, 179, 184, 187, 200, 211, 215, 219, 220–222, 229, 232, 235, 251, 255–256, 285n.72, 296, 299n.108, 313, 320, 328, 340, 348n.67, 349, 356n.99, 362, 366, 368, 373, 375, 386, 395, 397, 402, 416, 423
Cib (h. Cseb, g. Tropfbach) 375, 389
Cibin, river 307
Cikádor (Bátaszék, Hungary) 80n.61, 236n.1
Cinciș (h. Csolnakos) 375, 404n.117
Cincșor (h. Kissink, g. Klein-Schenk) 239, 244n.29, 264
Cincu (h. Nagysink, g. Großschenk) 60, 179, 200, 205–207, 239, 246, 333, 346n.59
Cisnădie (h. Nagydisznód, g. Heltau) 21, 69, 122, 179, 191, 200, 204–205, 207, 217, 219–221, 264, 295, 333, 346, 365
Cisnădioara (h. Kisdisznód, g. Michelsberg) 21, 28, 34, 69, 122, 179, 184, 200, 204, 205n.131, 207–208, 214–215, 333, 360, 368
Cistercian(s) 7–8, 12, 22, 32, 80, 94–95, 123, 181–182, 189, 199, 222, 235, 236–263, 272, 313, 416, 422
cists ( graves ) 78, 160n.60, 318
cities ( towns, urban ) 1, 8, 44, 47, 52, 57, 142n.5, 165, 172n.91, 184, 246n.36, 266n.4, 295n.99, 296, 307n.1 and 3, 309, 322, 329, 359
Ciucsângeorgiu (h. Csíkszentgyörgy) 333
Ciula Mare (h. Nagycsula, g. Gross- Schullendorf) 375, 393–394, 397, 407
Ciumbrud (h. Csombord; g. Poley) 179, 217, 219n.169
Ciumești (h. Csomaköz, g. Schamagosch) 179, 264, 278
Cladova (h. Kladova) 99
Classicist, style 42
Cloașterf (h. Miklóstelke, g. Klosdorf) 264, 276, 333, 336
cloisters ( monasteries ) 126, 240
Clopotiva (h. Klopotiva, g. Glockendorf) 375–376
Cluj-Napoca 5, 69, 179, 239, 264, 333
Cluj (Cluj-Napoca, h. Kolozsvár, g. Klausenburg) 5, 21–23, 36, 44, 47, 51, 53, 60–61, 183–184, 266n.5, 267, 268n.13, 269, 272, 274–276, 283–284, 286–287, 288n.78, 295–298, 301–303, 306, 330, 342, 381, 404, 422
Cluj-Mănăștur (h. Kolozsmonostor, g. Appesdorf) 37, 69, 89n.97, 93–94, 121, 124, 179, 232, 234, 239, 243n.25
Someșeni (h. Szamosfalva) 239, 251n.42
Codlea (h. Feketehalom, g. Zeiden) 333, 346, 357, 359, 361
coins 78, 87–88, 94n.112, 98, 109, 117, 125n.66, 128, 130, 134, 137, 154n.29, 157n.46, 166, 177, 192n.62, 210, 216, 232–233, 244n.32, 246n.36, 260, 278n.48, 283, 299n.108, 309, 322, 379n.28, 397–398, 402, 403n.115
Cojocna (h. Kolozs, g. Salzburg) 264, 266, 268
collapse 4, 25, 68, 70, 295, 300n.113, 302n.119, 325, 349n.71
Coloman of Hungary (1095–1116) 78–80, 98n.132, 137, 154n.29, 160
colonisation (incl. settle(ment), colonists, settlers) 6–8, 17, 19, 43–44, 47n.21, 51–54, 58, 60–61, 63, 67, 77, 80–81, 93, 96, 99, 104, 122, 131, 134–135, 139–140, 142, 157, 172, 177, 182–184, 188, 190–191, 200, 202, 210, 219, 221–222, 231n.190, 232, 244, 246n.37, 253n.46, 266, 305, 307, 309, 325, 329, 333, 377, 417, 419, 421
Colț , Suseni
Communism 5n.4, 34–36, 42, 43n.1, 416
Constantinople (Turkey) 3, 47, 50, 70, 75–79, 85, 104, 106, 109, 120, 155–156, 158n.47, 173, 416
Bodrum Camii 155–156
Fenari Isa Camii 109, 155
Nea Ekklesia 155n.34
construction sites 3, 7, 20, 121, 155, 162, 165, 172, 182n.10, 184–185, 191, 200, 216, 221, 236, 241n.22, 243n.25, 260, 262–263, 268, 275–276, 284, 286n.76, 288, 296, 298–299, 302, 305, 319n.31, 320, 323, 325, 330, 348, 368, 386, 406, 416
levels 216, 397
phases 11, 38–39, 102, 191, 197n.86, 198, 242, 248, 255, 260–261, 280n.61, 289, 293, 340, 397–398, 401, 404, 414
reconstructions 4, 42, 109, 121n.44, 124, 166–168, 171, 187, 197n.90, 202, 236, 258, 261, 269, 295, 299, 300n.113, 302, 305, 323, 328, 349, 361, 416, 418
stages 3, 9, 11, 17, 35, 41, 88, 99n.136, 103, 109, 111–113, 120–121, 123, 124n.61, 125, 127–128, 132, 134–136, 137n.94 and 95, 148, 165n.72, 167, 179, 181, 187, 192, 194, 196–198, 202–203, 205, 207, 211, 214, 216, 223, 232, 240–242, 248, 250, 253–255, 258–263, 274n.36, 276–277, 279, 282n.61, 285, 287–288, 291, 295–296, 300–302, 312, 316n.20, 319, 322–323, 327–328, 339n.30 and 35, 348, 351, 357, 360n.113, 361n.121, 388, 390, 393, 397, 401, 404, 407, 418, 422
convent ( monasteries ) 254, 284n.68, 285, 310–311
Copșa Mare (h. Nagykapus, g. Gross- Kopisch) 264, 291n.88
Copșa Mică (h. Kiskapus, g. Klein- Kopisch) 179, 264, 333
Târnăvioara (h. Kisekemező, g. Kleinprobsdorf) 264, 290, 291n.88, 333
Corrard, Saxon knight 192n.62, 340
Corvinești (h. Kékesújfalu, g. Neudorf) 264, 274
Coșeiu (h. Kusaly) 22, 264, 274–275, 285, 287
Cotormani (h. Kotormány) 69–71
counties (comitatus) 24, 27, 53, 55–61, 80, 83, 86, 89, 98, 124, 144, 417
Crăciunel (h. Karácsonfalva; g. Krötschendorf) 179, 196
craftsmen 208n.144, 268n.13, 386, 399, 406, 419, 422
Cricău (h. Boroskrakkó, g. Krakau) 34, 69, 102–103, 179, 192, 204, 207, 264, 282, 333, 346, 352, 360
Crîngaci Țiplic, Maria 39, 138n.104, 191n.58, 318
Criș, river system 1, 82, 95
Crișan, Ioan 39
Crişana ( Partium ) 2, 5, 32, 52
Crișcior (h. Kristyor) 23, 375, 379, 383, 398, 406, 411–412
Cristian (h. Keresztényfalva, g. Neustadt) 5n.4, 179, 207n.137, 239, 244, 333, 346, 362, 364
Cristian-Großau (h. Kereszténysziget, g. Großau) 5n.4, 179, 200, 205n.130, 264, 333, 346n.59
Cristuru Secuiesc (h. Székelykeresztúr, g. Kreuz) 69, 98n.129, 179, 202, 264, 267
Croatia(n) 2, 45
crossing 163, 165, 170, 317, 320
crypts 132, 134n.87, 168n.82, 217n.161, 220, 227, 325, 399n.108, 400
Csaki, Michael 28
Csanád (Chanadinus), Hungarian leader 83
Cserni, Adalbert 142n.5, 147
Cuhea , Bogdan Vodă
Cuman(s) ( diocese of Cumania ) 63, 68, 79, 225, 227
Cumidava ( Râșnov ) 44
Curciu (h. Küküllőkőrös, g. Kirtsch) 264, 283, 291n.88, 333, 366
Curinschi Vorona, Gheorghe 31
Curta, Florin 417
Cuzdrioara (h. Kozárvár) 179, 189
Dăbâca (h. Doboka, g. Dobeschdorf) 37, 39, 47, 51, 60n.79, 69–71, 73, 79n.53, 86–88, 90, 104, 106–107, 138, 155, 179, 187, 189, 375, 413, 419
Dacia (h. Garat, g. Stein) 264
Dacia(ns) 43–44, 68n.6, 140
Daia (Daia, h. Székelydálya) 5n.4, 38, 69, 100, 179, 187, 189, 197–199, 264, 280, 333, 362
Daia-Thalheim (Daia, h. Dolmány, g. Thalheim) 5n.4, 179, 205, 207–208, 333, 339
Daniel, Saxon knight 192n.62, 340
Danube, river 9, 43–44, 46, 49–51, 58, 62–63, 67, 70, 83, 106, 113, 114n.26, 117, 142n.6 and 7, 147, 150, 155, 172, 269n.18, 413, 424
Dârja (h. Magyarderzse) 179, 189
Dârjiu (h. Székelyderzs) 333, 338, 356, 364, 367
Dávid, Lászlo 30
Dealu Frumos (h. Lesses, g. Schönberg) 179, 205, 207–208, 264, 303, 333, 336, 348, 350, 352–354, 357, 366–367
Decebalus, Dacian king (87–106) 43
Dej (h. Dés, g. Burglos, Desch) 264, 266–267, 276, 278, 283, 333, 342
Delidushka , Preslav
Demjén, Andrea 39
demolish(ment) / demolition 39, 42, 71n.20, 84n.75, 102, 109, 125, 128n.77, 131, 137n.95, 152, 154, 160–162, 167–168, 170, 194, 196n.85, 197, 200, 202, 206, 211, 214, 219, 222, 229, 232–233, 245n.34, 251–253, 258, 261, 274n.34, 279–280, 282–285, 287–289, 294, 300–301, 303, 309, 311, 318, 320–326, 328, 346n.61, 349n.75, 350–353, 357, 360n.112, 362–364, 367, 373, 381–382, 393n.86 and 87, 398, 401, 414, 417
dismantle(ment) 25, 87, 166, 168n.83, 203, 253, 284, 318, 322, 340, 399n.107
dendrochronology 229, 285n.72, 320, 349, 356n.99, 362n.123
Densuș (h. Demsus, g. Demsdorf) 22, 26, 34, 44, 69, 73–74, 90, 106–111, 117, 138, 156, 179, 375–376, 380–381, 383, 385, 406, 409–410, 413, 419
