Index

In: The Fatimids
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Paul E. Walker
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Index

Aaron, as wazīr of Moses 39, 50–51, 51n15, 90–91, 354
al-ʿAbbāsī, ʿAbd al-Samīʿ b. ʿUmar 342, 342n7
Abbasid Caliphate/Abbasids
appointment to public office 42, 80
colors of 229, 341, 342
condemnation of/polemics against 6, 321, 330, 331, 333, 369, 371, 374
in khuṭbas (sermons) 341, 359, 360, 366–367
on disappearance of al-Ḥākim 183, 188
invocation in khuṭbas (sermons) 338, 345, 403
jurisdiction over/control of Hijaz/Ḥaramayn 389, 390, 391, 403, 406
military coups 165
qāḍīs al-quḍāt (chief judges) in 65
removal/replacement of caliphs 78, 165
rivalry between Fatimid and 1, 333, 339, 340, 341, 342, 366, 376
Saljuks and 49, 55, 343, 403
wazīrs 49
ʿAbda bt. al-Muʿizz (d. 1050) 167
ʿAbd al-Aʿlā b. Hāshim b. al-Manṣūr 168–169
ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (d. 570) 328, 372
ʿAbdallāh b. al-Muʿizz (d. 974) 176, 179
ʿAbdallāh b. al-Ḥājib 159
ʿAbdallāh b. Ibāḍ 381
ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī Thawbān (qāḍī) 65
ʿAbdallāh b. Muḥammad b. Dāʾūd 115
ʿAbd Allāh b. Sabaʾ 325
ʿAbdān (dāʿī) 295–296
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥammad b. al-Nuʿmān (chief qāḍī and chief dāʿī, d. 1011) 67, 163, 222
on ʿĀshūrāʾ (Shīʿī festival) 111
at drinking party 170, 171–172, 173
execution 222
ʿAbd al-Ḥākim b. Wahb al-Malījī [al-]Malījī, ʿAbd al-Ḥākim b. Wahb
ʿAbd al-Jabbār (chief qāḍī) 66n43
ʿAbd al-Karīm b. al-Ḥusayn Abuʾl-Barakāt (khaṭīb) 345
ʿAbd al-Mālik b. Marwān (5th Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, r. 685–705) 331, 368, 370n31
ʿAbd Manāf b. Qusay (2nd Chief of the Quraysh, b.c. 430) 328, 372
ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (4th Chief of the Quraysh, d. 578) 328, 372
ʿAbd al-Rāḥim Ibn Ilyās (Heir-apparent of the Fatimid Caliphate, 1013–1021) 183, 185
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I (1st Emir of Córdoba, r. 756–788) 372
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III (1st Caliph of Córdoba, r. 912–961) 328–329, 370n32, 372–374, 375
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muljam (murderer of ʿAlī) 368
ʿAbd al-Samīʿ b. ʿUmar al-ʿAbbāsī [al-]Abbāsī, ʿAbd al-Samīʿ b. ʿUmar
ʿAbd Shams b. ʿAbd Manāf 328, 372
Abraham 19, 251n7, 296, 297
Abuʾl-ʿAbbās (brother of Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shīʿī, d. 911) 146
on ‘breaking’ novices 318
on payment of dues and alms to daʿwa 250–251, 281–282
on pilgrimage 272
Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Ḥusayn (son of Nizār b. al-Mustanṣir) 101–102
Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad al-Nuʿmān [al-]Mufīd, al-Shaykh
Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Quḍāʿī (qāḍī) 344
Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shīʿī (dāʿī, d. 911) 156n3, 250, 281, 318
appointment of qāḍīs by 58, 59
background 384
condemnation of/polemics against 383–384
conversations with Ibn al-Haytham 146, 214, 381
elimination of Ibāḍī imamate 382–383
execution 156
polemical techniques 319
victory over Aghlabids (909) 58, 59
Abū ʿAlī Ḥasan b. Aḥmad (dāʿī, d. 933, previously Ḥamdān Qarmat) 63–64, 67
Abū ʿAmmār (mentor of Abū Yazīd) 385
Abū Bakr (1st Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate, r. 632–634) 322, 332, 335–336, 359, 374, 381, 405
Abuʾl-Faḍl b. al-Furāt (wazīr) 169
Abuʾl-Fahm (dāʿī) 100–101
Abuʾl-Fatḥ Manṣūr b. Maʿshar (physician of al-Ḥākim) 163, 164
Abuʾl-Fawāris Aḥmad b. Yaʿqūb 14
Abuʾl-Futūḥ Ḥasan b. Jaʿfar al-Ḥasanī (amīr of Mecca, r. 994/5–1010)
as anti-caliph 390, 395
(causes of) renunciation of Fatimids 392–395
death 104
in Egypt 393
lineage 392
revolt against Fatimids (1010–1011) 390, 395–396, 402
Abuʾl-Ḥajjāj Yūsuf b. Ayyūb (chief qāḍī) 74n72, 112, 116
Abū Ḥanīfa (d. 767) 33, 317, 321, 322
Abuʾl Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Sulaymān b. al-Bawwāb 293
Abuʾl-Ḥasan al-Muʾayyad bi-Allāh Aḥmad b. Ḥusayn b. Hārūn (Zaydī imam, Caspian region) 32, 333, 334, 334n34, 379
Abuʾl-Ḥasan Muḥammad (chief dāʿī) 67
Abū Jaʿfar Muslim (Egyptian noble) 370
Abū Kathīr Afrāʾim b. al-Ḥasan b. Isḥaq b. Ibrāhīm b. Yaʿqūb (Jewish physician) 146–148, 150, 216–217
Abuʾl-Khayr (Fatimid agent in al-Andalus) 374, 375
Abū Khazar 378n4
Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥusayn [al-]Mahdī
