Chapter 14 How People Change Public Parks by Using: Notes on Before and After the Covid-19 Outbreak

In: Placemaking in Practice Volume 1
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Kinga Kimic Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Landscape Architecture, Institute of Environmental Engineering Warsaw Poland

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Carlos Smaniotto Costa Universidade Lusófona, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning Lisbon Portugal

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Monica Bocci Unione Montana del Catria e Nerone Cagli Italy

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Nagayamma Tavares Aragão Universidade Lusófona, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning Lisbon Portugal

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Open Access

Abstract

Public parks are important elements of the green infrastructure. They provide places for people to experience nature and engage in physical activities, which are key in increasing public health and well-being. There are new factors limiting the usability of parks, provoking changes in the usage patterns. The Covid-19 pandemic and the introduction of restrictions on the use of the city significantly reduced many forms of physical activities, and a stay-at-home obligation is negatively associated with an increase of sedentary lifestyles. At the same time, the demand for greenery has intensified, highlighting the increasing role and benefits provided by green spaces in times of emergency, such as the pandemic. To better understand the contemporary values of parks, this chapter discusses the usage of public parks before (2019) and during the Covid-19 pandemic (2020–2021). The research includes the analysis in three urban parks located in different European countries: Pole Mokotowskie Park in Warsaw (Poland), Quinta das Conchas in Lisbon (Portugal) and Parco della Pace in Senigallia (Italy). These parks have different sizes and equipment, but are all very popular recreational places for the residents. The main activities performed by users in both the pre-pandemic and pandemic period were identified based on the field observation methods, which included a list of performed activities. The research conducted during the site visits was completed with information from media and government communications, including the context of country-specific restrictions. Changes in users’ activities were analysed for each park, and then compared to identify similarities and differences. Particular attention was paid to activities that were abandoned, limited or eliminated from the park programme, as well as those that became more popular. The results show that the role of public parks in providing recreation and improving health and well-being are still appreciated and valued, while at the same time their use and preferred equipment have been adapted to sanitary restrictions.

1 Introduction

Public parks, an important element of the urban green infrastructure, provide places for socializing, relaxing, experiencing nature and engaging in physical activities (Cohen et al., 2007; Smaniotto Costa et al., 2008; WHO, 2017), which are key elements ensuring public health and well-being and thus for securing a certain quality of life (Bedimo-Rung et al., 2005; Smaniotto Costa et al., 2009; Wolf & Wohlfart, 2014; WHO, 2017). New challenges such as the Covid-19 pandemic provoke changes in social behaviour due to the fact that socializing and gathering together have to be avoided. The introduction of restrictions in the use of outdoor spaces significantly reduces many forms of physical activities, and a stay-at-home obligation contributes to the increase of a sedentary lifestyle. At the same time, raising awareness of the beneficial impacts of green spaces on physical and mental health pushes a demand for greenery in cities. This highlights the growing role and benefits provided by urban greenery, particularly in such circumstances as a global pandemic. Due to the lower transmission risk in outdoor settings (Bulfone et al., 2020; Rowe et al., 2021; Sepe, 2021), many cities began to reopen outdoor spaces, including urban parks, after initial lockdown periods, thereby respecting physical distancing rules and other precautions to ensure safety.

The call to maintain social distancing has modified the access and use of equipment and facilities. Social behaviour had to change (Rice et al., 2020; Geng et al., 2021) and introduced, on a temporary or limited basis, other forms of recreation and/or use of equipment, different from those foreseen when they were implemented. The changed conditions also include an increasing use of information and communications technology (ICT) in urban parks (Kimic et al., 2019; Suchocka et al., 2019) to support different and variegated forms of interactions between park users (Mouratidis, 2021). The challenge for landscape planners and designers is to conciliate the response to safety rules and policies with the social needs and expectations of users.