Dezna (h. Dézna) 375, 379–380, 398
diaconicon 107, 109, 413
(arch)dioceses (also as bishoprics, episcopates) 6, 58, 70, 75n.30, 76–77, 80–81, 86, 121, 150, 172
of Bihar(ia) 58–59, 81–82, 85
of Cenad 58–59, 61, 63, 81–82, 84, 93, 98
of Cumania 54n.59, 61, 182
of Eger 59, 61, 118
of Esztergom 8, 58, 60–61, 80, 125n.64, 182
of Feleacu 62n.99, 399, 404
of Kalocsa 75, 77, 80, 84, 139
of Nitra 80
of Oradea 58–59, 61, 63, 82, 85
of Passau 78
of Tourkia 62, 77, 139, 158
of Transylvania (Alba Iulia) 3, 6–8, 19, 31, 58–63, 79, 81, 86, 141–142, 144–145, 158, 160n.57, 161–162, 181, 419
of Zagreb 80
Dipșa (h. Dipse, g. Dürrbach) 264, 279
districts (districtus) 55–58, 392
Ditrău (h. Ditró, g. Dittersdorf) 179, 189
Dobârca (h. Doborka, g. Dobring) 333, 349, 352, 354, 367
Dobeni (h. Székelydobó, g. Dobendorf) 264, 279
Doboșeni (h. Székelyszáldobos) 179, 233
Dobre, knez 379
Dominican(s) 22, 32, 36, 80, 182, 222, 274, 278, 287, 302, 308–311
Domneşti , Zolotarevo
Dorolțu (h. Nádasdaróc, g. Draas) 239, 251n.42
Drag, voivode of Maramureş 385
Dragoş (Drágfi), dynasty / noble house 385
Drăguț, Vasile 32, 243, 395n.88
Drăușeni (h. Homoróddaróc, g. Draas) 6, 21–22, 25, 34–35, 69, 96, 135, 138, 177, 179, 182, 188, 191–192, 200, 204, 205n.130, 207–208, 210–212, 239, 244, 261n.67, 264, 282, 333, 336, 346, 348, 350–352, 354, 357, 366–367, 421, 423
Dridu, archeological culture 50n.32
duchies/dukes 45, 47, 84, 86
Dumitra (h. Nagydemeter, g. Mettersdorf) 333, 338, 338n.20
Dumitrache, Marianne 34, 39, 136n.93, 137n.99, 211n.148
Dumitrașcu, Sever 85
earthen, architecture 52, 85–86, 88–89, 135, 192n.62, 230, 330, 333, 339, 342n.45, 356–357, 365n.136
Eastern (Christianity ; Greek(s), Orthodox(y)) 19, 59, 62, 67, 70, 75, 77, 79, 84, 90–91, 94n.116, 103–104, 106, 113–114, 117, 120, 158n.47, 161, 188, 375, 399, 404, 406, 414, 419
ecclesiastical 3, 6, 15, 17, 19–20, 24, 26, 29–30, 33, 36–39, 58, 60–62, 76n.32, 78, 80, 82–83, 86, 90, 91n.104, 95, 118, 131, 139–140, 144, 155, 157, 161–162, 172–173, 177, 183–184, 219, 243, 256, 268–269, 275, 304–306, 316, 330–331, 373, 407, 414, 416–417, 423
Eder, Heinreich 240
Eger (Hungary) 59, 61, 118, 243n.25
Eichhorn, Albert 299n.111
Emeric of Hungary (1196–1204) 240
emplecton 168
Emődi, Tamás 39
enclosures 22, 33, 54n.62, 87–88, 125, 135n.92, 136–137, 140–141, 195, 197n.91, 260, 262, 283, 292, 296, 307, 314, 326, 328, 331, 336–339, 344, 349, 355, 356n.99, 357–360, 361n.121, 362, 364, 365n.133, 366, 368, 409
Engel, Pál 43n.1
ensembles 22, 35, 134, 213, 240, 245n.33, 263n.70, 330–331, 361, 362n.123, 368
entrances 131, 167, 198, 208, 211, 223, 225, 229–230, 300, 313, 331, 339, 344, 349, 397, 411
door(way)s 109n.14, 123, 127, 134, 163–164, 196, 208, 225, 230, 288, 352, 386, 395, 397, 401, 411–412
gate(way)s 141, 195, 308, 313, 328, 336–338, 340, 356, 358, 360, 361n.121, 362n.123, 363–364
Entz, Géza 29, 146–147, 158, 243
eparchy 75, 93
episcopates , dioceses
estates 24, 55, 58, 90, 114n.27, 232, 322, 380–381, 399
Esztergom (Hungary) 8, 58, 60–61, 80, 96n.127, 125n.64, 182
Eugene IV, pope (1431–1447) 307n.3, 343
exarchs 62n.99
Fabini, Hermann 15, 19, 30, 208, 307n.1, 342n.48, 348
fabric 42, 44, 73, 87, 123, 136, 152, 159, 163, 167–169, 189n.50, 192n.61, 196, 224, 230, 235, 237n.9, 274n.34, 291, 302, 313, 330, 354, 368, 373, 386, 407–409, 416, 418
Făgăraș (h. Fogaras, g. Fogarasch) 264, 268
Făgăraș, Land of 1, 56–57, 241, 377, 390
Feldioara (h. Földvár, g. Marienburg) 27, 51, 53–54, 179, 200, 204n.128, 205n.130, 207n.137, 217, 220–221, 239, 244–245, 251, 253–255, 260, 263–264, 267–268, 295, 333, 342–344, 346, 348, 357, 422
Feleacu (h. Erdőfelek) 62n.99, 264, 278, 375, 381, 399, 404–405, 407–408, 412
Feliceni (h. Felsőboldogfalva, g. Ober- Mariendorf) 34, 179, 198, 264, 279, 282n.61, 333, 349, 361n.121
Felnac (h. Fönlak, g. Fenlak) 179, 219n.169
Fenékpuszta , Keszthely
find(ing)s, archeological 34, 50n.32, 68n.5, 70–71, 73, 80n.59, 94n.112, 123n.59, 135, 137–138, 140, 142, 153, 172, 198, 216, 219–220, 226, 230, 233–234, 241, 268n.15, 299, 324n.45, 381–383, 387n.61, 404n.117, 412–413, 422–423
Firea, Ciprian 32
Firtușu (h. Firtosváralja) 69, 123, 333, 341
Fischer, Emil 326n.59
Fișer (h. Sövénység, g. Schweischer) 333, 336
Fizeșu Gherlii (h. Ördöngösfüzes) 179, 189, 239, 251n.42
fortifications ( enclosures, towers ) 3, 6, 9, 22, 43n.1, 47, 48n.24, 52, 54, 85–86, 88–89, 104, 122, 124–125, 127, 135, 140–141, 143, 183–184, 192n.62, 194, 202n.105, 203, 205–206, 211, 215, 219–220, 229–230, 231n.190, 232, 253–256, 262, 268, 274–275, 277, 282–283, 292, 303, 305, 307, 330, 331–369, 379, 389, 391, 395, 416–417, 423
barbicans 340, 356, 361n.121
castles 274, 288, 404
donjons (also as keeps) 135, 211n.149, 339–341, 344, 348, 360
fortified churches 9, 22, 136n.92, 203n.110, 269, 303, 331–369, 416
gate-towers 195, 308, 313, 328, 338, 340, 358, 360, 361n.121, 363, 364n.131
moats 230, 333, 341, 351, 356–357, 359, 362n.129, 364
palisades 230, 231n.190
ramparts 52, 86, 88, 192n.62, 230, 331, 333, 337, 339, 347, 360, 365n.136
reduit-churches 336, 350
stockades 230, 331
wards 331, 334, 339n.37, 340, 365
Zwinger 357, 362
found(ations) 7, 9, 37, 51, 56, 59–60, 77, 80–81, 84n.75, 90–91, 93–94, 95n.121, 103, 121, 123n.57, 124, 126, 135n.88, 155n.34, 163, 181, 182n.10, 189n.48, 200, 214, 237, 240–241, 244, 246n.37, 251, 255, 256n.51, 53 and 55, 274, 285, 288, 307, 309n.4 and 9, 313, 326, 339, 380n.39, 381–383, 387, 404, 406, 419
founders 113, 157, 163, 208n.144, 232, 380–383, 385, 406, 411
foundations, architecture 33, 36, 41, 86–88, 95n.124, 99n.136, 102, 110, 117, 120, 125n.66, 126–128, 130–132, 134–135, 136n.93, 137, 141, 146, 148, 152, 154, 159, 161, 163n.71, 166–169, 198, 207, 211, 213–214, 216, 223–224, 227, 230, 232–233, 240–242, 248, 250, 254, 258, 260, 278n.48, 279–280, 288, 293–294, 296n.100, 301, 302n.119, 318, 320, 322–324, 325n.50, 326, 329, 340, 361–362, 379n.28, 383, 388–389, 392, 395, 397–399, 403, 406–408, 412–413
France 52
Francisc Várday, bishop 163
Franciscan(s) 22–23, 33, 38, 80, 182, 189, 251, 254, 274, 283, 284n.68, 285–287, 308, 309n.9, 310–311, 382
friary ( monasteries ) 254, 287, 308
Fritz-Lászay, Oskar 240
Frumușeni – Bizere Monastery (h. Szépfalu, g. Schöndorf) 69, 91, 94, 106, 121, 125–126, 179, 188
Gaan, son of Alard, Saxon leader 170
Gaiu, Corneliu 39
Galați (h. Galac, g. Galatz) 375, 395, 397
Galda de Jos (h. Alsógáld, g. Unter- Hahnenberg) 375, 380, 410
Gáll, Erwin 86n.87, 88, 124n.61
galleries 81, 117, 120, 128, 187, 192n.62, 199–200, 223, 331, 333, 341, 344, 346, 349–350, 352, 356, 361–362, 380
Gârbova, estate 24
Gârbova (h. Szászorbó, g. Urwegen) 34, 69, 91, 179, 184, 204, 333, 339
Gârbova de Jos (h. Alsóorbó, g. Unterurbau) 24, 179, 189
Gârbova de Sus (h. Felsőorbó, g. Orbau, g. Oberurbau) 24, 333, 375, 380, 413–414
Gârbovița (h. Középorbó, g. Kleinurbau) 24, 375, 380, 388
Gelu, voivode in Transylvania 45, 47, 86