Abuʾl Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Ṣiqillī al-Muhandis 293
Abuʾl Munajjā b. Sanad al-Sāʿātī al-Iskandarānī al-Muhandis 293
Abū Mūsā al-Ashʿarī (Companion of the Prophet. d.c. 662/672) 380
Abū Mūsā, Shaykh 250
Abuʾl-Qāsim al-Ṭayyib (Imam of Ṭayyibī Ismaili Islam, r. 1130–?) 76
Abū Rakwa (Umayyad pretender) 393
Abū Saʿīd Maymūn Dubba (chief of police) 179
Abuʾl-Ṣalt (Andalusian polymath, d. 1134) 103, 133, 135, 211
Abū Ṭāhir Ibn ʿAwf Ibn ʿAwf, Abū Ṭāhir
Abū Tammām (Khurasanian dāʿī, fl. 10th c.), “Chapter on Satan” 319–326, 380–381
Abuʾl-Thurayyā Najm b. Jaʿfar (chief qāḍī and chief dāʿī) 73
Abū Yaʿqūb b. Anasṭās (Melkite physician of al-Ḥākim) 164, 170–171, 172–173, 286, 287–288
Abū Yaʿqūb b. Yaʿqūb (chief qāḍī, d.c. 798/799) 65
Abū Yazīd Makhlad b. Kaydad (Kharijite rebel, d. 947)
background/affiliation 381, 384, 385, 388
condemnation by al-Qāʾim 384–386
epithets for 384–385, 386
istiʿrāḍ doctrine of 385
revolt of 34, 60, 62, 98, 352, 357–358, 377, 378, 384
Accursed Tree Zaqqūm/Accursed Tree
Acre 47, 53
Active Intellect 198, 199
ʿĀd (ancient tribe) 360, 367
adab literature (“bell lettres”) 211
adab al-qāḍī (judge’s comportment) 78
Adam 251n7, 254, 296, 297
Adem, Rodrigo 313
al-ʿĀḍid li Dīn Allāh (Imam-Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 1160–1171) 102, 348n22
offspring 167
royal library of 217
ʿĀdiliyya (madrasa, Alexandria) 129, 129n16
ʿAḍud al-Dawla Alp Arslān Alp Arslān
al-Afḍal (Fatimid military wazīr, r. 1094–1121) 52, 55, 106
arts and sciences/patronage under 132, 133, 147, 211, 292
assassination 73, 150
immigration under 103, 132
library of 143, 147, 216, 217
observatory of 293, 295
policy toward Hijaz 405
popular festivals under 116
style of rule 73, 132
Afḍaliyya (militia of al-Afḍal) 52, 101
Aga Khan 191
Aghlabid Dynasty/Aghlabids 58, 59, 60, 61, 382, 384
ʿahd (commission) of ʿAlī 80, 85–87, 93
Ahl al-ʿadl 304–305, 305–306
Ahl al-bayt 64, 64n32, 149, 364
Ahl al-ḥaqāʾiq 304, 305
Ahmād b. Isḥāq [al-]Qādir
Aḥmad b. Baḥr b. ʿAlī (qāḍī) 60, 60n14
Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal (d. 855) 321
Aḥmad, Muḥammad 7n4
Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Abiʾl-ʿAwwām Ibn Abiʾl-ʿAwwām
Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Walīd (Mālikī leader) 60
Aḥmad b. Surayj (d. 918) 329
al-Aḥsāʾ 333, 335, 379
Aillet, Cyrille 383n16, 387
ʿĀʾisha (d. 678) 111, 322, 368n13, 374
ʿAjārida (sect, branch of Kharijites) 380
al-Akhal (amīr of Sicily, r. 1019–1037) 105
Akhlāq-i Naṣīri (Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭusī) 201
al-Akhram (Ḥasan al-Farghānī, Zaydī imam) 332
Akhū Muḥsin 278n10
Aʿlām al-nubuwwa (Abū Ḥātim al-Rāzī) 209, 326
Alamut (Iran) 201
alcohol consumption
drinking parties 163, 164, 170–173, 174, 286, 287–288
prohibition by al-Ḥākim 173, 229, 288
wine consumption
Aleppo 403
book production in 288, 290
daʿwa in 295
shifting political allegiances in 339, 343
siege of (1025) 102–103
Alexandria
book trade 143
conquest of 48
destruction of churches 178, 178n8
entry point to the west/chief Mediterranean port 131, 132, 214
festivals 366
madrasas in 127, 129, 129n16, 135, 138–139
Mālikī school in 126, 137
Melkites in 177
qādīs in 41, 66, 66n45, 133
rebellions/revolts 101, 130–132, 133
scholarship/scholars in 131
eastern scholars 127–129, 138
exchange of Islamic scholarship 124, 135–138
renaissance and end of renaissance 129–135, 138–139
western scholars 103, 124–127
Algeria 1, 77
ʿAlī b. Abī Shuʿayb (qādī) 62
ʿAlī b. Abī Sufyan 62
ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (4th Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate, r. 656–661)
ʿahd of 80, 85–87, 93
application of inherited rules of 239
birthday 108
Companions of the Prophet and 26, 229n4, 332, 335
death 325, 368n26
enemies 364, 368n15
on imamate 27
invocation in khuṭbas (sermons) 352, 353, 354, 355, 361, 362
lineal descent/descendants from 1, 11, 17, 32, 34–35, 39, 62, 75, 142, 189, 191, 353–354
as Mahdī 325
prayers of 349
refutation of 229n4, 319, 331, 380, 381
right to imamate/as rightly guided imam 11, 14, 15, 322, 325, 331
succession of the Prophet 75, 108, 109, 112, 189, 229n4, 319, 325, 331, 333, 354, 393
taʾwīl and 251n7
titles 34, 354
wars by 322, 368
as wazīr/brother of the Prophet 39, 50–51, 50n13, 51n15, 90–91, 354
ʿAlid ashrāf (nobility) 363, 371
at Fatimid court 160, 163, 164, 172
in Ḥaramayn/Hijaz 389, 390, 391, 392
ʿAlī b. al-Faḍl 159
ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn (4th Shīʿī Imam, r. 680–712) 325, 356
ʿAlī b. Khalaf (head of chancery) 50n13, 89, 212
ʿAlī b. Masʿūd b. Abiʾl Ḥusayn Zayn al-Mulk 159
ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Ṣulayḥī (Sultan of Yemen, Tihamah and Mecca, r. 1047–1066) 53, 402–403, 403
ʿAlī b. al-Nuʿmān (chief qāḍī) 65–66, 169
ʿAlī b. al-Sallār (Governor of Alexandria) 104
ʿAlī, Zāhid 12
allegorical interpretation 247, 263, 274, 275, 275n5, 282 taʾwīl
Almeria 370n32
Almohads 102, 138
Almoravids 131, 138
alms 400n37
payment of dues and alms to daʿwa 251–252, 271, 276, 280–282, 283, 284
Alp Arslān (Sultan of the Saljuk Empire, r. 1063–1072) 49, 391n3, 398, 403, 404
Alptakīn (Turkish military commander) 100, 117
Amalric (King of Jerusalem, r. 1163–1174) 1
al-ʿAmīdī (supervisor of chancery) 212
ʿĀmilī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn 202
al-Amīn (6th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, r. 809–813) 139, 331
Amīn al-Dawla (title) 96
amīr al-juyūsh (Commander of the Armed Forces, title) 46, 51–52, 51n18, 53–54, 72, 73
al-Āmir bi-Aḥkām Allāh (Imam-Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 1101–1130) 73
arts and sciences/patronage under 285
claims against imamate of 162, 343
observatory of 285, 292–293
popular festivals under 116
royal library of 147
sermons by 36, 36n43, 356, 357
Amīr al-Muʾminīn, al-Rāshid bi-Allāh Abuʾl-Futūh Ḥasan b. Jaʿfar al-Ḥasanī
amīrs
appointment of 87, 104, 392
in Hijaz 389, 401
payment of 401, 403
role in festivals/processions 162
ʿAmmār ibn ʿAlī ibn Abī al-Ḥusayn al-Kalbī (military commander, d. 958) 98
ʿAmmār b. Jaʿfar 349
ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀs (Governor of Egypt, d. 664) 322, 359, 367, 380
ʿAmr ibn al-ʿĀṣ Mosque (Old Mosque, Fustat) 117, 342
anarchy 130
al-Anbār (Iraq) 340, 346
al-Andalus/Andalusians 99, 124, 335, 364, 369, 370n32, 371, 374
scholars 129, 150, 293 [al-]Ṭurṭūshī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad
Umayyad Caliphate/Umayyads
animals, in processions 158, 159, 349, 350
Anṣār 34, 352, 386
anthropomorphism/anthropomorphists 304, 305, 310, 321
Antioch 221, 237
ants, speech of the 265
al-Anwar Mosque (Cairo) 117, 158, 160
apologies, on imamate 32–33
appointment decrees decrees
ʿaql reason/reasoning
al-Aqmar Mosque (Cairo) 117
al-Aqrāniyūn Church (Damyetta) 236n19
al-Aqwāl al-dhahabiyya (“The Golden Sayings”, al-Kirmānī) 33, 317, 332
Arabia/Arabs 1, 48, 77, 128, 390 Ḥijaz
Arabic literature 146, 194, 210, 211, 212, 217, 283, 303–304
Arabs 98, 99, 104, 236, 268, 325, 353, 397, 398n24
ʿArafat 255
ʿArīb b. Saʿd 384
Aristotelianism 192, 194, 197, 201
Aristotle 146, 194, 209, 214
Armenians 47, 101, 211
army
Armenians in 101
Berber tribes in 95, 99–103, 156, 352, 357, 384
Easterners in 96, 100
Egyptian 403
invocation in khuṭbas 34, 352, 357–358, 385–386
salutations 162
slaves in 105, 171, 395, 395n16
military campaigns/expeditions; military commanders
Arsensius (Melkite Metropolitan of Fustat and Cairo, later Patriarch of Alexandria) 177, 177n4, 178, 178n8, 286
Arts of the City Victorious (Johnathan M. Bloom) 3
Asad al-Dīn Shīrkūh (Fatimid wazīr, r. 1169) 52, 54, 55
Asadiyya (militia of Asad al-Dīn Shīrkūh) 52, 54
Asās al-taʾwīl (Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān) 249
al-Asfār al-arbaʿa (“Transcendent Wisdom of the Four Journeys of the Intellect”, Mullā Ṣadrā) 203
Aṣḥāb al-kisāʾ (Companions of the Cloak) 354–356
al-Ashʿarī, ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl (d. 935–936) 200, 321
Ashʿarites/Ashʿarīs 137, 138, 189, 336
ʿĀshūrāʾ (Shīʿī festival) 107, 108, 109–110, 111–112
al-ʿAsqalānī, Ibn Ḥajar Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī
astrology 202, 288, 289–290
astronomical tables (zījs) 286, 292, 293, 294, 295
astronomy/astronomers 144, 168, 169, 171, 172, 213, 285, 287, 288, 290, 292 Ibn Yūnus, Abuʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlī; [al-]Ṭabarānī, Abuʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl
Aswan (Egypt) 48, 291
ʿAtāb/ʿAnāb b. Sabāʾ (physician of al-Ḥakim) 225
al-ʿAtakī/Ghatakī/ʿItakī 329
atheism/atheists 260, 331
ʿAtīq b. ʿImrān (Maghribi qāḍī) 131
authority
of dāʿīs/chief dāʿīs 56, 74, 75, 76, 81, 81–85, 163, 191
delegation of 90
esotericism based on reason vs. 260, 261–272
hierarchy of spiritual 296, 298, 299
