Ming Zhao
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Cover illustration: Jiāyùguān: the westernmost point of the Great Wall. Photo taken by Zhao Ming in July 2013.

The Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available online at LC record available at

Typeface for the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic scripts: “Brill”. See and download:

ISSN 1879-5412

ISBN 978-90-04-53494-0 (hardback)

ISBN 978-90-04-53518-3 (e-book)

Copyright 2023 by Zhao Ming. Published by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Brill Nijhoff, Brill Hotei, Brill Schöningh, Brill Fink, Brill mentis, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Böhlau, V&R unipress and Wageningen Academic.

Koninklijke Brill NV reserves the right to protect this publication against unauthorized use. Requests for re-use and/or translations must be addressed to Koninklijke Brill NV via or

This book is printed on acid-free paper and produced in a sustainable manner.