Geoagiu (h. Algyógyalfalu, g. Gergersdorf) 69, 90, 105, 122, 179, 217, 219–222, 224, 227–229
German(ic)(s) ( Saxon(s) ) 5, 20, 22, 52–54, 60, 81, 96, 98, 102, 182, 199, 202n.105, 207, 214, 219, 232, 253n.46, 260, 266, 298, 307, 325, 343, 419
historiography 25n.8, 26, 29, 42,
Gesta Hungarorum 46n.18, 47n.21
Géza II of Hungary (1141–1162) 52, 60, 137
Géza, Hungarian grand prince (972–997) 78–80
Ghelința (h. Gelence, g. Gälänts) 179, 196, 264, 282n.62
Gheorghieni (h. Gyergyószentmiklós, g. Niklasmarkt) 179, 198, 233–234, 264, 282
Ghidfalău (h. Gidófalva) 179, 195, 197, 333, 361n.121 and 122
Ghimbav (h. Vidombák, g. Weidenbach) 179, 239, 244, 333, 346, 362
Gilău (h. Gyalu, g. Julmarkt) 47, 60n.79, 179
Giulești (h. Máragyulafalva) 25, 375, 377–378, 381, 389–392, 406–408, 412–413
Glad, duke of Morisena 45, 47
Glasgow (Scotland) 172n.91
Gothic, style 4, 7–9, 17, 19–22, 25, 31–32, 38, 87, 104, 134n.87, 139, 159, 163, 167–170, 172–173, 179, 181, 185–188, 191n.60, 193–196, 197n.86 and 91, 198–200, 202–204, 208, 211, 216, 219–220, 223, 233, 235, 236–306, 309–311, 313, 316, 320–324, 326, 330–331, 336, 338, 343, 346n.61, 349–350, 352, 354, 356, 361, 363, 365n.136, 366, 369, 380–381, 385, 387, 395, 399–400, 401n.112, 403–404, 407, 411–412, 415–416, 418, 420, 422, 424
Graditsch, Otto 299n.111
grave (burial) goods 11, 70, 103, 109, 125, 177, 191, 379n.28, 397, 402
graves ( burials, cists, grave goods ) 11, 38, 41, 70, 76n.34, 78n.45, 88, 98n.132, 99–103, 114, 117, 125n.66, 127, 131, 135, 137–138, 153–154, 160–161, 166, 168n.84, 177n.3, 180, 197, 221n.175, 227, 232, 248, 278n.48, 295, 302n.118, 316, 318, 322–323, 328–329, 361n.119, 366, 383, 392n.81, 393, 397, 400–401, 403, 408, 420
anthropomorphic 160n.60, 177, 180, 214, 357
graveyards ( cemeteries; cf. burial grounds ) 33, 50, 86, 89, 98–99, 130, 137n.99, 154, 158, 160–161, 177, 183, 191, 197, 210, 235, 316, 325, 366, 385, 397, 404, 423
greaves 91, 137, 221, 339
Greceanu, Eugenia 31–32
Greek(s) ( Eastern (Christianity), Orthodox(y) ) 7, 62, 75, 78, 80, 82, 84, 93, 103, 113n.26, 126n.69, 147, 157–158, 172
cross 109
cross, layout 17, 19, 77, 82, 106, 109, 111, 154–155, 161–162, 172, 419
Gromo, Giovan Andrea 27, 254
ground 25, 98, 132, 148, 286, 296, 301–302, 342n.48, 385, 390, 408
floor 118, 283, 346, 349, 350n.81, 354n.97, 392
levels 17, 36, 166, 168, 170, 211, 224, 230, 237, 242n.23, 321, 344, 367, 412
plans ( layouts ) 19, 50, 88–89, 108–110, 111n.17, 113–115, 117, 123, 127–128, 132, 137, 147, 186, 188, 202, 205, 215, 219, 222, 233, 243, 245, 248, 258, 260, 262, 276–277, 291, 295, 297, 299, 300n.113, 301–302, 312–313, 327–328, 348n.68, 350, 356, 362n.125, 386, 388, 392, 395, 403n.115, 404n.117, 407, 415, 419
underground 11, 109, 132, 135, 140, 168n.84, 224, 301, 330
Grynaeus, András 39
Gündisch, Konrad 43n.1
Gurasada (h. Guraszáda) 23–24, 26, 34–35, 69, 73, 90, 104, 106–107, 111–112, 138, 179, 232n.193, 375, 380–381, 413, 419
Gușterița , Sibiu
Gusu (h. Kisludas, g. Giesshübel) 264, 279
Győr (Hungary) 162
Györffy, György 30, 103
Gyula (the Elder), Hungarian prince 50, 76–77, 79, 142, 150, 157–158
Gyula (the Younger), Hungarian prince 50, 79, 158
Hălchiu (h. Höltövény, g. Heldsdorf) 179, 239, 244, 333, 346, 348, 362
hall-churches 19, 275–276, 295–304, 311, 313, 322–323, 354
Hălmagiu (h. Nagyhalmágy) 23, 375, 379, 398–400, 412–413
Hălmeag (h. Halmágy, g. Halmagen) 51, 179, 200, 207, 239, 244, 246–249, 260, 262, 422
Hamba (h. Kakasfalva, g. Hahnenbach) 179, 203
Harhoiu, Radu 43n.1
Hărman (h. Szászhermány, g. Honigberg) 34, 179, 204–205, 209, 239, 244–245, 247–248, 250, 263, 333, 337, 339, 346–347, 354–355, 361, 364–367, 422–423
Hârseni (h. Herszény) 375, 377n.22
Hațeg (h. Hátszeg, g. Wallenthal) 33, 58, 62, 255, 264, 284, 375
Hațeg, region 1, 22, 36–37, 56–58, 90, 274, 373, 375–376, 379–380, 386, 390, 392, 394, 406, 408, 410
Heitel, Radu 34, 39, 49, 122n.54, 142n.6, 146–147, 150, 158–159, 160n.60, 165n.73 and 74, 258n.57, 260, 339n.33, 348n.68, 380n.36, 413
Heitel, Suzana Móré 31, 33, 82n.68, 84, 114n.26, 118, 126, 156n.41, 202
Henszlmann, Imre 25, 84n.75
Herina (h. Harina, g. Mönchsdorf) 69–71, 94, 122, 179, 186, 200
Hierotheos, bishop of Tourkia 50, 62, 71, 76, 77n.38, 109, 147, 150, 157–158, 419
Holy Cross 308
Holy Roman Empire 78
Holy Table 254, 397, 406, 409, 412–413
Homorod (h. Homoród, g. Hamruden) 179, 191, 193, 333, 336, 354
Horedt, Kurt 43n.1, 48n.24, 49, 125, 142, 147
Horwath, Walter 28–29, 208, 299n.111, 300n.113
Hosman (h. Holcmány, g. Holzmengen) 179, 203, 205n.130, 207n.137, 208n.144, 239, 244n.29, 333, 352
hospitals 272, 308, 311, 313
hospites ( German(s), Saxon(s) ) 7, 52, 91, 102, 135, 139, 183, 191, 202, 260, 266, 420–421
Hruševo (Ukraine) – Peri monastery 62, 385, 389
Hudusmonostura 91
Huedin (h. Bánffyhunyad, g. Heynod) 264, 269, 278, 283, 333, 342
Hunedoara (h. Vajdahunyad, g. Eisenmarkt) 51, 264, 274, 375, 387–388, 404, 406n.121, 410, 414
Hungarian(s) (also as Magyar(s)) 3, 5–7, 19, 24, 45–52, 54–55, 58, 62–63, 67–68, 75–80, 82–83, 86, 96, 98–99, 103–104, 114, 122, 130, 139n.105, 142, 144, 147, 157–158, 172n.91, 183, 200, 214, 235, 245n.34, 246n.37, 272, 274n.34, 333, 416, 419–420
historiography 26, 29–31, 33, 42, 44n.4, 46n.18, 47n.19 and 21, 55n.64, 86n.89, 189n.48
kingdom 6, 29, 45, 49n.26, 77, 93n.108, 113, 150, 172–173, 181, 183n.16, 216, 236n.1, 244n.32, 306
Hungary 5, 27, 38, 57, 67n.1, 82, 95, 173, 233n.202, 266, 424
in its historical definition 1–2, 4, 11, 30, 43n.1, 45, 48, 54, 56–57, 62–63, 78–80, 91n.101, 114, 145, 156n.41, 157, 165n.73, 172n.91, 183, 185, 232, 236n.1, 245, 264, 278n.45, 296, 385, 419
Iacobeni (h. Jakabfalva, g. Jakobsdorf) 264
Iambor, Petru 34, 39, 43n.1, 85, 88
Iara (h. Alsójára) 239, 251n.42
iconostasis ( templon ) 88, 386, 395–396, 412–413, 415
Iermata Neagră (h. Feketegyarmat) 179, 188
Ighișu Nou (h. Szászivánfalva, g. Sächsisch- Eibesdorf) 264, 276
Igriș (h. Egres, g. Egresch) 69, 80n.61, 95, 123, 179, 236n.1, 239
Ilieni (h. Illyefalva, g. Eliasdorf) 333, 338, 364
Ineu (h. Borosjenő) – Dienesmonostora 69, 93–94, 179, 202
Innocent III, pope (1198–1216) 75, 93
interdisciplinary studies 11, 17, 27, 114, 168n.83, 336, 368, 414
Ionescu, Grigore 31
Ioniță, Adrian 295n.95, 348n.64
Iorga, Nicolae 29, 31
Italian 185, 266
Italy 52, 185
Ják (Hungary) 185, 233n.202
Jekelius, Erich 29
Jelna (h. Kiszsolna, g. Senndorf) 25, 333, 338
Jenei, Dana 32, 251
Joachim, count of Sibiu 227
Johannes de Rozenaw, painter 313
Johannes de Saint-Dié, master mason 170
Johannes Latinus, Saxon potentate 192n.62, 340
John Hunyadi, regent of Hungary (1446–1453), voivode of Transylvania 274n.36
John, bishop of Tourkia 77n.42 (as Ioannu Tourkias) 158n.47
József, Sebestyén 299n.111
Kalocsa (Hungary) 75, 77, 80, 84, 121n.45, 139, 243n.25
Kaposvár (Hungary) – Zselicszentjakab 76, 139n.105, 156n.41, 172n.91
Kenezmonostor 91
Keszthely (Hungary) – Fenékpuszta 75, 139
Kimakowitz, Moritz von 34, 316, 322, 324n.45
knez(at)es 47, 57–58, 75, 90, 107n.10, 256n.51, 376–377, 379–380, 387, 389n.70, 393, 411