of imams/imam-caliphs 13, 20–21, 26, 27, 29–31, 57n6, 79, 86, 155, 174, 190, 191, 261, 274, 330
of qāḍīs/chief qāḍīs 56, 59, 65, 75, 76, 81
ʿAwfiyya (government sponsored madrasa, Alexandria) 129n16, 136, 138, 138–139
ʿAydhab (Red Sea port) 405
ayyām al-shidda (economic crisis, 1066–1074) 143, 157, 157n9, 215–216, 402–403
Ayyubids 124
adoption of Shīʿī festivals 108
dispersion of Fatimid libraries 144, 147–148, 217, 218n22
scholarship under 139
Azāriqa (sect, branch of Kharijites) 321–322, 380, 385, 386–387
al-Azdī, Abū ʿAlī Sanad b. ʿImān (d. 1146) 126–127, 127n10, 135
al-Azhar Mosque (Cairo) 113, 114, 117, 145, 226n27, 232, 291
al-ʿAziz bi-llāh (Imam-Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 975–996) 63, 65, 66, 120, 176
arts and sciences/patronage under 286, 288
concubine of 175, 176–177, 178–179, 178n7, 286
death 95, 179
dhimmīs under 228
extravagance/lavishness at court 156
invocation in khutbās (sermons) 344, 362, 391
involvement of Easterners in government and army 96, 100
offspring 166, 175 Sitt al-Mulk
physicians of 212–213
pilgrimage caravan to Mecca 391, 391n3, 392n5
popular festivals under 113, 115
pronouncements of 208
recognition in Hijaz 391
royal library/librarians of 142–143, 143, 211, 215
transition of power to/guardianship of al-Ḥākim 95–96, 98–99, 179, 181
wazīrs of 49–50, 164, 208
al-ʿAzīzī, Baltakīn 392
al-ʿAziz Uthman (Sultan of Egypt, r. 1193–1198) 136
Bādīs b. Zīrī 391n3
bāb al-abwāb (head of daʿwa), chief dāʿī vs. 63–64, 63n28, 75, 76
Bādis ibn al Manṣūr (Zīrid ruler, r. 996–1016) 181n20
Badr al-Dawla (eunuch) 120
Badr al-Jamālī [al-]Jamālī, Badr
Bāghāya uprising (969) 388
Baghdad
book production/trade in 80, 143, 214, 216
capture of (1058) 1, 71, 344
daʿwa in 209
scholars in 125, 128, 137, 138, 193, 199, 201
wine trade 333
Bahāʾ al-Dawla (Buyid amīr of Iraq, r. 988–1012) 78, 165, 334, 334n33, 340
Bahāʾ al-Dawla Muẓaffar (master of the royal parasol) 401
Bahrām (Christian wazīr of Fatimids) 228n3
al-Bakrī (Spanish geographer) 405
Banū ʿAwf 138–139
Banū Ḥasan 392, 395n16
Banū Kilāb 236
Banū Qurra 181n20, 236
Banū Rustum Rustamids
baptism Epiphany
al-Bāqillānī, Abū Bakr (d. 1013) 32, 334, 340
Barjawān al-Ustādh (eunuch/caretaker of al-Ḥākim, d. 1000) 97, 120, 179, 238, 393
Barqa 64n32, 181
al-Basāsīrī (amīr, d. 1060) 71, 344
al-Bāshā, Ḥasan 226
Basra 125, 128, 209, 397
al-Batāʾiḥī (Fatimid wazīr) 81n11
bāṭin (inner meaning) 248
ẓāhir (literal wording) vs./and 247, 257–258, 260, 266, 272, 274, 312, 320–321
Battle of the Camel (656) 368n13
Bayhasiyya (sect, branch of Kharijites) 380
Baynaʾl-Qaṣrayn (Cairo) 117
al-Baysānī, Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm 136
Bedouins 62n25, 395, 397
beings, classes of 320
believer (concept) 75
belvederes 113, 114
Ben Ezra synagogue (Cairo) 231
Berber tribes 95, 99 Kutāma Berbers
Beyond the Qurʾan (David Hollenberg) 248
Bidaʿiyya (sect, branch of Kharijites) 380
Bilbays (Egypt) 178, 179
Biobibliography of Ismāʿīlī Literature (Ismail Poonawala) 33, 141, 141n3–4
Birkat al-Ḥabash 114
Birkat Rusays 289
blessings, in khuṭbas (Friday sermons) 34–36, 353–358, 360, 386
Bloom, Jonathan M. 3
Bohra Ṭayyibī 207
Bonner, Michael 2
book collection libraries
book copying/production 147, 150, 206, 207–214, 288
by dāʿīs/role of daʿwa in 140–141, 148–151, 207
circulation of works 208–209
conformity with Fatimid Ismaili doctrine 208–209, 290
sponsorship of 140, 206, 216, 290
survival of works 208, 217–218, 218n22
Dār al-ʿIlm
book trade 143, 147, 214, 216, 291
Bora, Fozia 218n22
Brett, Michael 3, 46n2, 96n3
al-Bukhārī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl (d. 870) 150
Bū Shanūda Church (Fustat) 233, 236n19
Buyid Dynasty/Buyids 49, 55, 66n43, 340, 390
Byzantine Empire/Byzantines
battle for Sicily 98
emigration of Christians to 221, 237
Fatimid-Byzantine relations 344
Muslim congregation in 344
treaty on invocation of imam-caliphs in khuṭbas 344
Cairo
advent of Badr al-Jamālī 47, 48
belvederes 114
Dār al-ʿIlm 140, 145–146
daʿwa 209, 210
dhimmīs in 229
foundation/construction 1, 171, 220
madrasas 139
Melkites in 177
mosques 65, 111, 113, 114, 117, 145, 226n27, 232, 291
move of al-Muʿizz/Caliphate to (973) 65, 99, 100, 109, 157, 176, 213, 372
popular festivals 110, 111, 117
qāḍīs 41, 66, 67
scholarship/scholars 125, 127, 128
Westerners (Maghāriba) in 95, 99, 102
Cairo Geniza 231
Caliph of Cairo (Paul E. Walker) 5
caliphs
listing of caliphs in sermons 36
