It is a long-held assumption that the name Pangu
I know about a lecture hall dating back to the Han period. Under which Han emperor had it been built? I know there are original depictions of the Three August Ones and of the Five Thearchs to be found in it. These are refined and marvelous, and very pleasant to look at. Who could have produced them? I would like to take rubbings of them, but I don’t know whether this is possible.3
When Zhou Fu
[…] Wen Weng was the administrator [of Shu commandery], who was initially drawn to the arts of letters […] by the time of the hundredth-sixth year of its existence, a disastrous fire […] [the hall as well as] […] [Only] the stone chamber remained intact. By the first [year of the Xingping
興平era (194 AD) of the Han dynasty … Jupiter] […] the hall was named the ritual hall of the Duke of Zhou (Zhou Gong 周公). On its [walls] were depictions of Pangu, Li Lao 李老[i.e. Laozi 老子(tr. note)] […], as well as images of the historical thearchs and kings. On the roof beams one could find depictions of Zhongni 仲尼[i.e. Confucius (tr. note)] [and] his seventy-[two …], these had been produced by Zhang Shou 張收, a Regional Inspector (cishi 刺史) of Yi province. On examining […] now [all] […] [the illustrations on the pillars] are even more [refined] and marvelous, and very pleasant to look at. […] [produced] by Liu Quan 劉悛(438–498 AD), the Regional Inspector of Yi province, […]
[…] By the time the virtue of the element fire (huode
火德) declined, All-under-Heaven was in great disorder, the western region of Shu became a remote and faraway place where the imperial era names were not known. Thus the old name of the fifth year of the Chuping 初平era (194 AD) was chosen [for commemorating the repair (tr. note)]. In the fourth year, Jupiter was in the position gui-[you] 癸[ 酉], in the fifth year it [stood at jia-xu 甲戌] […] For the first year of the Xingping era, the calendar of the Hanshu records Jupiter being at jia-xu, which fits with the inscribed account.6
This stele has been erected on geng-xu
The Yizhou xueguan ji
益州學館記(Record of academies in Yi province) says: In the first year of the Xingping 興平era (194 AD) of Emperor Xian 獻of Han (r. 184–220 AD), Gao Shun 高䀢of Chenliu 陳留was made administrator of Yi province. He repaired the Jade Hall stone chamber in Chengdu. To the east he built another stone chamber which he used as a ritual hall for the Duke of Zhou. On its walls were depictions of Pangu, Li Lao and other divinities from high antiquity, as well as images of the historical thearchs and kings. Moreover, on the roof beams could be found depictions of Zhongni and his seventy-two disciples, as well as of the Three August Ones and of various recent ministers. The Qijiu 耆舊(On elders)8 relates that these had been produced in the Western Jin 晉period by Zhang Shou, a Regional Inspector of Yi province during the Taikang 太康era (280–289 AD). Of old there was a Yizhou xuetang tu 益州學堂圖(Illustrations of the Yi province lecture hall). In the tenth year of the Yongming 永明period (493 AD) of the Qi 齊dynasty, Liu Tian 劉瑱(460–501 AD) and Liu Quan, the Regional Inspector of Chengdu, again repaired the ritual hall and the Jade Hall. […] Quan’s younger brother was Tian. […] He was very talented and produced illustrations of Zhongni and of the major disciples, including carriages, garments, and ritual implements. Today these have been replaced by other illustrations, leaving no traces of the old ones.9
The passage we find quoted here has been transmitted almost without loss of text and can be used to fill the gaps in the above cited passage from the Yizhou xueguan miao ji, which is quite a rare coincidence. During Huang Xiufu’s time the Wen Weng stone chamber had already been refurbished several times by others at later dates, and no traces of the illustrations of Pangu dating from the Eastern Han period were left on its walls. For this reason, these are listed under the section “Names of lost paintings.”