Knights Hospitaller 58, 95
Köpeczi, Béla 43n.1
Kornis, noble house 274
Košice (Slovakia) 276, 298
Kristó, Gyula 157
Kühlbrandt, Ernst 28
Ladislaus I of Hungary (1077–1095) ( St Ladislaus of Hungary ) 58, 78–80, 85, 88, 98, 121, 124, 160, 296
Ladislaus Kán, voivode of Transylvania 55
Lagoudera (Cyprus) 117n.35
Lands (Terrae) ( Bârsa, Făgăraș, Hațeg, Maramureș, Szeklers ) 1, 22, 26n.8, 27, 29–30, 51–54, 56–58, 60, 90, 96, 181–182, 239, 241, 244, 245n.34, 272, 274, 337, 341, 346, 349, 361, 364, 375, 377, 379, 386, 390, 392, 394, 408, 410, 417
landscape 1, 3, 6–7, 9, 11, 21–22, 30, 33, 38, 44, 55, 63, 65, 76n.32, 80–81, 91, 93, 138–139, 173, 177, 183, 199, 217n.156, 220, 234, 237n.9, 263, 272, 275, 302, 306, 313, 330–331, 350, 357, 369, 389, 404, 409, 414, 416–418, 420, 422–424
Laslea (h. Szászszentlászló, g. Gross-Lasseln) 179, 205n.131, 207n.138, 264, 291n.88
Latin(s) ( Catholic(ism), Western (Christianity) ) 7, 19, 43–44, 46, 48, 54, 58–59, 62, 70, 78, 82, 85, 87, 93, 95, 103–104, 113, 149, 162, 172–173, 420
layout, architecture ( ground plans ) 17, 19, 22, 73, 106, 109, 111, 113, 119, 128, 135, 138, 145, 155, 162n.67, 163, 168, 172, 187, 191–192, 199, 202, 211, 213, 219, 222, 224, 245, 274, 278, 288, 290–291, 294–295, 301, 302n.118, 313, 318, 323, 346, 356, 386–387, 389, 399, 419, 421, 423
Lechfeld (Germany) 46, 78
Lechința (h. Szászlekence, g. Lechnitz) 264, 268, 333, 338
Leliceni (h. Csíkszentlélek) 179, 194
Lemnia (h. Lemhény; g. Lennen) 264, 282n.61
Leonhardt, Kurt 213n.150
Leonhardus, bronze caster 314
Leșnic (h. Lesnyek, g. Wachtdorf) 23, 375, 379, 381, 392, 395
Léstyán, Ferenc 31
Lieduinus, bishop of Bihar 85
lime 88, 110, 131, 152, 229–230, 366, 399, 409
kilns / ovens 154n.32, 316, 325, 351, 366
limestone 87–88, 152
List of Historical Monuments of Romania, oficial document 15
Litovoi, voivode of Lytua 58
Livada Mică (h. Sárközújlak) 264
Lombard, style 29
Louis I of Hungary (1342–1382) 266, 298, 402
Luncani (h. Aranyosgerend, g. Neusatz) 179, 196, 239, 251n.42
Lukács, Antal 37, 39
Lupescu, Radu 296n.101
Lupșa (h. Nagylupsa, g. Wolfsdorf) 15, 23, 264, 278, 375, 379, 381–383, 399, 401, 404, 406, 408, 410–414
Macedonia(n) 111n.17
Machat, Christoph 30
Magister Akus 137n.98
Magister Goccelinus 215
Magyar(s) , Hungarian(s)
Maiad (h. Nyomát) 179, 187, 196
Mălăiești (h. Malajesd, g. Mühlenbach) 375, 379, 381, 394–395, 413
Mălâncrav (h. Almakerék, g. Malmkrog) 264, 276
Mănăstirea (h. Szentbenedek) 264, 274, 375, 414
Mănăstireni (h. Magyargyerőmonostor, g. Ungarisch-Klosterdorf) 69, 94, 179, 190
Manuel I, Byzantine emperor (1143–1180) 87
Mara, Knezate of 389n.70
Maramureș, region ( Zakarpattia ) 2, 5, 26n.10, 32, 37, 56–59, 62n.99, 376, 379, 385, 389
Marcu Istrate, Daniela 39, 60n.78, 211n.148, 318n.30, 348n.64, 365n.136
Mărginean, Florin 39
Márki, Sándor 27
Marta, Doru 39
Mărtiniș (h. Homoródszentmárton) 333, 338, 361, 363–364
masonry 3, 41, 88, 96, 106, 110, 114, 117, 125n.66, 137n.94, 148, 152, 159, 161, 166, 184, 191, 197, 211, 213–214, 220, 222, 224, 229, 242, 256, 263, 288, 301, 318, 323, 349, 352, 375–376, 393n.83, 399–400, 412–413, 419
(stone)masons 95, 170, 173, 268, 276, 298
Matei (h. Szentmáté, g. Mathesdorf) 239, 251n.42, 264, 274
Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (1458–1490) 245n.33
mausoleum 295
Mediaș (h. Medgyes, g. Mediasch) 21, 34, 179, 182, 192, 204, 264, 267, 269, 274, 276, 301, 304–306, 333, 342, 344, 360, 422
Menumorut, duke of Bihar 45, 47, 85–86
Mercheașa (h. Mirkvásár, g. Streitforth) 179, 205n.130, 333, 352
Mercurius, princeps ultrasilvanus 55
Merești (h. Homoródalmás, g. Almesch) 179, 196
Merghindeal (h. Morgonda, g. Mergeln) 179, 205n.130, 207, 333, 336, 350, 352
Meșendorf (h. Mese, g. Meschendorf) 264, 276–277, 279, 333, 336
Meseș , Moigrad-Porolissum
Meseșenii de Jos (h. Magyarkecel) 264, 279
metropolitan(ate) 62, 75, 77, 139, 158n.47, 381
Miercurea Ciuc – Șumuleu Ciuc (h. Csíkszereda – Csíksomlyó, g. Szeklerburg) 38, 179, 194, 264
Miercurea Sibiului (h. Szerdahely, g. Reußmarkt) 179, 205n.130, 333
migrations 1, 44, 63, 68, 140n.3, 225, 421
Mihăileni (h. Csíkszentmihály) 179, 194, 333
Mircea I of Wallachia (1386–1418) 269, 381, 403n.115
Misentea (h. Csíkmindszent) 179, 264, 280
mission(arie)s 60, 68, 70, 75n.32, 76–80, 109, 147, 157–158, 182, 202n.105, 419
Möckesch, Samuel 28, 315n.20, 325n.52, 326n.55 and 58
Modra (Slovakia) 139n.105, 156
Moga, Ioan 399n.107
Moigrad-Porolissum (h. Mojgrád, g. Mayroth) – Meseş 69, 93–94
Moise of Wallachia (1529–1530) 387n.60
Moisescu, Cristian 31
Moldavia(n) 57, 380–381
Moldovenești (h. Várfalva, g. Burgdorf) 51, 69, 98, 123, 264, 266
Möller, István 27, 165n.73
monasteries ( convent, friary, nunnery ) 5n.4, 7–8, 22–23, 32–33, 36, 38, 59, 62, 69, 73, 78, 80–85, 90–91, 93–95, 104, 106, 113n.26, 120–121, 123–126, 128, 158, 179, 181, 182n.10, 183, 185–186, 188–189, 200–201, 202n.104 and 105, 215–216, 222, 233, 235–237, 239–242, 244–245, 251, 253, 261–264, 269, 272, 274–275, 285–286, 288–289, 302, 306, 308–311, 375, 377, 381–383, 385, 387–390, 416, 420, 422
Monasterium Kenez 106
Mongol(s) 22, 53, 54n.59, 89, 91, 94, 99, 125, 165–166, 170, 181, 183–185, 196, 202n.105, 211, 216, 221, 232, 241, 251, 263n.70, 264, 309n.8 and 9, 339, 341, 346, 360n.113, 368, 421
Moravia(ns) 3, 46, 73, 75n.32, 76, 106, 139n.105
Morești – Citfalău (h. Malomfalva, g. Mühlendorf) 69
Morisena , Cenad
mortar 88, 110, 125, 131, 152, 160n.54, 166, 191, 198, 211, 224, 230, 232, 248, 318, 320, 366, 397, 399, 407, 409, 413
Mosaburg , Zalavár
Moșna (h. Muzsna, g. Meschen) 179, 204, 207, 264, 267, 275, 283, 295, 304, 333–334, 336, 366
Motiș (h. Martontelke, g. Märtesdorf) 264, 279
Motzoi-Chicideanu, Ion 35
Movile (h. Százhalom, g. Hundertbücheln) 333, 336
Mugeni (h. Bögöz, g. Begesen) 264, 279, 282
Müller, Friedrich 27
Müller, Heinrich 28
murals (also as frescoes, paintings) 17, 23, 25, 114, 147–148, 191, 197n.91, 198, 214, 233, 256, 275n.38, 276, 280, 286, 313, 317, 325, 349, 365n.136, 376n.5, 9 and 12, 379n.31, 380, 386, 392n.81, 393, 395, 396n.96, 397–398, 400, 401n.112, 412, 415, 418
inscriptions 382, 396n.96, 402n.113
Mureş, river 1, 32, 45, 47, 48n.24, 49–50, 58, 73, 82, 90n.98, 91, 114n.27, 126, 140, 144, 183, 202
Murfatlar 72n.22
Mușana, noble house 107n.10
Muslims 269, 304
Nădlac (h. Nagylak, g. Nadlak) 69, 106
Nălațvad (h. Nalácvád, g. Schiffenschütz) 375, 394–395, 397, 412–413
Napoca ( Cluj-Napoca ) 44
narthexes 71n.20, 88, 106–107, 111–113, 155, 217n.161, 313, 323, 381, 386–387, 389, 391–392, 393n.87, 401, 403–404, 413–415
National Archaeological Repertoire of Romania, official database 15
naves 81, 87–88, 102–103, 107, 109, 111, 114–115, 117, 127–128, 135–136, 137n.95, 148, 152, 154–155, 159, 170–171, 187–189, 191–192, 196–197, 199n.93, 200, 202, 205, 207, 211, 213–214, 221–225, 227, 229, 232, 235, 237, 246, 248, 254, 256, 262, 276, 278–281, 283–288, 290, 294, 297, 299–304, 311, 313, 317–318, 320, 323–326, 333, 338, 344–346, 349, 354, 362n.125, 366, 381, 386–387, 389, 391–393, 395–399, 401–404, 407–408, 410–414