Sunnī vs. Shīʿī 78
Canard, Marius 107
caravans pilgrimage caravans
censorship 148n21, 149
ceremonies 161–162, festivals; processions
Ceuta (North African port city) 131
chanceries
documents produced by 88–89, 212
staff and supervision of 93, 212
“Chapter on Satan” (Abū Tammām) 319–326, 380–381
chargers 221, 222, 226, 227
chief judges qāḍīs al-quḍāt
children, capturing of 381
Christian festivals 118–119, 118n26
ban on 243
excesses at 121–122
participation of Muslims in 120–121, 243
Epiphany; Nawrūz
Christianity/Christians
conversion to Islam 234, 237–238, 240
courtiers/in government service 93, 118n26, 165, 170, 172, 173, 234–235, 240, 240n23
daʿwa and 256–257
dress code for 228, 228n3, 232, 233, 237, 243
emigration of 221
physicians 164, 170–171, 172–173, 212–213, 286, 287–288
under al-Ḥākim 184, 228, 233–234, 238
churches; dhimmīs
Christmas 243
churches
in Alexandria 178, 178n8
decoration of 231
destruction and looting of 229, 230, 231–232, 233, 236–237, 236–237n19, 237n20, 239, 240, 243, 344
rebuilding of 238
right to church endowments 237, 238, 240
Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem) 178n7, 231–232, 237, 344
Church of Marat Maryam (Damyetta) 237n19
Church of Mary al-Qanṭara (Fustat) 236n19
Church of Mary Constantine (Damyetta) 236n19
Church of Our Lady (Damascus) 237, 237n19
clerks 224
Christian 234–235, 240
literary production by 212
al-Jarjarāʾī, ʾAlī b. Aḥmad
coins/coinage 46, 49, 74, 101, 119, 338, 352, 372–373, 395 mint
colors, political allegiance and 341, 342, 344, 392, 404
Commander of the Believers (title) 34
Commander of Commanders (Qāʾid al-Quwwād, title) 220, 222–223, 225, 226
Companions of the Cloak (Aṣḥāb al-kisāʾ) 354–356
Companions of the Prophet Ṣaḥāba
Constantinople 176, 177, 344
conversion
of dhimmīs to Islam 228, 234, 237–238, 240
signaling conversion in khuṭbas (sermons) 338, 339
to Ismaili Shiism 98, 100, 384
of women to Islam 251–252
Coptic festivals Nawrūz
Corbin, H. 313
Cordoba, caliphate of 369, 370 Umayyad Caliphate/Umayyads
cosmology 207, 209
coups
allegedly planned coup by Sitt al-Mulk 179–180, 181, 183
military 165, 174
courts/courtiers 155
court sittings/audiences 162–164
extravagance/lavishness at courts 156–157, 172–173
religious affiliation of courtiers 164–165
social elites
creation 195–196, 198, 296
crosses
public display of 232, 233, 234, 235, 242, 243
as symbol 256–257
Crusades/Crusaders 1, 135, 135n30
curses/cursing
comparison of Umayyads to Zaqqūm/Accursed Tree 331, 335, 364, 369, 370n32
in khuṭbas (sermons) 345, 353, 354, 358–360, 367–368, 384–385
of Ṣaḥāba (Companions of the Prophet) 392–393
Daʿāʾim al-islām (“Pillars of Islam”, Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān) 26–29, 80, 243
access to/availability of 64, 149, 208
ḥadīth in 27, 349n25–26
Dachraoui, Farhat 61n18,n20, 374
Daftary, Farhad 12–13
Ḍaḥḥākiyya (sect, branch of Kharijites) 380
dāʿīs (missionaries)
appointment of/decrees of appointment for 39, 40, 87, 91
book production 140–141, 207 daʿwa literature
duties and authority 22–24, 74, 76, 81–85, 163
khaṭībs (preachers) vs. 347
knowledge of natural sciences 295–299
qualifications and virtues of 81–82, 83, 146
daʿwas
dāʿīs al-duʿāt (chief dāʿīs)
appointment of/decrees of appointment 67, 68, 71, 91
attire 56
bāb al-abwāb vs. 63–64, 63n28, 75, 76
combined office of chief qāḍī, wazīr and 67, 70, 73, 75
duties and authority 56, 67, 69, 74, 75, 76, 81, 163, 191
literary production 68–69
daʿwas
Damascus 68, 88, 100
churches 237, 237n19
madrasas 218n22
scholars 128, 136
Damyetta (Egypt) 47, 65, 132, 236n19
al-Dānī, Umayya b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Abiʾl-Ṣalt Abuʾl-Ṣalt
Dār al-ʿIlm (“House of Learning”, Cairo) 140, 145–146, 216
daughters
of imam-caliphs 166, 167 Rāshida bt. al-Muʿizz; Sitt al-Mulk
women
daʿwa literature
access to/availability of 148–151, 207, 208, 248, 260–261, 271–272, 276, 281, 283–284
corpus and authors 207, 209, 283–284
natural sciences in 295–299
works on imamate 25–31
taʾwīl
daʿwas (missions)
admission to,
novices 253, 276, 277, 318
oaths of covenant 253, 254, 256, 276–280, 318
reading curricula 140, 148, 148n21, 318–319
censorship of enemies 317
Christianity and 256–257
in earliest Maghrib phase 63–64, 75
in Hijaz 401
knowledge transmission 272, 273–274
payment of dues and alms to access and interpret knowledge 251–252, 271, 276, 280–282, 283, 284
