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Santanu Mukherjee
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Index

Conclusion and Recommendation: Adoption of International Exhaustion of Patents, globally 275
Addressing Parallel Imports under State Control and Restraints on Intellectual Property Rights 285
Amendment of the trips Agreement: Proposed Draft Amended Text for Article 6 trips 288
International exhaustion of patents – balancing ipr protection and Consumer Welfare through Competition policy 284
Patent exhaustion and multilateral trade: Need for removal of non-tariff barriers 279
Patent exhaustion in different countries: Need for uniform international exhaustion 276
Purpose of patent protection, ubiquity and need for balance 275
Economics of Patents and Economic Rationale for Exhaustion in Relation to International Trade 29
David Ricardo 33, 34
Economics of Patents 29
Economic arguments for free trade in relation to exhaustion of patents 33
Economic reasoning for ‘International Exhaustion’ of patent rights 40
Economic reasoning for ‘National Exhaustion’ of patent rights 36
Economic reasoning for patent exhaustion 35
Economic reasoning for ‘Regional Exhaustion’ of patent rights 43
Friedman, Landes and Postner 30
Fritz Machlup 30, 275
Glanslandt and Maskus 40
Ramsey Pricing 40, 49
Richard Nelson 30
Evolution of Exhaustion: Patent Exhaustion in Different Jurisdictions 51
Brazil 77
China 78
Community Patent Convention 1975 55
Doha Declaration 81, 83, 153, 155, 248, 249, 250, 290
India 80
Indonesia 89
Josef Kohler 22, 56, 99, 277
Malaysia 90
Patent Exhaustion in Germany and some countries in Continental Europe 56
Patent Exhaustion in Japan 84
Patent Exhaustion in some developing countries 76
Patent exhaustion in the United States of America 59
Singapore 91
South Africa 85
Thailand 93
The Philippines 95
The Statute of Monopolies 52
The United Kingdom and the doctrine of ‘Implied License’ 52
Vietnam 96
Exhaustion and Competition Policy: Patent Exhaustion and Its Relation with Competition Law and Policy 256
Cancun Ministerial 262
Competition Policy 154, 256262, 268, 271, 284, 285, 290
Competition Law and Policy in the multilateral trading system 256
Competition Law/Policy and iprs within the gatt/wto Regime 261
Competition Law/Policy trips and Parallel Imports 264
Double Tipping 270
Draft International
Antitrust Code 260
Global Competition Initiative 260
International Competition Policy Advisory Committee 260
Singapore Ministerial 261
Split Distribution Rights 109
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 106, 161
Free Trade Agreements and Exhaustion: Different Regional Trade Agreements 205
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (asean) and Patent Exhaustion 231
Bali Package 210
Cancun Ministerial Meet 210
Common Market of the South (mercosur) and Patent Exhaustion 234
Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (cptpp), iprs and Patent Exhaustion 235
Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (ceta) and Patent Exhaustion 236
Development of regionalism in different parts of the world 209
European Patent Office 214
Forum Shopping 208
Gulf Cooperation Council (gcc) and Patent Exhaustion 232
Hanoi Plan of Action 231
July Package 210
Nairobi Package 210
North American Free Trade Area (nafta), United States Mexico Canada Agreement (usmca) and Patent Exhaustion 45, 144, 179, 180, 210, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230
Regime Shifting 208, 209
Regionalism and its relationship with multilateralism 205
Relation between regionalism and multilateralism with reference to Article xiv and xxiv of the gatt/wto Agreement 211
The European Union, European Free Trade Association, European Economic Area 23, 41, 43, 44, 191, 214, 236
Trade Facilitation Agreement 210
Unitary Patent 144, 214, 233, 234
gats and Patent Exhaustion 194