Netherlands 52
Netuș (h. Netus, g. Neidhausen) 333
Nicolești (h. Káposztásszentmiklós) 69, 100, 179, 187n.35, 194, 333
Niedermaier, Paul 30
Nima (h. Néma) 179, 189, 239, 251n.42, 264, 274
Nireș (h. Nyíres, g. Nieresch) 179, 189, 239, 251n.42, 264, 274
Nitra (Slovakia) 80
Nocrich (h. Újegyház, g. Leschkirch) 60, 179, 205n.131, 207n.138
Nou Săsesc (h. Apaújfalu, g. Sächsisch- Neudorf) 179, 207
Nucșoara (h. Nuksora, g. Nusswald) 179, 187n.35, 375, 380, 390–391, 407–408, 410–411
nunnery ( monasteries ) 94, 245, 251–253, 308, 309n.9
Nuremberg (Germany) 276, 299n.108
Nyárádi, Zsolt 39
Ocna (Ocna de Jos, Ocna de Sus, h. Felsősófalva, Alsósófalva) 179, 196
Ocna Dejului (h. Désakna, g. Salzdorf) 264, 266
Ocna Sibiului (h. Vizakna, g. Salzburg) 21, 69, 170, 179, 205, 207–208, 264, 268, 333
Odorheiu Secuiesc (h. Székelyudvarhely, g. Odorhallen, Hofmarkt) 179, 218, 233, 264, 288
Ohrid (North Macedonia) 113
Olt, river 1, 50–51, 246n.37, 307, 338
Oprescu, George 30, 333
Oradea (h. Nagyvárad, g. Grosswardein) 36, 52, 58–59, 61, 69, 82, 85, 93–94, 121, 179, 189, 264, 267, 269, 272, 295–296
Orăștie (h. Szászváros, g. Broos) 21, 36, 38, 52, 69, 73n.27, 91, 122, 179, 204, 217, 219–222, 224–225, 227, 229, 231–232, 235, 264, 267–268, 302, 333, 339, 356, 360, 366
Orbán, Balázs 27
Order of the Holy Ghost 308, 313
Orman (h. Ormány, g. Armeniendorf) 239, 251n.42, 264, 274
Oroszlámos (Banatsko Aranđelovo, Serbia) 83
Orthodox(y) ( Eastern (Christianity), Greek(s) ) 5, 9, 12, 17, 45, 55, 58, 62, 70–72, 75n.30, 78, 82–83, 88, 90–91, 93–94, 105, 113, 225, 256, 274, 416, 420
architecture 5–6, 9, 17, 19, 22–26, 36–37, 73–74, 106, 108, 112, 114n.27, 115, 117–118, 138–139, 187n.35, 227n.182, 243, 256n.51, 257, 274, 277–278, 284n.68, 290, 335, 339, 369, 371–415, 423–424
ossuary 219, 230, 364, 366–367
Ostrov (Ostrovu Mare, h. Nagyosztró, g. Gross-Rodendorf) 23, 62, 375–376, 392, 394–395, 398, 407, 409–411
Ottoman(s) 84, 85n.79, 89n.98, 94n.113, 118, 244n.33, 269, 307n.3, 309, 341–343, 368
Ottonian, style 185
Pagan(s) 63, 75, 78–79, 82, 99, 103, 107, 225, 227, 269, 304, 419
palaces 36, 126, 141, 143, 155n.34, 156, 165, 296n.100
Pâncota (h. Pankota, g. Pankota) 33, 59, 69, 73, 91–92, 94, 104, 106–107, 118–119, 138, 155, 179, 419, 421
Pannonhalma (Hungary) 80, 243n.25
Pannonia(n) 46, 63, 75–76, 139n.105, 142, 185
Panticeu (h. Páncélcseh) 264, 268
papacy 3, 54, 60–61, 245n.34
Pápoc (Hungary) 233n.202
Papp, Szilárd 168n.83
Parhida (h. Pelbárthida) 179, 188
parishes 3, 8, 25, 34, 52, 60–61, 84n.75, 85n.79, 90, 96, 101–102, 137, 138n.104, 180, 183, 191–193, 200, 214, 215n.152, 219–222, 225, 227, 229–230, 245n.33, 251–254, 260–262, 269–270, 272, 275, 278, 283, 291, 294–295, 298, 301–304, 308–311, 313–314, 316–317, 319, 321, 323–324, 325n.50, 326, 328–329, 342, 344, 359–360, 376n.6, 380–382, 404
Parler, school of architecture 276
Paroș (h. Páros) 375, 387–388
Partium ( Crişana ) 27
Pascu, Ștefan 43n.1
Passau (Germany) 78
pastophoria 106, 117, 386, 392, 413
Pásztó (Hungary) 80n.61, 236n.1
Patriarch(y/ate) 3, 62n.99, 70, 77, 158n.47
Păuca (h. Pókafalva, g. Törnen) 22, 179, 264, 274n.34
Paulinians 22, 80, 274
pavements 36, 117, 145, 153, 166–168, 224, 230, 397, 410, 412
Pecheneg(s) 63, 225, 227
Pecica (h. Ópécska, g. Alt-Petschka) 69, 73, 91m.102, 106
Pelișor (h. Magaré, g. Magarey) 179, 217–222, 224–225
Peri , Hruševo
Pest , Budapest
Peșteana (h. Nagypestény) 69, 73, 104, 106–107, 114, 117–118, 138, 375–376, 410, 413, 419
Peteni (h. Székelypetőfalva, g. Petersdorf) 69, 99
Petrești (h. Péterfalva, g. Petersdorf) 333
Petriceni (h. Kézdikővár) 179
Petriș (h. Petres, g. Petersdorf-Bistritz) 179
Peter of Ostrov, archpriest 62, 392
Pianu de Jos (h. Alsópián, g. Deutsch-Pien) 179, 207n.138
Pilisszentkereszt (Hungary) 80n.61, 236n.1, 244n.31
Pinter, Zeno 39, 217, 324–325
Pișcolt (h. Piskolt) 179, 278n.45
Pliska (Bulgaria) 113, 120, 155–156
Polonița (h. Székelylengyelfalva) 179, 196
Poor Clares 310–311, 311n.16
Popa, Corina 32
Popa, Radu 26, 34–35, 37, 39, 106, 113, 117, 295n.95, 376n.7, 382, 385, 389, 392n.79, 397
popes 46, 54, 60, 70, 75, 78, 93, 181, 307n.3, 343
porches 127, 163, 222, 232, 273, 283, 300, 302, 313, 317, 323, 334, 350, 401, 411
Porolissum ( Moigrad-Porolissum ) 44, 68n.5
portals 4, 41, 118, 163, 170, 189n.50, 203, 208, 210, 214–215, 216n.153, 223, 225, 229, 237, 241n.22, 244n.29, 250, 256, 276, 278, 298n.104, 301, 313, 323, 399, 409, 411–412, 418
Porumbenii Mari (h. Nagygalambfalva) 179, 217, 219n.169, 264, 282n.61
Pósta, Béla 146, 165n.73
Potaissa ( Turda ) 44, 68n.5, 69
Prague (Czech Republic) 276
Prejmer (h. Prázsmár, g. Tartlau) 19, 34, 39, 69, 132n.86, 179, 184, 239, 244–245, 256, 259–263, 313, 333, 337, 357–358, 367, 422
Premonstratensians 12, 80, 94, 182, 251, 253, 309
Preslav (now Veliki Preslav, Bulgaria) 117n.34, 120, 139n.105
Avradaka 155
Delidushka 117n.34
Pribina, prince of Nitra 80n.57
priests 61n.91, 62, 78–79, 84n.75, 266, 376, 393, 411
princes 47, 50, 55, 76–79, 80n.57, 104, 142, 158, 225, 269, 296n.100, 381, 386
Prislop , Silvașu de Sus
prothesis 413
provostships 8, 60–61, 85, 89, 96, 307, 309, 322, 325–326, 328
Pușcașu, Nicolae N. 34
Răchitova (h. Reketyefalva, g. Weidendorf) 375, 379, 394–397
Racu (h. Csíkrákos) 179, 333, 338, 349
Rácz, Károly 27
radiocarbon dating (C14) 54n.62, 76n.34, 189n.47, 194, 229
Râmeț , Valea Mănăstirii
Rășinari (h. Resinár, g. Städterdorf) 375, 380
Râșnov (h. Barcarozsnyó, g. Rosenau) 375, 381, 399, 402
Râșnov-Șchei (Dobrice, g. Belgerei) 402, 404, 407
Râu Alb (h. Fehérvíz, g. Weisswasser) 375, 393, 397, 411
Râu Bărbat (h. Borbátvíz, g. Schnellbach) 373n.1, 375
Râu de Mori (h. Malomvíz, g. Mühldorf) 256, 375–376, 394, 409
Războieni-Cetate (h. Székelyföldvár, g. Kaltherberg) 34
Recea (h. Vajdarécse; g. Waywodretschen) 375, 377n.22
Reciu (h. Szebenrécse, g. Rätsch) 179, 189
reconstructions, archaeological / historical 30, 33, 36, 38, 46, 61n.91, 90, 120, 126, 131–132, 134, 142n.5, 156, 196n.77, 204, 213, 216, 223, 231, 237, 255, 259, 269, 278n.44 and 46, 279n.53, 280, 285n.73, 286–288, 291, 296n.100, 300n.113, 306, 311, 313, 318–319, 323, 325, 329–330, 339n.30, 359n.106, 360n.109 and 113, 363, 368, 373, 384, 393, 396, 417, 420
Reformation 11, 17, 137n.99, 306, 316, 416
Reghin (h. Szászrégen, g. Sächsisch-Reen) 264, 267, 275, 291, 333, 342
regnum 47n.21, 55
Reissenberger, Ludwig 28, 315n.20
relics 406
reliquaries 86n.87
Remeți (h. Pálosremete) 264
Renaissance, style 9, 42, 163, 203, 385, 416
reports, archaeological 11, 33–34, 39, 72n.22, 89n.97, 114n.30, 125, 142n.5, 152n.25, 156n.41, 165n.74, 196, 216, 220, 233, 241–242, 248, 253, 258n.57, 260, 285n.73, 335n.4, 380, 385, 387n.61, 388, 413
residences 80n.57, 81–82, 85–86, 90, 104–105, 122, 127, 135, 137, 142, 145, 149, 161n.61, 177, 183, 192, 221, 225, 262, 266, 268, 274, 336, 338–339, 341, 343–344, 365n.136, 376n.6 and 7, 377, 379–380, 393, 399