sessions of knowledge (majālis) 145, 216, 272, 276–277
in later Egypt phase 69, 70, 71, 75
license/conditions for teaching doctrine 251, 251n9
open debates with opponents 336
polemics in program of 318–319
ranks and authority of and within 57, 59, 69, 75, 76, 81, 256, 272, 276
relation with judiciary 56, 59, 67, 74, 75
role/purpose 56, 81
royal/public libraries and 140–141, 216
scientists and 285, 294
secrecy in operations 81, 148, 205, 207, 248, 257, 260, 276, 278, 283, 336–337
in Syria 295
women in 250
works on 22–24
dāʿīs; dāʿīs al-duʿāt; taʾwīl
Dawr Kutāma fī taʾrīkh al-khilāfa al-fāṭimiyya mundhu taʾsīsihi ilā muntaṣaf al-qarn al-khāmis al-hijrī (Musa Laqbal) 99n9
Daylamites/Daylamis 96, 103, 162
decrees (sijillāt)
of appointment/investiture 46, 78, 87–93
amīrs 87, 104, 392
Commander of Commanders (Qāʾid al-Quwwād) 222
dāʿīs/chief dāʿīs 39, 40, 67, 71, 87, 91
heads of maẓālim courts 40, 62–63, 87, 91–92
khaṭībs (preachers) 347–348
professorship 92–93, 127
qāḍīs/chief qāḍīs 39, 40, 61, 62, 65, 66, 68, 74n72, 87, 88
wazīrs 39, 46, 50, 50n13, 51, 52, 54–55, 87, 90, 96
on imamate 38–41
on safety 234
on writing texts/producing books 140, 150
devils 320
dhimmīs (protected, non-Muslim people)
conversion to Islam 228, 234, 237–238, 240
covenants/pacts between rulers and 241–242
destruction of houses of worship of 233, 236–237, 237n20, 238, 239, 240
emigration of 221, 237
(motives for) persecution and reversal of restriction policies 228, 237–243
protection and tolerance of 228, 238
sumptuary laws and restrictions against 228, 231–236
association with Pact of ʿUmar 230, 239, 241–242
ban on having Muslim servants 232
ban on riding horses 232, 236, 242
church decoration/public display of religious symbols 231, 232, 233, 235, 242
dress codes/markers 228, 228n3, 232, 233, 234, 235, 237, 242, 243
observing religious holidays 232
permission to spy and report on violations of rules 233
petition for pardon to al-Ḥākim 233–234
replacement by Muslims in government positions 234–235, 240
Christians; Jews
al-Dhuhlī, Abū Ṭāhir (qāḍī) 64–65
Dhuʾl-Kalāʿ (Abū Sharāḥīl al-Ḥumayrī) 368
disparity (tafāwut) 19–20
diwāns (bureaus) 87, 88, 162, 240 chanceries
Dodds, E.R. 306, 307
drinking parties 155, 164, 170–173, 174, 286, 287–288
drought 401, 402
Druze 68, 69, 230, 242, 332
dues, payment of dues and alms to daʿwa 251–252, 271, 276, 280–282, 283, 284
dynasties
empires vs. 1–2
fall of 108
Easterners (Mashāriqa)
in Egypt 100
origins of 100
scholars 127–129
Westerners (Maghāriba) vs. 96–99, 100
economic crisis (ayyām al-shidda, 1066–1074) 143, 157, 157n9, 215–216, 402–403
Egypt
advent of Badr al-Jamālī (1074) 47–48, 53, 71, 72, 130–131, 174, 211, 404
army 99–103, 403
book collection and literary production 206, 211
dāʿīs/chief dāʿīs in 69, 210
economic and food crisis 402, 403
festivals 107, 109, 118n26
invasions/conquests of,
conquest by Fatimids (969) 1, 77, 98, 100, 206, 220, 342, 391
first (914–915) and second (919) Fatimid invasions 359, 366, 367, 390
invasion by Saljuks 48
al-Mahdī’s travel from Syria to 141–142, 214
Mālikī school in 137
migration to 103–104, 105, 106, 131, 132, 401
move of al-Muʿizz/Caliphate to (973) 63, 65, 75, 98, 99, 100, 109, 157, 213, 372, 391–392
qāḍīs/chief qāḍīs in 61, 64–67, 66, 75
Westerners (Maghāriba) vs. Easterners (Mashāriqa) in 95, 96–98, 99, 100
works on 56, 99
Alexandria; Cairo; Fustat
Elements of Theology (Proclus) 306
elites social elites
emanation (inbaʿatha) 198
Empedocles 301n4
The Empire of the Mahdi (Heinz Halm) 2
empires, dynasties vs. 1–2
engineers 293
Enneads (Plotinus) 194, 301n4, 304
Epiphany (Festival of Baptism) 107, 118n26, 119, 232, 243
esotericism
based on reason vs. authority 260, 261–272
Ismailis vs. mainstream Islam 247–248
bāṭin; taʾwīl
esoteric knowledge
access to and availability of,
by general public 273–274
by imams 274
by persons who reason skillfully 262, 273
teaching of 262
techniques for guarding and restricting 273–284
by oaths of covenant 276–280, 283, 284
by payment of dues and alms 251–252, 271, 276, 280–282, 283, 284
essence 190, 203–204
eunuchs, Master Eunuch of the Master Eunuchs (Ustādh al-Ustādhīn, title) 222–223, 225
ewers rock crystal ewer
Executors (Awṣiyāʿ) 255n11
exegesis tafsīr; taʾwīl
existence 203–204
of God 204, 306–307
unity of (waḥdat al-wujūd, concept) 203
Exploring an Islamic Empire: Fatimid History and Its Sources (Paul E. Walker) 2
external meaning ẓāhir