Section thirty-one of the Yuanhe junxian tu zhi
During the Zhongping
中平period (184–190 AD) of the Later Han, a fire spread through the academy, its side rooms and corridors, destroying them at once. Only this hall was not reached by the blaze. Its structure is ancient and strange, unique and marvelous. Illustrations of ancient sages and worthies can be found on its walls. In its rafters are incised the Transmitter of Culture and his seventy-two disciples. It was illustrated by Liu Tian during the Yongming period of the Qi dynasty. When Zhu Lingshi 朱齡石(379–418 AD) pacified Qiao Zhong 譙縱(d. 413 AD) he inscribed the order of Emperor Wu 武of Song 宋(r. 420–422 AD) on the chamber’s stone walls. Dai Wang 代王(i.e., Yuwen Da 宇文達[550–580 AD] [tr. note]) further embellished the extant old paintings on Emperor Wu’s behalf with cinnabar and azurite. He moreover added images of Doulu Bian 豆盧辨[ 盧辯(d. 557 AD)] and Su Chao 蘇綽(498–546 AD).11
This stone chamber therefore underwent several restorations and extensions, ultimately encroaching into the Shu area’s treasure-house of art. The stages of its transformations are often found described in literati accounts, where they make for an extraordinary reading experience. Scroll seventy-two in Lou Yue’s
I have read in the Five Books from the Han and Wei Periods (Han Wei wu shu
漢魏五書) that “during the Han period there was a Wen Weng – Gao Shun stone chamber situated in Chengdu. Images of a sequence of sages and worthies, beginning with the Three August Ones and the Five Thearchs, had been incised on the space of its walls by the hands of the Grand Protector (Taishou 太守) Zhang Shou. Shou was a contemporary of Emperor Xian [of Han]. When I recently visited the Liu 劉family academy, I had the chance to behold the actual images myself. Starting from Pangu Shi 盤古氏all the way to Zhongni and his seventy disciples, approximately one hundred and thirty personages were depicted, executed in an utmost exquisite manner that reveals an ancient simplicity. Having passed through countless dangerous cliffs they have come down to us without showing the slightest traces off damage. Who except some deity would have been able to protect and preserve them like this? From somewhat later in time we have the calligraphic copy that Dongpo 東坡(i.e. Su Shi 蘇軾[1037–1101 AD]) produced of Wang Yishao’s 王逸少(Wang Xizhi) note in which the latter desires to possess rubbings of these images. This outstanding note bears the distinct style of Yan Lu Gong 顏魯公(Yan Zhenqing 顏真卿[709–785 AD]). Marveling at it over and over again, one is suddenly overcome with a sense of deep veneration, causing one to harbor thoughts of retreating into the world of antiquity. This is indeed quite extraordinary.
Among the so called “Five Books from the Han and Wei Periods” there is a work called Han guanyi
What Zhang Shou had painted were probably the seventy-two disciples of Zhongni as well as all the important officials since the time of the Three August Ones. At least this is what Yizhou qijiu
All of the extant historical images of Pangu from the Yao
Under the section “Shu gu zhi mihua zhentu”
[The work] depicts the Sage Thearchs from Antiquity as well as seventy Worthies. At a later point in time, the images of Han and Jin Emperors together with their important officials, as well as of the worthy minister of Shu, chief official Shou, have been added. These have presumably been produced by someone who had lived during the Eastern Jin period.18
These later additions did in fact come from the hands of Zhang Shou. Zhang must have been so fond of this book that he added this line of commentary to the title.
Xu Zheng’s Sanwu Liji states: “heaven and earth were in a state of primal chaos, resembling a chicken’s egg, and Pangu was born amidst, living for 18,000 years.”19 Zheng was a man from the state of Wu
In conclusion, images of Pangu, even in the form of murals, already existed before the time of Xu Zheng. Ren Fang’s
More information on the stone stelae from the Wen Weng lecture hall can be found in the tenth scroll of Shi Zhecun’s
This article first appeared under the title “Pangutu kao”
Professor Jao adds a lengthy footnote here stating: “In his Xianqin shi
Jao cites this passage from Bao Shichen’s
See Hanshu, 89.3625–3627. For an English translation of Wen Weng’s biography see John K. Shyrock, The Origin and Development of the State Cult of Confucius (New York: Paragon, 1966 ), 68; and Witold Jablonski, “Wen Wong,” Rocznik Orientalistyczny 21 (1957): 135–6.
Jao remarks here that this line is badly damaged in the original and has been reproduced by him according to record #03378 in the Beituo ben
This title presumably refers to the Yibu qijiu zhuan
See Huayang guozhi jiaobu tuzhu, 3.152.
The work from which Jao quotes here is in fact the Qiujian xiansheng daquan wenji
This piece as well has been written by Wang Yun and not by Lou Yue. For the work under discussion see Ying Shao
Jao presumably refers to the work given as Qijiu in the quote from the Yizhou minghua lu above. See footnote 225 above.
Jao refers here to the beginning of the first part of the collection Pan Wang da ge
Lidai minghua ji, 3.131.
Jao cites this passage from Ouyang Xun
See Wu Chengshi
Cf. the passage on Pangu in the first part of the Shuyiji fragments transmitted in Cheng Rong’s