Article ii and Article xvii in gats and its impact on patent exhaustion 196
Exceptions to Most Favoured Nation and National Treatment and its impact on patent exhaustion under Article v and Article xiv 200
Like Services 197
Security Exceptions 202, 203
gatt 1994 and Exhaustion 159
Chapeau 170, 172, 173, 175, 177, 180, 181, 183, 202, 282, 288
Covered measure 184, 197, 198
General Elimination of Quantitative Restrictions 184
General Exceptions 170, 181, 197, 200, 202, 204
Havana Charter 166, 259
Most Favoured Nation 143, 163, 186, 200
National Treatment 14, 116, 139, 166, 200
Non-discrimination of Quantitative Restrictions 191
Nullification and Impairment 192, 193
Preamble to the gatt 1994 162, 163
Washington Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respected of Integrated Circuits 159
Index 329
Intellectual Property Rights and Patents: Introduction to Intellectual Property Rights 5
Bern Convention 9, 126, 227, 233
Brief History of Patents 7
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 15
Distributive Justice 17
Edith Tilton Penrose 11, 29
Egalitarian 17
Exclusive Rights 10, 17, 19, 26, 97, 109, 127, 148, 152, 155, 233
Human Rights 24
Libertarian 12
Litterae Patentes 7
Negative Rights 19
Paris Convention 9, 77, 116, 118, 126, 140, 141, 149152, 155, 159, 227, 233
Privacy 17
Rationale for Patents 10
Self-expression 13
Specific characteristics of Intellectual Property Rights 19
Ubiquitous 20, 22, 35, 275, 276, 289
Utilitarian 13
Patents and Public Health: Patents and Access to Medicines – The Exhaustion Dimension 241
Ayyangar Committee Report 243
Historical perspective of Patents, Public Health concerns and Access to medicines: The Indian experience 241
Post-trips scenario: Patents, Public Health concerns and Access to medicines 244
Public Policy implications of Public Health crisis leading to trips Amendment 245
Tek Chand Committee Report 243
trips Amendment: Patent Exhaustion enabling parallel trade 252
The effect of patent exhaustion on parallel trade 99
Exhaustion of Copyrights 109
Exhaustion of Trademarks 105
Exhaustion of Trademarks and Copyrights in relation to patent exhaustion and effect on parallel trade 110
trips Agreement: The Negotiating History of the trips Agreement and Patent Exhaustion 115
Appellate Body 117, 180
Anell Draft 128
Anti-Counterfeit Code 121
Bolar Exceptions 153
Brussels Draft 129
Controlling Anti-Competitive Practices in Licensing 155
Dispute Settlement
Understanding 117
Dunkel Draft 131
Exceptions to the Patent Rights Conferred 152
Exhaustion of Intellectual Property Rights 135
Exhaustion under trips/wto: Analysis from the multilateral trade perspective 132
Intellectual Property Rights under the gatt and the Negotiating History of trips 118
International Court of Justice 118
Less favourable treatment 142, 168, 197, 198, 200
Lex Specialis 138, 160
Lex specialis derogat generali 138
Like Products 116, 137, 142, 143, 163, 164, 165, 167, 168, 169, 183, 185
Objectives of trips Agreement 145
Patent Rights Conferred 147, 152, 155
Preamble to the trips Agreement 134
Sui Generis 138, 160, 282
The Negotiating History of Exhaustion 126
Tokyo Round of gatt Ministerial Conference 115, 120
The Trade Act of 1984 120
Underlying Principles of trips Agreement 146
Uruguay Round of Ministerial
Meeting 125
Use of the Patent Without Authorisation of the Right Holder 154
Ubiquity and Exhaustion Doctrine: Ubiquity in Patents 22
Doctrine of First Sale 25, 26, 70
Doctrine of Implied License 24, 25, 54, 75, 276, 277, 282
Enabling Disclosure 25, 30, 31, 33, 59, 275
Exhaustion of Patent Rights 23, 25, 26, 33, 35, 36, 40, 48, 59, 62, 66, 6972, 76, 78, 80, 91, 96, 97, 104, 110, 111, 130, 132, 135, 138, 139, 143, 146, 148, 151, 152, 156, 161, 176, 178, 179, 185, 191, 198, 215, 235, 276, 278, 282, 284286, 288
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