extravagance at courts 108, 156–157, 181, 184–185
Faḍl b. Ṣāliḥ (general and wazīr) 163, 164, 172
Fahd b. Ibrāhīm (Christian clerk) 120
al-Fāʾiz bi-Naṣr Allāh (Imam-Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 1154–1160) 217
Fakhr al-Mulk (Buyid wazīr of Baghdad) 15, 149, 266, 284
al-Fākihī (d.c. 885–892) 115–116
falconry 211
famine 400, 401, 402
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr (d.c. 950) 192, 197
al-Faramā (Egypt) 65
al-Farghānī, Ḥasan [al-]Akhram
al-Fāriqī, ʿAbd al-Ḥākim b. Saʿīd (chief qāḍī) 69–70
al-Fāriqī, Abuʾl-Faraj (qāḍī) 70
al-Fāriqī, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Ḥākim b. Saʿīd (chief qāḍī) 71
al-Fāriqī family 170, 174
al-Fāriqī, Mālik b. Saʿīd (chief qāḍī and chief dāʿī, d. 1014) 66–67, 115, 170
execution by al-Ḥākim 67, 67n48, 181–182, 182n21, 227
role of descendents in judiciary 70, 170
al-Fāriqī, Saʿīd b. Mālik (father of Mālik b. Saʿid and tutor of al-Ḥākim, d. 1001) 170
al-Fāriqī, Saʿīd b. Saʿīd (brother of Mālik b. Saʿīd and tutor of al-Ḥākim, d.c. 1000/1001) 67n48
fast-breaking ʿīd festivals
Fatḥ b. Yaḥyā (leader of Masālta) 382, 383
Fāṭima bt. Muḥammad 35, 355–356, 392
Fatimid Caliphate
decline and abolishment 1, 73, 75, 108
genealogy/lineage 34–35, 149, 166–167
naming of 357–358
origins/foundation/rise 1, 2, 58, 77, 95, 156, 280, 388
population 77, 108, 174, 346
size of empire 1
The Fatimid Empire (Michael Brett) 3
Fatimid History and Ismaili Doctrine (Paul E. Walker) 5
Fatimid studies 2–7
Feast of the Cross 232
female rulers Sitt al-Mulk
festivals (Egypt) 107
Christian 107, 118–119, 118n26
khuṭbas at 348–350, 351, 352, 366–368
Shīʿī 107, 108–109
state-promoted/public 107–108, 109
ʿĀshūrāʾ; Epiphany (Festival of Baptism); Four Nights of Lighting; Ghadīr Khumm; ʿīd festivals; Nawrūz (Coptic New Year); processions
Fierro, Maribel 124n2, 357
fiqh (jurisprudence) 59, 92, 144, 149 madhhabs
first intellect 198, 199
First of the Year Festival (mawsim awwal al-ʿām) 107–108
Florence, Pitti Palace 219, 220, 221
Forgotten Queens of Islam (Fatima Mernissi) 176
Foundation (Asās) 251, 251n7, 255, 255n11
Four Nights of Lighting (Muslim festival) 107, 113–118
Fuḍayliyya (sect, branch of Kharijites) 380
Fürstenspiegel mirrors for princes
Fustat 162, 294, 389
belvederes 114
burning and looting of 182
churches 233, 236n19, 237
dhimmīs 229
khuṭbas delivered in 342
Melkites 177
mosques 65, 109, 110, 117, 223, 342
popular festivals 109, 117, 119
qāḍīs 41, 64, 66
scholars 213, 221
Galen 301n4
Germanisches Museum (Nuremberg) 219
Ghabn (eunuch and “Qāʾid al-Quwwād”, “Commander of Commanders”)
career and downfall 223–224
charger attributed to 221, 222, 226, 227
corporal punishments and death 220, 224–225, 227
(decree of) appointments 222, 223
gifts from al-Ḥākim to 220, 221, 225–226
origins 223
relation with al-Ḥākim 224, 225
rock crystal ewer attributed to 220, 226, 227
titles 220, 221, 222–223, 225
Ghadīr Khumm (Shīʿī festival) 108–109, 110–111, 112
Ghāliya (sect) 321, 325
al-Ghazālī (d. 1111) 137–138, 205, 300
ghiyār (badge) 228, 228n3, 232, 235, 237, 243
Ghulāt sects 317, 336
Ghuzz/Oghuz Turks 103
Glaber, Rodulfus 178n7
Gnostic mythology 302
God
acts/actions of 323
as cause 308, 308n27
cognizance/existence of 306–307, 311, 311n39
creation 195–196, 198, 296
God-fearing piety 81
God’s/divine command between intellect and 196, 201
knowledge of 323
Neoplatonic/unknowable 197, 300, 302, 305, 306–307, 312–313
Oneness of/tawḥīd 302–303, 302n5, 304, 307, 308, 309, 313, 334
power vs. force of 308
tanzīh (removing all association from God) 309, 310–311
tashbīh (trying to understand God by analogy and comparison) 304, 305, 310
as a thing 196, 309, 310, 324n9
transcendence of 195, 308, 308n27, 310, 312
unio mystica 306, 307
will of 323
governance 6, 81–83, 198, 269, 333
government services
Christians in 93, 118n26, 165, 170, 172, 173, 234–235, 240, 240n23
offices and ranks 162
prominent families in 169–170
religious affiliation and 164–165
royal family in 165
Westerners (Maghāriba) vs. Easterners (Mashāriqa) in 96, 99, 100
al-Guyūshī (oratory, Muqaṭṭam) 52
ḥadīth 136
on adherence to imamate 27
on ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālīb 34
on attire of imams at festivals 349n25
collection and (chains of) transmission of 128, 129, 134
on Israelites 319
on khuṭbas 351, 351n33
Proponents of Ḥadīth 334n35
on sects 320
on Umayyads 369–370
Ḥadīthiyya (sect) 321, 322
