Author:
Daniela Marcu-Istrate
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0.1 Medieval and present-day Transylvania 2

1.1 The medieval ecclesiastical heritage of Transylvania, based on official records 16

1.2 The medieval ecclesiastical heritage of the Transylvanian Saxons, according to Hermann Fabini 18

2.1 Southeastern Europe at the time of the Hungarian conquest and in the early second millennium 45

2.2 Map of Transylvania showing the main geographical and historical features (10th–13th centuries) 48

2.3 Administrative map of the eastern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, now partially or completely included in present-day Romania 56

2.4 Map of the Religious administration of Transylvania 59

3.1 Sites relevant for the early church architecture of medieval Transylvania. (Chapters 3–5) 69

6.1 Sites relevant for Romanesque and early Gothic church architecture 178

7.1 Sites relevant for the ‘Cistercian’ period of Transylvanian church architecture 238

8.1 Sites relevant for the Gothic period of Transylvanian church architecture (chapters 8 and 9) 265

10.1 Sites relevant for the fortification process of Transylvanian churches 332

11.1 Sites relevant for the Eastern-rite church architecture of Transylvania 374

Figures

0.1 The Evangelical church in Brașov-Bartolomeu 4

0.2 The Cistercian monastery in Cârța 8

0.3 Archaeological excavations on the site of the Church on the Hill in Sighișoara 10

1.1 The Roman-Catholic St Michael’s Cathedral in Alba Iulia, 13th century 19

1.2 The Evangelical church in Sibiu, 14th–15th centuries 20

1.3 The Black Church in Brașov, 14th–15th centuries 21

1.4 The fortified Evangelical church in Drăușeni, 13th–17th centuries 22

1.5 The Reformed church in Cluj, former church of the Franciscan monastery, 15th century 23

1.6 The Orthodox church in Gurasada, 10th(?)–16th centuries 24

1.7 Archaeological excavation on the south-eastern part of the Black Church in Brașov 37

1.8 The archaeology of the Reformed church in Albiș 39

1.9 Archaeological excavation within the Evangelical church in Sibiu 40

1.10 The Reformed church in Aiud, 14th–17th centuries: drawing from the 19th century and archaeological excavations in 2018 41

3.1 Pectoral cross from the inventory of the cemetery at Izvorul Împăratului in Alba Iulia, 10th century 71

3.2 Christian relief from the site of the Orthodox church in Streisângeorgiu 72

3.3 The St Nicholas’ Orthodox church in Densuș, built of spolia 74

3.4 The ecclesiastical topography of Cenad in the 18th (?) century 83

3.5 The archaeological churches in Dăbâca 87

3.6 The ground plan of the churches in Vladimirescu 89

3.7 The ruins of the monastic church in Pâncota, unearthed in 2000–2006 92

3.8 Ruins from the 12th century unearthed on the north side of the Evangelical church in Sighișoara, in 1999–2000 97

3.9 The archaeology of the Reformed church in Nicolești 100

3.10 Graves from the 12th–17th centuries, the cemetery of the parish church in Brașov, unearthed in 2012–2013 101

3.11 The Reformed church in Cricău, development based on archaeological research 102

4.1 The ruin of the round church, preserved in St Michael’s Cathedral in Alba Iulia 105

4.2 The Orthodox church in Densuș 108

4.3 The churches in Densuș and Alba Iulia 110

4.4 The archaeology of the Orthodox church in Gurasada 112

4.5 The Orthodox church in Streisângeorgiu 115

4.6 Ground plan of the 1975–1977 excavations in Streisângeorgiu 116

4.7 The present-day Orthodox church in Peșteana 118

4.8 The archaeological church in Pâncota 119

4.9 The site of the former Benedictine monastery in Cluj-Mănăștur, archaeological excavations 124

4.10 The archaeological remains of the Benedictine monastery in Frumușeni-Bizere 126

4.11 The archaeological churches in Sânnicolau de Beiuș 129

4.12 The archaeological churches in Avrămești 130

4.13 Early buildings in Sighișoara, on the site of the Church on the Hill 132

4.14 Early buildings in Sighișoara, on the site of the Church on the Hill, first stage, 12th century 133

4.15 The archaeology of the Evangelical church in Viscri 136

5.1 Map of Alba Iulia and its surroundings, including the main 9th–13th-century archaeological sites 141

5.2 The map of Alba Iulia’s Vauban fortification 143

5.3 Churches in Alba Iulia 145

5.4 The eastern part of the St Michael’s Cathedral 146

5.5 The western part of the rotunda preserved in the basement of the cathedral 149

5.6 General view of the St Michael’s Cathedral and the pillared church 151

5.7 The ruins of the pillared church and some other finds 153

5.8 The churches in Alba Iulia, Bodrum Camii, Pliska and Modrá 156

5.9 The archaeology of the St Michael’s Cathedral in Alba Iulia 159

5.10 St Michael’s Cathedral in Alba Iulia, architectural details 164

5.11 Building development of the St Michael’s Cathedral sanctuary 167

5.12 Building development of the St Michael’s Cathedral sanctuary, archaeological details 169

5.13 The eastern part of the St Michael’s Cathedral 171

6.1 Graves from different stages of the medieval cemetery of the parish church in Sibiu 180

6.2 The church of the former Benedictine monastery in Herina 186

6.3 The archaeology of the Reformed church in Tăuț 188

6.4 The Reformed churches in Șieu-Odorhei and Mănăstireni 190

6.5 The archaeological, 12th-century church, in Drăușeni 192

6.6 The Evangelical church in Homorod 193

6.7 The Evangelical church in Axente Sever 194

6.8 The archaeology of the Reformed churches in Sâncrăieni and Ghidfalău 195

6.9 The archaeology of the Reformed church in Albiș 198

6.10 The archaeology of the Reformed church in Daia 199

6.11 The archaeology of the church of the former Benedictine monastery in Acâș 201

6.12 Capitals from the lost Romanesque basilica in Saschiz, 12th century 203

6.13 Romanesque basilicas in Toarcla, Ungra and Cincu 206

6.14 The Evangelical churches in Gușterița and Hărman 209

6.15 The Romanesque portals in Gușterița and Drăușeni, and view to the Romanesque south aisle of the basilica in Drăușeni 210