as courts 48, 53, 76n.34, 147, 225, 243n.25, 274, 379, 382, 398
restore/-ations 12, 20, 25, 27, 29, 33–36, 38, 42, 71, 107, 111, 114, 118, 142n.5, 160, 163n.72, 165n.73, 166, 170, 192n.62, 197, 200, 211n.148, 216, 220, 229–230, 232–233, 235, 248n.40, 253, 255n.50, 258, 260, 274n.36, 278–279, 288, 291n.90, 296n.100, 297, 298n.107, 300n.113, 304–305, 316–318, 324, 339n.36, 373, 392n.81, 393n.82, 396n.96, 414, 416, 418
Reteag (h. Retteg, g. Reckenbeck) 264, 268
Reycherstorffer, Georgius 27
Rhenish area 260
Ribița (h. Ribice, g. Kellerdorf) 23, 375, 379, 382–383, 398, 411–412
Richiș (h. Riomfalva, g. Reichesdorf) 264, 275–276, 290
Roadeș (h. Rádos, g. Radeln) 333, 336, 349
Robert de Molesmes, monk 236n.1
Rodbav (h. Nádpatak, g. Rohrbach) 34, 69, 122, 179, 207n.137, 333, 336, 348, 362
Rodna (h. Óradna, g. Alt-Rodna) 53, 179, 183, 239, 243–244, 263, 333, 338
Rodwell, Warwick 417
Roger, monk 165, 183, 202n.105, 341
Roman(s) 43–44, 63, 68, 70, 75n.32, 84n.75, 140–141, 152–153, 156n.40, 157n.45, 160n.54, 419
fortifications (incl. castra) 43–44, 48, 50, 68, 140–144, 148, 152n.25, 154, 158, 163, 172
spolia (incl. ruins, bricks, tegulae) 71–74, 107, 110, 141–142, 147–148, 152, 159, 224, 229, 397, 406, 408–411, 413
Roman-Catholic , Catholic(ism)
Romance, languages 7, 26, 44, 70, 416
Romanesque, style 4, 6–7, 17, 19–21, 27, 29, 31–32, 38, 53–54, 63, 73, 82, 90, 95n.122, 102, 104–106, 113, 118, 120–122, 125n.66, 127, 135, 138–139, 145, 159, 161–163, 167–168, 170–173, 179, 181, 183, 185–188, 189n.46 and 50, 191n.60, 193, 196, 199–200, 202–204, 206, 208n.142 and 144, 210–216, 232–233, 235–236, 241, 243, 245–246, 256, 258, 269, 275, 277–283, 290–291, 293–295, 298, 301–303, 305, 309, 316, 318–321, 323, 326, 331, 336, 341, 343–354, 357n.103, 359, 361, 363, 365n.134, 367, 369, 384–385, 387, 395, 411–412, 416, 420–422, 424
Romania(ns) 1–2, 4–5, 15, 19, 22, 24, 26–27, 34, 37, 44, 56–58, 82, 85, 96, 111n.17, 227, 377, 380n.39, 382, 392, 402, 414, 416
historiography 2, 25n.8, 26, 29–32, 44n.4, 47n.19 and 21, 50n.32, 55n.64, 86n.89
Romanize(d) 43–44, 68, 70
Rome (Italy) 75n.30, 76, 173
Rómer, Flóris 27
Romos (h. Romosz, g. Rumessdorf) 179, 205n.131, 207
rood screens 288–289, 301, 320, 324
roofs 132, 170n.89, 224, 229, 233, 246, 248, 285n.72, 288, 301, 318, 320n.32, 322–323, 356n.99, 398, 410
Roșcani (h. Roskány) 375, 379, 398
Roșia (h. Veresmart, g. Rothberg) 179, 205, 207–208
Rotbav (h. Szászveresmart, g. Rothbach) 333, 349n.71
Roth, Harald 43n.1
Roth, Victor 28–29, 240
Rugănești (h. Rugonfalva, g. Rugendorf) 179, 196, 264, 280–282
ruin(ed) 11, 17, 22, 25, 27, 33–34, 36, 44, 53, 54n.62, 68, 72–73, 76n.34, 84n.75, 85, 89n.98, 92, 97, 103n.145, 104–107, 114n.26, 118, 122, 125–126, 128, 132, 134, 135n.92, 136n.93, 138, 141, 145–146, 148–150, 152–154, 158–161, 163, 166–167, 170, 181, 185, 190–191, 196n.83, 197–198, 202–203, 205, 213, 217, 219–220, 224, 227, 229, 233, 236–237, 239–242, 244, 245n.33, 251–253, 255, 260, 263n.70, 279n.53, 280, 283–284, 286, 288–289, 295, 309, 311n.13, 314, 316, 318, 322–324, 325n.50, 326, 330, 338n.21, 339, 346n.60, 349, 350n.80, 353, 354n.96, 360–361, 362n.123, 365, 383, 387, 389, 393, 397, 400–401, 409, 420, 422, 424
Rupea (h. Kőhalom, g. Reps) 60, 264, 333
rural ( villages ) 3, 21, 44, 62, 114, 140, 187, 243, 245–246, 256, 264, 266, 272, 275, 283, 295, 306, 330, 386, 414
countryside 68, 181, 199, 235, 268, 275, 278, 303, 422
hinterland 144, 179, 200, 305, 330, 399
Rusciori (h. Oroszcsűr, g. Reussdörfchen) 179, 189
Rușor (h. Rusor) 375, 393–394
Russia(n) 155n.34
Rusu, Adrian A. 33, 37, 39, 127, 383, 397
Rusu, Mircea 34, 147n.18
Săcădate (h. Oltszakadát, g. Sakadat) 34, 179, 200, 205n.130, 207n.137, 208n.144
sacristies 102, 120, 123n.57, 159, 163, 167, 170–171, 196n.85, 197, 199, 206, 235, 250, 276, 279, 283, 285, 290–291, 294, 300, 303–304, 313, 316, 320, 322, 350, 352n.87, 400
Săcuieni (h. Székelyhíd, g. Zickelhid) 179, 189, 264, 289–290
Saints 78n.45, 208n.144, 214, 283, 309
St Adalbert 78
St Ana 234
St Anastasius 78
St Andrew 94n.113
St Bartholomew 272
St Benedict 236n.1
St Catherine 252, 270
St Christopher 325
St Cyril and Methodius 75n.32
St Elisabeth 308, 311n.16
St George 84–85, 106, 114, 381, 383, 401
St Gerard of Cenad 59, 79, 82, 84, 98, 121, 420
St Jacob 308, 314, 325–326
St James 233n.202, 326
St John 308
St John the Baptist 59, 82–84
St Ladislaus of Hungary 307–308, 326–327
St Laurence 252, 325
St Margaret 93, 304
St Martin 270
St Mary, also as the Blessed Virgin 20, 60, 84–85, 93, 296n.100, 308–309, 313, 322–323
St Mary Magdalene 308
St Michael 19, 21, 36, 105, 140, 143, 145, 147–148, 150–151, 157–159, 163–164, 215, 233n.202, 235, 296
St Naum 113
St Nicholas 74, 107, 110, 294, 326n.57, 387
St Nicodemus 387
St Panteleimon 113
St Paraskeva of the Balkans 380
St Peter 272
St Sebaldus 276, 299n.108
St Stephen of Hungary 78, 81, 162, 270, 326n.57
St Ursula 308
St Vitus 276
Sălașu de Sus (h. Felsőszálláspatak, g. Ober- Dorfsbach) 375, 380, 393
Săliște (h. Szelistye, g. Großendorf) 375, 380, 386, 396, 399, 408, 410
Salontai, Sanda 32, 208n.144, 258n.62, 263n.70, 323
Salzburg (Austria) 76
Sâncrăieni (h. Csíkszentkirály) 38, 179, 194–195, 264, 280, 333, 361
Sâncraiu (h. Sepsiszentkirály) 179, 196, 264, 279, 333, 362n.125
Sâncraiu de Mureș (h. Marosszentkirály, g. Weichseldorf) 179, 188, 264, 274n.34
sanctuaries ( apses, chancels, choirs ) apses, chancels, choirs) 8, 11, 21, 88, 103, 107, 113, 117, 127, 131–132, 134n.87, 135, 136n.93, 159, 163, 165–171, 185, 187–188, 191n.60, 195, 196n.83, 205, 211, 213–214, 220, 222, 232–233, 236–237, 242–243, 245–246, 248, 256, 261–263, 270, 275–277, 279–280, 283, 285, 287–291, 294–295, 298–301, 303–304, 306, 311, 313–314, 316, 320–324, 326, 338, 343–344, 352, 354, 386, 388, 391–392, 395–400, 402–406, 410, 412–413, 415
Sândominic (h. Csíkszentdomokos) 179, 194, 264, 278
Săndulești (h. Szind) 375, 404n.117
Sângeorgiu de Mureș (h. Marosszentgyörgy) 179, 189, 197
Sâniob (h. Szentjobb) 69, 93
Sânmartin (h. Váradszentmárton) 179, 194, 197
Sânnicolau de Beiuș (h. Belényesszentmiklós) 35, 69, 90, 93, 122–123, 127, 129, 162, 179, 187, 333, 338, 420
Sânnicolau Mare (h. Nagyszentmiklós, g. Gross-Sanktnikolaus) 68n.8, 69
Sânpetru (h. Szentpéterfalva) 5n.4, 23, 34, 375–376, 381, 392, 393n.82, 395, 397, 409–412, 414
Sânpetru-Petersberg (Sânpetru, h. Barcaszentpéter, g. Petersberg) 5n.4, 179, 239, 245, 263, 333, 337, 361–362, 367
Sântămăria-Orlea (h. Őraljaboldogfalva, g. Liebfrauen) 21, 179, 239, 255, 257, 375, 380, 392, 395, 397–398, 411
Sântana de Mureș (h. Marosszentanna) 179, 187n.35
Sântimbru (h. Csíkszentimre) 350n.77
Sântimreu (h. Hegyközszentimre) 69, 94
Sântion (h. Biharszentjános) 69, 95
Sânvăsii (h. Nyárádszentlászló) 69, 130, 179, 217, 219n.169
Sânzieni (h. Kézdiszentlélek) 179, 233
Sarasău (h. Szarvaszó) 375, 399
Șardu (h. Magyarsárd) 179, 188
Sarmizegetusa (Grădiște, Britonia, h. Várhely) 375–376
