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Cover illustrations: Brummer Gallery Records, The Cloisters Library and Archives, reproduced courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

The Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available online at

LC record available at

Typeface for the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic scripts: “Brill”. See and download:

ISBN 2352-0485

ISBN 978-90-04-53964-8 (hardback)

ISBN 978-90-04-54106-1 (e-book)

Copyright 2023 by Yaëlle Biro, Christine E. Brennan and Christel H. Force. Published by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Brill Nijhoff, Brill Hotei, Brill Schöningh, Brill Fink, Brill mentis, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Böhlau, V&R unipress and Wageningen Academic.

Koninklijke Brill NV reserves the right to protect this publication against unauthorized use. Requests for re-use and/or translations must be addressed to Koninklijke Brill NV via or

This book is printed on acid-free paper and produced in a sustainable manner.

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