In the context of placemaking, this study addresses changes in the use of parks – before (2019) and during the Covid-19 pandemic (2020–2021) – backed by analyses in three urban parks in different European countries: Pole Mokotowskie Park in Warsaw (Poland), Quinta das Conchas in Lisbon (Portugal), and Parco della Pace in Senigallia (Italy). The main activities performed by users in the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods were identified through field observations – an easy and efficient qualitative method of data collection. It allows, as part of behavioural mapping, a better understanding of peoples’ spatial practices and needs, and the way interactions between people and places are performed (Kawulich, 2005; Kara, 2013; Maden, 2021; Zhang et al., 2021). Field observation can be applied in different types of urban greenery as a tool of placemaking, towards gaining evidence to support the process for a positive transformation focused on people and their usage patterns. This method, being community based, enables the creation of high-quality public parks by responding to the needs of users for socializing, relaxing and mingling; it further strengthens interactions that contribute to enriching experiences and thus enhancing citizens’ satisfaction with their time spent outdoors. Hence, this method can also contribute to the creation of more flexible and, therefore, user-friendly and inclusive parks.

The present study brings together empirical data, gathered during multiple on-site visits to the three parks in the summer of 2019 and 2021. The in situ research was completed with (1) information from media and government communications, including the context of country-specific restrictions such as the need to use masks, social distancing, selected periods related to closing parks and then specific opening hours, and areas out of use or with reduced collective activities (e.g. meetings, social events), etc.; (2) a literature review; and (3) an auto-ethnographic analysis of the data (Ellis et al., 2011), since the three authors are experienced in analysing socio-spatial practices. Changes in users’ activities were analysed for each park, and then compared in order to identify similarities and differences. Particular attention was paid to abandoned activities and those limited or eliminated from the park programme, as well as those that proved more popular during the pandemic.

This analysis accepts the challenge of assessing data and compiling them to a common baseline in order to distil critical issues in spatial practices, and to provide a better understanding of the changes caused by restrictions due to the pandemic. This chapter reviews some of the most common and well-known patterns of use and physical activities within parks, backed by a brief literature review. The list of outdoor activities encompasses the various forms of leisure and recreation identified in the parks as well as the use of mobile devices in both pre-pandemic and pandemic periods.

2 Cases

In order to achieve the research objectives, the empirical material from the three cases has been analysed. The selected urban parks have different characteristics, sizes and equipment, but share a common feature: they are all very popular recreational places for city dwellers. Their programmes are rich enough to enable the observation of similarities and differences in the way people appropriate the respective spaces.

2.1 Pole Mokotowskie Park

Location: Warsaw, Poland; the park is located at the junction of three central districts of the city: Mokotów, Ochota, and Śródmieście.

Size: about 73 ha

Date of creation: 1973

Pole Mokotowskie Park was designed in 1973 and constructed on a former military training ground. Before that it was the location of the first horse racing track in Warsaw (operating from 1841 to 1938), then it was transformed into an airport and place for sports events (in the first half of the twentieth century), covering the area of about 200 ha. The park building in its present form dates to 1977. It was successively enlarged in 1983, 1986 and 1991, and it is still under development in some parts, but since the beginning it offered a large green oasis accessible to all city dwellers. It was named after Marshal Józef Piłsudski in 1988, on the 70th anniversary of Poland regaining its independence. The park is surrounded mainly by public buildings, two universities, old and new housing estates and a sports complex. The National Library (opened in 1990) is also within its boundaries (Pawlikowska-Piechotka, 2009). There are allotment gardens within the park, but some of them were transformed into a public green area a few decades ago. The access to the park is easy from all sides and is accessible by public transport (tram, bus and metro) and the bicycle lane system.

2.1.1 Main Characteristics of the Recreational Offer

The park was landscaped, with its characteristic meadows and composed plant groups of various sizes, among them fruit trees that are remnants of former uses. A small hill, an artificial pond, pubs, playgrounds, modern sculptures, but especially an extensive system of pedestrian and bicycle paths make it attractive for users of all ages. Thus, it is one of the green spaces with the greatest recreational potential in Warsaw (Pawlikowska-Piechotka, 2009; Szumacher & Ostaszewska, 2010) and it is intensively visited all year round. The park’s main programme supports many passive forms of leisure – walking, sitting on benches, sunbathing, picnicking, meeting other users, and also active forms of recreation – running, biking, roller-skating, outdoor gyms for yoga or Pilates, and other activities. Very popular are outdoor team games for teenagers and adults, and playgrounds visited by children. Many park users prefer to rest on the grass and organize their time spontaneously, as well as to attend organized events such as open-air concerts, sport competitions, etc.