Șaroș pe Târnave (h. Szászsáros, g. Scharosch) 264, 276, 290, 333, 365
Saschiz (h. Szászkézd, g. Keisd) 25, 69–70, 122, 179, 203, 217, 219–222, 224, 227, 229, 264, 275, 333, 336, 350, 364, 367
Satu Mare (h. Szatmárnémeti, g. Sathmar) 5n.4, 26, 53, 219
Satu Mare-Máréfalva (h. Máréfalva) 5n.4, 179, 196
Săvârșin (h. Soborsin, g. Soborschin) 179, 219n.169
Saxon(s) ( German(ic)(s), hospites ) 5–7, 15, 17, 19, 21–23, 25–26, 28–30, 38, 51–57, 60–61, 96, 103, 122, 130, 135–138, 170, 172, 177, 179, 182n.10 and 12, 186, 188–189, 190–191, 192n.62, 199, 202, 204, 225, 227, 235, 239, 246n.37, 253–254, 264, 266, 272, 282–283, 291, 305, 307n.1, 315, 326, 329, 333, 335, 336n.6, 339–340, 343, 356n.99, 368, 382, 417, 419, 421
schism(atics) 75, 79, 415
Scoreiu (h. Skorei, g. Standorf) 375, 377, 381
Scripou (Orchomenus, Greece) 120
Sebeș (h. Szászsebes, g. Mühlbach) 1, 21, 28, 34–35, 39, 69, 96, 103, 170, 179, 182, 191, 199–200, 203–205, 207, 239, 244, 264, 266–270, 274–276, 283, 288, 293, 295–296, 298–299, 306, 330, 333, 342, 346, 360
secular 6, 177, 181, 283n.64, 311
sedilia 413
Seghiște (h. Szegyesd) 375, 388
Șeica Mare (h. Nagyselyk, g. Marktschelken) 264, 291n.88
Șeica Mică (h. Kisselyk, g. Kleinschelken) 264, 283, 291n.88, 333
Șelimbăr (h. Sellenberk, g. Schellenberg) 179, 205n.130, 207
Selishte (Bulgaria) 117n.34
Serbia(ns) 9, 82–83, 85, 106, 113
sewage works 36, 170n.84, 217n.163, 220, 299n.111, 316
Sfântu Gheorghe (h. Sepsiszentgyörgy, g. Sankt Georgen, Gergesmarkt) 333, 338, 364
Sibiu (h. Nagyszeben, g. Hermannstadt) 1, 3, 5–6, 8, 20, 22, 28, 34, 36, 38, 40, 52, 57, 60, 69, 91, 96, 102, 122, 177, 179–180, 200, 202–204, 210, 215n.152, 217, 219–222, 224, 227, 229, 235, 245n.33, 251, 261n.67, 264, 266–269, 272, 274–276, 288, 290–291, 301–302, 306, 307–330, 333, 342–343, 360, 366, 368, 380, 386, 399, 418, 421–422
Sibiu – Gușterița (h. Szenterzsébet, g. Hammersdorf) 179, 207–210
Sibiu – Turnișor (h. Kistorony, g. Neppendorf) 179, 207, 333, 344–345
Sic (h. Szék, g. Sechen) 239, 244, 263–264, 266, 268
Șieu-Odorhei (h. Sajóudvarhely, g. Dienesdorf) 179, 189–190, 239, 251n.42
Sigerus, Emil 28
Sighișoara (h. Segesvár, g. Schässburg) 9, 11, 21–22, 30, 36, 38, 52, 69, 96–97, 122, 131–132, 135, 179, 203–205, 210–211, 213, 217, 220, 222, 224–225, 227, 229, 264, 266–269, 272, 274–275, 294, 296, 302–303, 306, 330, 333, 339, 346, 348, 421–422
Sigismund of Luxembourg of Hungary (1387–1437) 266, 269, 296, 398n.104
Silvanus, God 409
Silvașu de Sus – Prislop Monastery (h. Felsőszilvás, g. Zwetschgart) 23, 36, 375, 385, 387–388
Simeon I of Bulgaria (893–927) 50, 157
Simon, bishop of Oradea 93
Simon, bishop of Transylvania 60, 144n.11, 158
Șinca Veche (h. Ósinka, g. Alt-Schinka) 69, 72n.22
single-nave churches 7, 17, 19, 21, 23, 63, 81, 87, 102, 107, 114, 117, 120, 122–123, 127–128, 130, 135, 137, 138n.104, 150, 187, 189–192, 193–202, 208, 211–212, 222–223, 235, 245, 251, 253, 255, 260, 274–278, 282–283, 291, 293, 295, 297, 299, 301, 304–305, 309, 311, 324–325, 328, 336, 339, 344, 349, 351–352, 354, 356, 386, 389, 392, 395, 413, 415, 421
Șișterea (h. Siter) 179, 188
Sixtus Bichariensis, bishop 85n.81
Sixtus Varadiensis, bishop 85n.81
Slav(ic)s 7, 26, 44, 67, 70, 77, 86n.89, 96, 416
(Church) Slavonic 70, 256, 380, 404
Slimnic (h. Szelindek, g. Stolzenburg) 264, 276
Slovakia 233n.202, 266
Șoala (h. Sálya, g. Schaal) 179, 333, 365
Șoarș (h. Sáros, g. Scharesch) 333, 336
Sófalvi, András 39, 217n.166, 233
Șomartin (h. Mártonhegy, g. Martinsberg) 179, 205n.131
Someș, river system 1
Someșeni , Cluj-Napoca
Soós, Zoltán 39, 285n.73
Stablo (Belgia) 232
Stănislav Hraboru, župan 379, 382
steeples 189n.46, 219, 392
Ștefănescu, Ion D. 29
Stephen I of Hungary (997/1001–1038) ( St Stephen of Hungary ) 50, 58–59, 61–62, 78–82, 98, 144, 158, 162
Stephen III of Hungary (1162–1172) 216
Stephen III of Moldavia (1457–1504) 381
stone, architecture ( ashlars ) 25, 33, 50, 52, 54, 73, 81, 84n.72, 87–90, 93, 94n.112, 104, 109n.14, 110, 117–118, 121, 123, 125, 128, 131, 134–135, 137n.94, 144, 147, 152, 156, 159–160, 166, 168, 177, 191, 198, 211, 214, 222–224, 229–230, 232, 240–241, 253–254, 256, 258, 260–261, 275, 280, 282, 285, 288, 298, 301, 309, 313, 318, 320, 322–323, 338–340, 342, 344, 348, 350–351, 356–357, 359, 360n.112, 361–362, 366, 368, 373, 377, 379n.28, 385, 389, 392–393, 395, 397–399, 403, 404n.117, 406–413, 419, 422
stratigraphy 85, 96n.125, 113, 131, 134, 150, 152, 160n.54, 197, 241, 253, 255, 262, 367
Strei (h. Zeykfalva, g. Zeikdorf) 179, 375–376, 379, 381, 383, 385, 392–393, 395–398, 409, 411–412, 414
Streisângeorgiu (h. Sztrigyszentgyörgy) 23, 35, 62n.98, 69, 71–72, 90–91, 104, 106–107, 114–115, 117, 138, 179, 189, 333, 339, 375, 376n.7, 379, 383, 392, 395, 407–410, 412–414, 423
Strugureni (h. Mezőveresegyháza, g. Rothkirch) 264, 274
Șumuleu Ciuc , Miercurea Ciuc
Șura Mare (h. Nagycsűr, g. Gross-Scheuern) 179, 200, 205n.130, 207, 264
Șura Mică (h. Kiscsűr, g. Klein-Scheuern) 179, 200, 205n.130, 264, 333
Suseni – Colț Fortress (h. Malomvízszuszény) 23, 69, 117, 333, 335, 373, 375–376, 383, 392, 395, 397–398, 408, 410–411
Sylvester II, pope (999–1003) 78
synods 96
Szabo, Attila 5
Szabolcs (Hungary) 96
Szakács, Béla Zsolt 31
Szathmáry, Károly 284
Székesfehérvár (Hungary) 79, 121n.45, 233
Szekler(s) 7, 19, 21, 26, 38, 51–52, 55–57, 62–63, 91, 96, 98–99, 128, 135, 137–138, 182, 189, 191, 197–198, 202, 227, 233, 235, 264, 267, 280, 306, 333, 339n.33, 360–361, 368, 419, 421
Land of 26n.8, 27, 30, 51n.42, 52, 57, 96, 274n.34, 349, 361, 364, 417
Szentgotthárd (Hungary) 80n.61, 236n.1
Szinte, Gábor 33
Szőcs, Péter Levente 39, 217n.166
Table of Oblation 406
Takács, Imre 168
Takács, Miklos 157n.45, 162
Tămașda (h. Tamáshida) 179, 202
Tápiógyörgye (Hungary) 95n.124
Țapu (h. Csicsóholdvilág, g. Abstdorf) 264, 333, 344–345, 360, 366
Tarcal (Hungary) 96n.127
Târgu Mureș (h. Marosvásárhely, g. Neumarkt am Mieresch) 22, 38, 264, 267, 274, 284–286, 333, 342, 360
Târnava (h. Nagyekemező, g. Gross- Probstdorf) 264, 279
Târnave, river system 1, 22, 50, 52–53, 264, 305, 336, 341
Târnăvioara , Copșa Mică
Tărpiu (h. Szásztörpény, g. Treppen) 25, 179, 192, 264, 277, 279, 333, 338
Tăuț (h. Feltót) 69, 95, 179, 188
Teaca (h. Teke, g. Teckendorf) 179, 186, 264, 268, 291–292, 333, 338
Țeghea (h. Krasznacégény) 179, 278n.45
Téglás, Gábor 33
Teiuș (h. Tövis, g. Dreikirchen) 36, 264, 274, 285
templon ( iconostasis ) 387, 406, 412
Tetișu (h. Ketesd) 239, 251n.42
Teutonic Knights 12, 51, 53–54, 181–182, 244–245, 246n.37, 248, 253–255, 256n.55, 260–261, 263, 342n.47, 343
Thalgott, Michael 28
Theodorescu, Răzvan 31
Theotmar, archbishop of Salzburg 76
Țigău (h. Cegőtelke, g. Zegendorf) 264, 279
Tileagd (h. Mezőtelegd) 69, 94
Timișoara (h. Temesvár, g. Temeschwar) 266
Tiocu de Jos (h. Alsótök, g. Kürbisdorf) 239, 251n.42, 264, 274
Tiocu de Sus (h. Felsőtök, g. Ober-Kürbisdorf) 239, 251n.42
Țiplic, Ioan Marian 39, 295n.94, 318
