Ming Zhao
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1 Hierarchical concepts embedded in Chinese disyllabic compound words 30

2 Concepts of hierarchy, Confucian ethics, and order contained in four-syllable Chinese phrases 31

3 Comparison of the codability of relatives of modern Chinese and modern English peer-based relatives of the same generation 39

4 Two different gaps – lexical gap and conceptual gap 51

5 Conceptual gap items in different languages 56

6 Conceptual gap items in Canadian English 60

7 Conceptual gap items in Singaporean Chinese 62

8 Corresponding relationships between two languages for an item with a cultural meaning 76

9 The evolution of the meaning of head in different languages 86

10 Comparison of dictionary definitions of hóng and red 94

11 A comparison of the interpretation of (one) in the Dictionary of Modern Chinese (7th Edition) and Collins FLTRP English-Mandarin Chinese Dictionary 101

12 Seme analysis of , shēn , zhāo and yáo 116

13 A combination of cultural sememe and cultural seme analysis of wūyā 烏鴉 ‘crow,’ xǐquè 喜鵲 ‘magpie,’ and fènghuáng 鳳凰 ‘phoenix.’ 125

14 Cultural seme analysis of huánɡsè 黃色, báisè 白色 and hēisè 黑色 131

15 Some interpretations of cultural semantics in the CPLD (Lǔ 2006: 12) 181

16 Cultural systems reflected by cultural semantics 182

17 Examples of special concept words in dictionaries 184

18 Annotation of holidays in the CPLD 185

19 A word in the CPLD with uninterpreted special cultural meanings 187

20 Annotation of the word lónɡtóu 龍頭 in the CPLD 188

21 Annotation of with a cultural meaning in the CPLD 189

22 Problems in the annotation of cultural semantics in the CPLD 191

23 An example of target words and their related words 194

24 Parameters for the annotation of bāofú 包袱 with a cultural meaning 196

25 Example of Chinese word lóng 197