2.1.2 Changes Observed in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period

From March 2020 – in the first period of the Covid-19 pandemic – the park just like other green spaces in Warsaw was closed and most of its group activities and events were reduced or abandoned. Restrictions were eased in stages for outdoor recreational purposes and then lifted altogether after April, with parks and forests opening first yet excluding playgrounds and outdoor group activities and events. The same rules, which included social distancing of 2 metres in public spaces, the need to use masks and closure of parks and/or parts of them (e.g. sport areas, playgrounds), were repeated during the second (from October 2020 to January 2021) and the third outbreaks (from March to May 2021) of the pandemic.

After the initial lockdown period in 2020, which resulted in an increasing number of visitors in the first weeks after the reopening of green spaces, some characteristic changes in the usage of the Pole Mokotowskie Park were observed. Individual activities and those in small groups became more and more frequent. An intensification was also observed in walking, especially walking with a dog, and biking. Some of the most popular activities included sunbathing, spontaneous recreation on the grass and especially picnics in summer. This shows clearly that people continued to keep their distance from each other, as also noticed by the low number of users active in the same spot and time. Selected behaviours have been mostly restricted for long periods in 2020 and 2021 regarding the intensity of infection cases, e.g. meeting in big groups, organized events, etc.

2.2 Quinta das Conchas

Location: Lisbon, Portugal; the Quinta das Conchas park is located north-east of the city, in an area that is changing constantly and becoming more densely built up.

Size: 24 ha

Date of creation: 2005

In the wake of Expo ’98 (the 1998 Lisbon World Exposition), several parks and green spaces were created or refurbished in the city. This is the case of the Quinta das Conchas, which opened in 2005. The area of the park comprises the remnants of an old farm with contemporary uses added. A quinta is a historic and typical farm estate in Portugal. Mostly they are family owned, with farmhouses, orchards and large plots for growing crops and rearing animals. Until the nineteenth century, there were several quintas around Lisbon that provided the city with fresh vegetables. The urban expansion, in particular in the 1960s and 1970s, resulted in the urbanization of much of the open land around the city and many quintas were lost. The Quinta das Conchas is one of the few quintas that could be preserved and reused. In 2007, the park was expanded with the intervention in the adjacent Quinta dos Lilases with 4.5 ha, making it the third largest green space in the city (Smaniotto Costa & Loupa Ramos, 2009). In the midst of such extremely rapid urbanization, the park became a true oasis surrounded by residential neighbourhoods.

2.2.1 Main Characteristics of the Recreational Offer

The central idea for the park was to preserve the quinta atmosphere by adding some new uses and facilities. The park was designed and built by the staff of the Division of Studies and Projects, subordinated to the Municipal Directorate of the Urban Environment. The design language is gentle, using the existing structures, like the pond, the fruit trees and the grove and the open landscape. New facilities include two buildings, one that houses an information centre, an exhibition room, a bathroom and a coffee shop, and a second one with a restaurant. Further facilities consist of a children’s play area, a long water line (an artificial stream that connects a fountain with a pond), cosy bench sittings and picnic tables in semi-natural or planted spaces (Smaniotto Costa, 2012). Thus, rich with a variety of scenery and facilities, the park offers multiple use opportunities. The huge open (and sunny) area is frequently used as a football field, while the shaded areas are used for socialization and outdoor fitness. The park has become a centre of recreation for people living in the north of Lisbon. Among the activities performed here are gathering, hanging out and resting, walking, jogging, walking pets, cycling and other physical activities, such as yoga, Pilates and stretching (Smaniotto Costa & Loupa Ramos, 2009). In summer, evening open air events are often organized, such as music festivals or movies in the park, which have become popular in Lisbon, especially because of the park scenery and atmosphere.

2.2.2 Changes Observed in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period

To break the first corona wave, the Portuguese government strongly discouraged accessing and gathering in public spaces, including green spaces. During the two waves, a lockdown was imposed (from March to January 2020 and from March to May 2021) when the parks and green spaces were closed and people were not allowed to attend outdoor activities. This rule was easily enforced for the Quinta das Conchas, as the park is walled with only few entrances, unlike many other public spaces in the city. In some cases, the council even removed benches and tables in order to prevent their use, once warning signs and red ribbons were not enough to keep people away from the spaces.