Tisa, river 27, 58, 77
Toarcla (h. Kisprázsmár, g. Tarteln) 179, 200, 205n.131, 206–207, 208n.144
tombstones 71, 109, 314, 316
Tomești (h. Csíkszenttamás) 38, 179, 196, 264, 280, 333, 349, 361
topography 15, 61n.91, 83–85, 88, 114n.30, 125, 147–148, 150, 160–161, 183, 219, 240, 262, 269, 272, 285n.73, 295n.99, 306, 328–329, 357, 364, 367, 416
Tóth, Boglárka 39
Tourkia, region 62, 76–77, 139, 157–158
towers 4, 9, 19, 21, 41, 87, 102, 107, 111, 114–115, 117–118, 120, 121n.50, 127–128, 135–138, 140, 147–148, 150, 163, 165–166, 170–171, 183–184, 187, 188n.46, 189–196, 197n.91, 199–200, 202–203, 205–208, 210–211, 213–214, 217, 219, 222–223, 230, 235, 237, 246, 248, 250, 251n.41, 254, 256, 258, 262, 270, 276–278, 280, 282–283, 285, 287, 290, 292–293, 295, 298, 300–304, 307–308, 311, 313, 318–320, 323–324, 326n.57, 328, 330–331, 333–350, 352–354, 356–365, 367–368, 380–381, 389, 391, 392n.79, 393, 395, 397–399, 404, 407, 409–411, 413, 423
belltowers 9, 112, 285, 341n.40, 344, 349, 368, 391, 393n.87
tower-houses (also as dwelling t.) 136–137, 339, 344, 397
towns ( cities, urban ) 43–44, 61, 68, 118, 187, 193, 202, 264, 266–267, 268n.13, 272, 275–276, 284, 302, 306–307, 309, 320, 342, 365n.133, 381, 404
Trajan, Roman emperor (98–117) 43
transepts 4, 147–148, 163, 165, 199, 202, 205, 207, 237, 240, 245–246, 290–291, 301, 313, 316, 320, 323
Treiber, Gustav 30, 299n.111
trench, feature 98n.129, 120, 131, 138, 152, 211, 233, 318, 322, 325, 357, 359, 363, 408, 413
triconch, ground plan 36, 113, 387
triumphal arches 154, 196n.85, 278–279, 319, 412–413
Tuhutum (Tétény), Hungarian leader 45
Turcuș, Ștefan 32
Turcuș, Veronica 32
Turda (h. Torda, g. Thorenburg) 22, 36, 38, 44, 53, 69, 95, 264, 266–267, 268n.13, 269, 272, 278, 284, 289, 302, 330, 333, 342, 422
Bisericani (h. Egyházfalvá) 264, 272
Turda Nouă (h. Újtorda, g. Neu-Thorda) 264, 272
Turda Veche (h. Ótorda, g. Alt-Thorda) 264, 278, 283, 288
Turia (Turia de Sus, Turia de Jos, h. Torja, g. Torian) 179, 196, 333, 338, 361n.122
Turnișor , Sibiu
Tuștea (h. Tustya) 375–376
Uileacu Șimleului (h. Somlyóújlak) 69, 94
Ukraine 57
Ulieș (h. Kányád) 69, 128
Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa ( Sarmizegetusa ) 44
Unciuc (h. Uncsukfalva, g. Unzendorf) 375, 393–394
Ungra (h. Ugra, g. Galt) 179, 205n.130, 206–207
Unguraș (h. Bálványosváralja, g. Schlosswall) 239, 244
urban ( cities, towns ) 3, 5, 8, 21, 32, 35–36, 38, 44, 68, 140, 142n.5, 183, 199, 203, 263–264, 266–267, 269, 274, 278, 283, 291, 295, 299n.111, 303, 305–307, 322, 330, 342, 359, 412, 418, 422
Ursulines 310–311
Vad (h. Révkolostor) 34
Vaida (h. Biharvajda) 179, 188, 217, 219–220, 222–224, 227, 235
Vajk , Stephen I of Hungary
Valchid (h. Váldhíd, g. Waldhütten) 264, 279
Valea Crișului (h. Sepsikőröspatak, g. Eschendorf) 179, 187n.35
Valea Lungă (h. Hosszúaszó, g. Langenthal) 264
Valea Mănăstirii – Râmeț Monastery (h. Remetekolostor) 23, 375, 385, 389–392, 412–413
Valea Viilor (h. Nagybaromlak, g. Wurmloch) 179, 204, 333, 336, 352, 367
Vărd (h. Vérd, g. Werdt) 333
Vârghiș (h. Vargyas) 333, 363–364
Vătășianu, Virgil 29–30, 113, 208, 392n.79
vault(ing)s 4, 111, 117, 131–132, 134, 189, 197n.91, 200, 203, 214, 217n.161, 219, 224–225, 230, 233, 237, 243, 246, 256, 258, 262, 278, 280, 285, 288, 293, 297–298, 300n.113, 313, 317–318, 325, 346, 348, 356, 386–387, 397, 399, 401, 407–408
domes 154–155, 217n.161, 224, 227, 229, 387, 397, 404, 407
Velț (h. Velc, g. Wölz) 333, 365
Vermeș (h. Vermes, g. Wermesch) 333, 338
Veseud (h. Vessződ, g. Ziedt) 179, 205n.131, 239, 244n.29, 333
vestiges 68, 72n.22, 86, 134, 142, 148, 157, 194, 288, 300, 311n.13 and 16, 351, 359n.106
vestries 192, 246
Veszprém (Hungary) 80
Veszprémvölgy 158n.47
Vidin (Bulgaria) 82
Vienna (Austria) 20, 27, 208n.144, 275–276, 298, 309
Viișoara (h. Besenyő, g. Heidendorf) 264, 279
village(r)s ( rural ) 24–25, 44, 58, 61, 81, 86, 90, 94n.113, 95, 98, 100, 102, 107, 114, 118, 120, 123, 128, 135n.92, 183, 188, 191n.60, 192n.62, 193, 246n.37, 253–254, 262, 268, 272, 275–276, 278, 288, 340, 367, 376–377, 380–381, 385–386, 390n.73, 399, 401, 404, 406
Vinitsa (Bulgaria) 114n.26
Vințu de Jos (h. Alvinc, g. Unter-Wintz) 36, 179, 217, 219n.169, 264, 274–275, 288
Viscri (h. Szászfehéregyháza, g. Deutsch- Weißkirch) 21, 34, 69, 91, 96, 122, 135–138, 177, 179, 182, 187–189, 192, 264, 333, 336, 339, 344, 356n.99, 360, 364–365, 367, 421
Visegrád (Hungary) 81
Viștea de Jos (h. Alsóvist, g. Unter-Wischt) 375, 387–388, 406
Vlachs ( Romania(ns) ) 47n.21
Vladimirescu (h. Öthalom, g. Glogowatz) 69, 89, 123, 179, 187, 202
Voivodeni (h. Nagyvajdafalva, g. Gross- Waiwoden) 375, 377, 390–391, 406n.121, 407–408
voivodes 55, 86n.89, 144, 379–380, 385
voivodeships 45, 47, 57–58
of Bălgrad 45, 48–49, 142, 147, 149, 375
of Transylvania 1, 4, 45, 54–55, 58, 61, 63, 82, 215, 272, 274n.34, 329, 417
Voivozi (h. Almaszeg) 35, 69, 91, 179, 188, 375, 379, 389–391
Vulcan (h. Szászvolkány, g. Wolkendorf) 333, 362
Vurpăr (h. Vurpód, g. Burgberg) 179, 205, 208, 333
walking level 152, 166, 168, 242
Wallachia(n) 22, 57–58, 269, 307, 380–381, 386, 387n.59 and 60, 399, 402, 403n.115, 424
Weisz, Attila 32
walls 22–23, 33, 41, 54n.62, 76n.34, 86–89, 98n.129, 100, 109n.13, 110, 114, 117–118, 120, 123n.56, 125, 127–128, 131–132, 134, 135n.92, 136n.93, 137, 140–142, 147–148, 150, 152–154, 164, 166–168, 170, 188–190, 195, 196n.85, 197–200, 205, 207, 211, 213–214, 222–225, 229–230, 232, 240, 242, 244n.29, 246, 248, 253–256, 258, 260, 270, 278–279, 282, 285, 291, 293, 298, 301–302, 308, 313–314, 316, 318, 320, 322–323, 325–328, 330–331, 333, 336–346, 348–349, 351–353, 354n.97, 356–357, 359–366, 368, 381, 385, 387, 390, 392, 395, 397, 399–401, 405–409, 411–413
wells 33, 153, 154n.32, 229, 340, 351, 366–367
Werner, George 27
Western (Christianity ; Catholic(ism), Latin(s) ) 63, 67, 70, 78–80, 103–104, 161, 256, 419
wooden, architecture 22, 25, 52, 72, 81, 86–88, 90–91, 93, 95, 103, 114, 123n.56, 135, 189–190, 230, 285, 290, 309, 313, 322–323, 330, 340, 342, 344, 350, 354, 356, 357n.103, 360n.112, 361n.121, 362, 366, 373, 375–376, 379n.28, 380–381, 385, 389, 392, 393n.82, 398–399, 403, 406–407, 412, 414
workshops 76, 121n.45, 125, 154n.32, 162, 172–173, 185, 199, 227, 240, 243–244, 258, 261, 268, 276, 283, 296, 298, 304–305, 331, 366, 375, 386, 404, 406–407, 410, 412, 422
Zăbala (h. Zabola, g. Gebissdorf) 69, 98n.129, 99
Zagreb (Croatia) 80
Zakarpattia ( Maramureş ) 27, 298n.104
Zalavár (Hungary) 76, 80, 121n.45
Zamfira, daughter of Moise of Wallachia 387
Zăvoi (h. Macesd) 375, 393
Zlatna (h. Zalatna, g. Klein-Schlatten) 23, 179, 205n.131, 375, 379, 382–384
Zolotarevo (Ukraine) 377
župans 379, 382

Footnotes

1

Data mostly based on Szabó 2003, a fundamental source, available inclusively online, for the huge array of denominations used in various languages since their written appearance for the localities of historical Hungary now located in Romania.

  • Collapse
  • Expand