6.16 The Evangelical church in Drăușeni, 13th century 212

6.17 The reconstruction of the Romanesque basilica in Sighișoara 213

6.18 The Evangelical church in Cisnădioara 215

6.19 The centrally-planned churches from Pelișor and Odorheiu Secuiesc 218

6.20 The archaeology of the Reformed church in Vaida 223

6.21 The round chapel uncovered on the south side of the Black Church in Brașov 226

6.22 The Reformed church in Geoagiu 228

6.23 The archaeological rotunda in Orăștie 231

6.24 The archaeological rotunda in Cluj-Mănăștur 234

7.1 Cârța – the ruins of the Cistercian monastery, 13th century 239

7.2 The archaeology of the monastic church in Cârța 242

7.3 Early Gothic churches from Southeast Transylvania 247

7.4 The Evangelical church in Hălmeag 249

7.5 The Evangelical church in Hărman 250

7.6 The archaeology of the parish site (Honterus Court) in Brașov 252

7.7 The archaeology of the fortress in Feldioara 255

7.8 The Reformed (former Catholic, former Orthodox) church in Sântămărie Orlea 257

7.9 The Evangelical church in Prejmer 259

7.10 The archaeology of the church in Prejmer 261

8.1 The Evangelical church in Sighișoara, 14th–15th centuries 267

8.2 The Evangelical church in Sebeș, the south side of the sanctuary, late 14th century 270

8.3 The archaeology of the parish site in Baia Mare 271

8.4 The Black Church in Brașov, view from the east, and the south-eastern porch 273

8.5 The archaeology of the Gotic churches in Meșendorf and Tărpiu 277

8.6 The archaeology of the churches in Armășeni and Rugănești, 13th–15th centuries 281

8.7 The archaeology of the Evangelical church in Drăușeni 282

8.8 Results of the recent archaeological investigations (2008, 2018–2020) at the Reformed church in Aiud 284

8.9 The Franciscan monastery in Târgu Mureș 286

8.10 The archaeology of the church of the former Franciscan friary in Coșeiu 287

8.11 The archaeology of the Reformed churches in Turda (Augustinian monastery) and Săcuieni (parish church) 289

8.12 The Evangelical church in Șaroș pe Târnave, 14th–15th centuries 290

8.13 The Evangelical churches in Bistrița and Teaca, 14th century 292

8.14 The archaeology of the Evangelical church in Sebeș 293

8.15 The archaeology of the Evangelical church in Sighișoara in mid-14th century 294

8.16 The Roman-Catholic church in Cluj 297

8.17 The archaeology of the Evangelical Black Church in Brașov 300

8.18 The archaeology of the Evangelical parish church in Sighișoara (Church on the Hill) 303

8.19 The archaeology of the Evangelical church in Mediaș 305

9.1 Medieval core of Sibiu, with its churches, monasteries, and chapels 308

9.2 Gothic monastic churches in Sibiu 310

9.3 The church of the Asylum in Sibiu 312

9.4 Archaeological plan of the parish site of Sibiu, ca. 1450 314

9.5 The Evangelical church in Sibiu, south view in 2021 315

9.6 Details from the interior of the Evangelical parish church in Sibiu in 2021 317

9.7 The early stage of the parish church in Sibiu, the second part of the 12th century (?) 319

9.8 Building history of the current parish church in Sibiu 321

9.9 St Ladislaus’ chapel during the 2005 archaeological excavations 327

10.1 The fortified church in Moșna 334

10.2 The Orthodox church in Colț 335

10.3 The fortified church in Sânpetru-Petersberg 337

10.4 The archaeology of the fortification in Câlnic, 14th century 340

10.5 The fortified area of medieval Feldioara 343

10.6 Turriform churches in Țapu and Turnișor 345

10.7 The archaeology of the fortified Evangelical church in Hărman 347

10.8 The archaeology of the fortified Evangelical church in Drăușeni 351

10.9 Strengthening the church in Dealu Frumos 353

10.10 The fortified Evangelical church in Hărman 355

10.11 The archaeology of the fortification in Prejmer 358

10.12 The archaeology of the fortified church in Codlea, 13th–17th centuries 359

10.13 The archaeology of the fortified Reformed churches in Mărtiniș and Vârghiș 363

10.14 The archaeology of the fortified Evangelical church in Viscri, 12th–17th centuries 365

11.1 The archaeological Orthodox church in Giulești 378

11.2 The present-day Orthodox St George’s church in Lupșa 383

11.3 The archaeology of the Orthodox, former Catholic, church in Zlatna 384

11.4 Orthodox churches with Byzantine-like ground plans, 13th–15th centuries 388

11.5 Orthodox churches with semicircular apses, 13th–15th centuries 390

11.6 Orthodox churches with semicircular apses, 13th–15th centuries 391

11.7 Orthodox churches with rectangular chancel in the Land of Hațeg, 13th–15th century 394

11.8 The archaeology of the Orthodox churches in Strei and Săliște 396

11.9 Orthodox churches with Gothic sanctuary, 14th–15th century 400

11.10 The historical development of the St George’s church in Lupșa 401

11.11 The Orthodox church in Râșnov 402

11.12 The archaeology of the churches in Brașov–Șchei 403

11.13 The Orthodox church in Feleacu, 15th century 405

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