During the lockdown, activities in the park came to a standstill, and they only started up again with the general opening of public spaces. In the “open” periods users followed the rules for social distancing and the restriction of the number of people gathering. It could be observed that almost everyone wore a mask and activities were mainly performed by single users or very small groups. No group activities, or group sports, could be detected. Similar observations have been also made in the Parque Dom Domingos Jardo by the project verDEsporto.1 Since April 2021, people have been able to exercise outdoors with up to six others from different households.

It is interesting that during the enforced lockdown protesters demanded more lenient rules because people were recognizing the value of green spaces for walking, engaging in physical activities and working on their well-being.

2.3 Parco della Pace

Location: Senigallia, Italy

Size: about 2.3 ha

Date of creation: late 1980s

At the end of the nineteenth century, in 1887, a military facility named Piazza d’Armi (Weaponry Park) was transformed by the Società Ippica Marchigiana into a racecourse (Paci, 1984; Badioli, 2012). On 25 May 1987, a century later, the city council issued a municipal resolution changing the military name into Parco della Pace (Peace Park), affirming that “opportunities should not be neglected to always underline the values of peace” (Comune di Senigallia, 1987). It is unknown when exactly the racecourse became an urban park and who the designer was. The adjacent residential area was built at the end of the 1970s and early 1980s, so the enclosed space was transformed into an urban park. Nowadays, the park is one of the most popular open spaces in the city.

2.3.1 Main Characteristics of the Recreational Offer

Parco della Pace is situated close to the city centre, surrounded by social housing, a kindergarten and a primary school. A pedestrian and cycling path crosses the park from north to south. There are some trees, but the dominant surface characteristic is its meadows. The municipality is in charge of the maintenance of the area.

Senigallia is a famous beach city on the Adriatic Coast and for most of the residents having a walk or jogging on the beach is one of their favourite outdoor activities. Most visitors are used to walking on the beach or travelling along it by bike because the landscape is flat. Parco della Pace is not so far from the beach and is always crowded with children and their parents. Teenagers and young people also enjoy relaxing in the meadows and chatting with each other. It is a plain space, except for a small area (in the south-east) where an artificial hill is located. Children and teenagers climb it or use it for skateboarding. Teenagers enjoy playing on the basketball court. In 2020, the court was named after Kobe Bryant, the renowned NBA player. The north area is designed for children and has colourful play equipment. Tables and benches are available, and elderly people can be observed sitting in the shade of the trees, especially during the hot summer months.

The park is surrounded by well-kept streets without much traffic. Over recent years, the Scuola di Pace (School of Peace), an active human rights association, organized several events in the park. One of the events, held on 2 June 2017, was dedicated to the installation of a monument dedicated to peace, a small pyramidal installation in memory of John Lennon.

2.3.2 Changes Observed in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period

Due to the firm restrictions, the usage of public spaces was affected. During the first wave, people were only allowed to go outside to walk their dogs. After the first lockdown, during the summer of 2020, spending time outside was very common for most Italians. Urban parks, such as the Parco della Pace, were a meeting point for many dwellers: children for playing, teenagers for hanging out, elderly people for having social interactions. Parco della Pace was very crowded during the summertime. Relaxing on the greenery was an alternative for those who did not like Senigallia beach. Yoga, tai chi and other fitness activities were practised outdoors, encouraging everyone to engage in sport or physical activities and be in contact with nature. Under the two following Covid-19 outbreaks, in autumn and winter 2020–2021, with more flexible rules in place, walking or jogging became allowed with many people enjoying the park, yet always keeping their physical distance from each other.

3 The Comparative Analysis

The main information on spatial practice patterns and changes of leisure and recreation activities in three parks are divided into two periods: before (2019) and during the Covid-19 pandemic (2020–2021). They are presented in Table 14.1.

Table 14.1
Table 14.1
Table 14.1

Relative popularity of outdoor activities observed in the parks before and during the Covid-19 pandemic (elaborated by authors)

Case 1 – The analysis on social behaviours in Pole Mokotowskie Park in Warsaw shows that despite people’s desire to use the park they showed a willingness to adapt to the restrictions imposed, albeit with varied results. The main difference from the pre-pandemic period was that fewer organized recreational offers were made available, e.g. events were not organized or ran only for short periods throughout the year with a limited number of attendees. Team games were organized in much smaller groups, and generally the personal distance between the different users in all resting and recreational activities was greater than normal. This also includes passive uses of the park, like sitting and observing. However, the park’s main features, such as its substantial grounds and its extensive path system, allowed the development of several spontaneous activities throughout the park, which favoured the intensification of those behaviour patterns and at the same time encouraged people to visit the park more often. The park was perceived to be a more secure place than other smaller green spaces in the city.

Case 2 – Despite the negative impacts of the pandemic on urban life, from social distancing and periods of confinement with restrictions on the use of the city, the results of field observations in the Quinta das Conchas park reinforce the general understanding that a good green infrastructure is one of the responses to the crisis. In Portugal, the opposition voices got louder after restrictions to access and/or close public spaces were imposed. This public pressure forced the Lisbon City Council to reconsider the restrictions and to grant what was called “sanitary walks” – people were allowed to leave their homes for short periods for walking, with or without pets, jogging, etc., but only alone or with two more people from the same household. This decision was welcomed by many people and resulted in parks being populated again, although further restrictions last until beginning of 2023, such as compulsory masks, contact restrictions, no big gatherings or large public events. After some of the popular and frequent group activities were abandoned, the activities in Quinta das Conchas became diversified and intensified once more. Nevertheless, single or small groups are more frequently observed.

Case 3 – In Italy, national lockdowns were very difficult for people living in small-to-medium towns, like Senigallia, where the possibility of staying outside and maintaining physical distance was a challenge (Pouso et al., 2021). Covid-19 restrictions affected metropolitan areas in the same way as they did in the countryside and the debate on the need of distinguishing different situations/environments was not considered by the government and by the National Health Institute. Restrictions on having a walk or running alone will reflect on people’s health in a way that, maybe, will affect a great part of the population in the future. Perhaps this is the first time in recent decades that people fully realized the fundamental and basic importance of green spaces, especially in small-to-medium cities, such as Senigallia. During the various lockdowns, people missed the possibility of being outside a lot. Although this affected children and teenagers most of all, elderly people – who feared contagion the most – were also impacted physically and mentally. This is something that is still not fully measured. Italian teenagers were the most affected by the restrictions: when they met, they often did not follow mask regulations, and, for this reason, they were the most direct cause of contagion for their parents and grandparents.

4 Discussion

Similar mechanisms of use restrictions and changes in the park usage patterns are observed in all three cases. The results show that the role of public parks in providing recreation and thus improving health and well-being are appreciated and valued. Further recent studies (Rice et al., 2020; Geng et al., 2021; Herman & Drozda, 2021) point to similar results. Parks still continue to provide crucial services to their users, particularly in stressful times when opportunities for recreation are limited (Volenec et al., 2021). At the same time, it can be assumed that users are aware of the risks and understand the need to follow the rules. The need to maintain a suitable distance and further restrictions are inconvenient, but they do not reduce the willingness to use green spaces. The programmes of the three parks, due to the prolonged threat and uncertain future, require an adaptation to move towards the changed behaviours of users, including individuals’ preferred outdoor activities. Although the change process is being carried out spontaneously by the users, bottom-up activities may become key to future park design and maintenance to confront shifts caused by the pandemic.

The growing impact of ICT is undeniable. Restrictions on socializing (in- and outdoors) has accelerated the migration to digital and mobile technologies for communication and congregation. Public and green spaces are already becoming digitalized, so that two COST Actions2 although with different foci are tackling the issue. The pandemic showed how sensitive social connections are, and emerging studies are highlighting the immense psychosocial problems (depression, anxiety, abuse, etc.) associated with the pandemic. Lee, Malcein and Kim (2021) detected an increase in the amount of time spent on ICT for social purposes. One result of the time spent online is associated with a rise in anxiety, in particular in more vulnerable groups, like children and teenagers. The case of Italy mentioned above is an evidence of this. Considering that the digital realm will continue to proliferate and be more pervasive in people’s lives, such threats are also expected to increase. On the flip side, ICT enables people to capture and share personal experiences (outdoors) in new ways (Smaniotto Costa et al., 2019), and these create new and multiple forms of socializing, gathering and communicating. Digitalization of green spaces can also create opportunities to improve the quality of life and enhance health (Kimic et al., 2019). Interesting in the discussion of ICT pervasiveness are new developments in Portugal. To mitigate the fourth wave, Portugal will require working remotely from 20 December 2021 on until further notice; at the same time, on 1 January 2022, a new law enters into force, which establishes high penalties to those bosses/companies who do not respect the working hours.

These two main issues (shifts in use patterns and digital pervasiveness) bring us to the main question of how people change a park just by using it. The issue that just by using a space the users will change it, is widely discussed by De Certeau (2011). In the chapter “Walking in the City”, De Certeau asserts an intimate view of the city and explores the intrinsic relationship between a space and the people who use it. Through the appropriation as part of people’s “everyday life”, the space imprint itself on the users while the users also mould the space. So park users are not merely “consumers” but also become “producers”; through such (spontaneous) behaviours, called spatial practices, users leverage a placemaking process. The analysis of the three cases confirm that people are changing their behaviours and with it how they use parks.

Apart from the positive aspects for health and mental/physical well-being, being outdoors during the pandemic can also be understood as a threat. When many users visit a park at the same time, it will become crowded and facilitate a SARS-CoV-2 transmission. To prevent a disaster, officials may decide to close them (Volenec et al., 2021), and city dwellers will lose key mental health resources needed to survive the pandemic. This is an important reason to understand the validity of certain restrictions and the need to comply with them (Slater et al., 2020). In practical terms, placemaking should therefore include cooperation between park users and officials to implement rules and to consciously share urban greenery.

5 Conclusions

The Covid-19 crisis has revealed vulnerabilities and inequities in cities at an unprecedented global scale. Restricted mobility forced people to interact with their surroundings in new ways. People became aware of the positive aspects of having a good green infrastructure in the immediate vicinity, as many explored their own neighbourhood, discovering new potentialities and anomalies. Most were confronted by the fact that cities have a biased distribution of green spaces. As Smaniotto Costa et al. (2008) pointed out, accessible and good quality green space are directly linked to better and more frequent use of green spaces. A good green infrastructure with diversified spaces and equipment, within walking distance of one’s home, has the potential to mitigate health inequalities and deprivation. The three cases provide evidence that having a well-designed green spot in one’s immediate vicinity is an asset that benefits everyone. Neighbourhoods also are popular places for interacting and socializing with others, and for this to happen, they need to be well kept (Gehl, 2010, 2011). This should be a concern, in particular, for those who face mobility restrictions, such as disabled people, children, teenagers and the elderly.

The Covid-19-related disruptions underscore the importance of preserving and further developing urban green infrastructure. Many people pointed out that the world will be deeply changed by the experience of the pandemic crisis, and the issues are still increasing and changing our everyday lives. It is clear that the development of urban green spaces has to be part of these changes. This calls for easing the hard competition for available land in urban areas. Available funding for additional green spaces will be a long-lasting challenge (Kleinschroth & Kowarik, 2020). The need for urban green suggests improving urban planning by integrating green spaces of different sizes within the fabric of cities and neighbourhoods, making them accessible to all residents (Larcher et al., 2021). Making new places and designing existing ones has to be done with and by people that use them – to consider place-based and people-based approaches.

Placemaking, understood as the participatory act of imagining and creating places with and by people (PPS, 2007), is taking new forms and faces due to the pandemic. The approach used in this study, integrating placemaking, in the wave of De Certeau (2011), in the observation of everyday appropriation, allows researchers and practitioners to gain knowledge about park usage and user spatial behaviour patterns. This study also confirmed that the observation method is a valuable placemaking tool, which can be used to inform public policies in order to better transform public spaces into changing realities.

The results from the observation method become the direct data/knowledge which allows the creation of urban parks to be more adaptable and flexible to dynamic changes caused by growing needs and expectations of park users and, at the same time, to bring them many benefits. Therefore, that process may be successfully used and also be a rapid response tool of the placemaking process in the creation of more inclusive cities.

Acknowledgements

The research in Lisbon has been supported by the project “verDEsporto: The Impact of Green Infrastructure and Physical Activity in People’s Life during and post COVID-19 Pandemic”, ref. no. COFAC/ILIND/CEIED/1/2020, financed by COFAC/ILIND (Lusophone Institute for Research and Development) and Universidade Lusófona.

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2

CyberParks, 2014–2018 (http://www.cyberparks-project.eu); Smaniotto Costa et al., 2019; Dynamics of Placemaking, 2019–2023 (http://www.placemakingdynamics.eu).

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Placemaking in Practice Volume 1

Experiences and Approaches from a Pan-European Perspective

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