al-Ḥāfiz li-Dīn Allāh (Caliph-Imam of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 1132–1149)
astronomers of 292
attempt to transfer Prophet’s remains to Cairo 406
claim on imamate by Nizārīs 101–102
madrasas under 92, 127
succession of al-Āmir 109, 112
Ḥafiẓiyya (government sponsored madrasa, Alexandria) 92, 127, 129, 129n16, 136
Ḥafṣiyya (sect, branch of Kharijites) 380
ḥajj pilgrimage
al-Ḥajjāj b. Yūsuf 368
al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh (Imam-Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 996–1021)
appointments/decrees by 41–42, 49–50, 67–68, 104, 171, 392–393
arts and sciences/patronage under 144–145, 202, 288, 291
astronomy 213, 286, 289, 294
Dār al-ʿIlm 140, 145–146, 216
scholarship 192, 209, 249, 266, 331
asceticism of 157, 157n8, 182
attempt to transfer Prophet’s remains to Cairo 390, 393n10, 405, 406
bans and restrictions under,
alcohol and food 173, 229, 288
movement of women 182, 184, 229
popular festivals 113
royal family 168–169
dhimmīs
on Companions of the Prophet 332, 392–393
corporal punishments and executions by 185–186, 291, 394–395
Barjawān 238
al-Fāriqī 67, 67n48, 181–182, 182n21, 227
Ghabn 220, 224–225, 227
al-Ḥusayn b. Jawhar and ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Nuʿmān 222
Ibn Hāshim 168–169
al-Jarjarāʾī 51n17
al-ʿUkbarī 288–289
court/courtiers 162, 219–220, 222
astronomers 286, 287, 288
extravagance/lavishness at court 157, 181, 184–185
physicians 163, 164, 170–171, 172–173, 225, 286, 287–288
physicists 290–291
daʿwa under 74, 80, 209, 277
disappearance/murder 69, 175, 182, 183–184, 185–187, 239, 291, 332 Sitt al-Mulk
enthronement and guardianship 95–96, 98–99, 166, 179, 181 Sitt al-Mulk
finances under 184–185
gifts to/from 181, 181n20, 220, 221, 225–226
inheritance 168
invocation in khuṭbas (sermons) 36, 357, 389, 396, 398
mental state 239
mother of 176, 178n7
offspring 166, 167, 168, 172
persecution,
of astrologers 288–290
destruction of houses of worship 178, 178n8, 184, 228, 231, 236–237, 236–237n19, 238, 239, 240, 243
dhimmīs
recognition 21, 149, 339
as designated and infallible imam/validation of imamate 14, 15, 16, 238–239, 333, 369, 379
in Mecca 394–395, 398 Abuʾl-Futūh Ḥasan b. Jaʿfar al-Ḥasanī
refutations during reign of 32–33
removal of Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq’s possessions to Cairo 389–390, 394, 405
sermons by 96, 349–350
Halm, Heinz 2–3, 13, 46n2, 55n34, 161
Hamārē Ismāʿīlī madhhab (Zāhid ʿAlī) 12
Ḥamdān Qarmaṭ (later Abū ʿAlī Ḥasan b. Aḥmad, Bāb, d. 933) 63–64, 67
Ḥamza b. ʿAlī (Druze prophet, d.c. 1021) 69
Hanafī school/Hanafīs 59
converts to Ismailism 60
Mālikī school vs. 58, 60
qāḍīs/chief qāḍīs 68, 68n50, 346
Ḥanbalī school/Hanbalīs 68n50
ḥaqāʾiq (truths/ultimate realities) 283
Ḥaramayn
ʿAlid ashrāf in 389, 390, 391, 392
jurisdiction over/control of 389, 390, 398, 403–405, 406
qāḍīs in 66
Madina; Mecca
Ḥarb b. Umayya 328, 372
al-Ḥārūnī al-Ḥasanī Abuʾl-Ḥasan al-Muʾayyad biʾllāh Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusayn b. Hārūn
Hārūn al-Rashīd (5th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, r. 786–809) 65, 139
al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī b. Salāma Ibn al-ʿŪrīs
Ḥasanak Mīkālī (Iranian statesman, d. 1032) 398
al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī (2nd Shīʿī Imam, 661–670)
imamate of 11, 265, 325, 331, 355
invocation in khuṭbas (sermons) 35–36, 355, 356
lineal descendants of 191, 390
al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī al-Husayn al-Kalbī (Fatimid governor of Sicily, d. 964) 98
Ḥasan b. Rajāʾ b. Abiʾl-Ḥasan 159
al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī 109
al-Ḥasanī, ʿĪsa b. Jaʿfar ʿĪsa b. Jaʿfar al-Ḥasanī
al-Ḥasanī, Abuʾl-Futūḥ Ḥasan b. Jaʿfar Abuʾl-Futūḥ Ḥasan b. Jaʿfar al-Ḥasanī
al-Ḥasanī, Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad al-Ḥasanī
Hashīm b. ʿAbd Manāf (3rd Chief Leader of the Quraysh, d.c. 497) 328, 372
Ḥashwiyya (extreme literalist doctrine) 334, 334n35
Ḥassān b. Mufarrij b. Daghfal b. al-Jarrāḥ 395, 396
Hawāshim dynasty 403
Ḥāwī al-funūn wa salwat al-maḥzūn (Ibn al-Ṭahhān) 212
Hawsam (Rudsar, Gilan, Iran) 333, 334, 379
Ḥawshab b. Ṭakhma al-Alhānī Dhū Ẓulaym 368, 368n22
heavenly spheres 248, 298
intellects of 197, 198
Heijer, Johannes den 46n2, 55n34
Heresy and the Politics of Community: The Jews of the Fatimid Caliphate (Marina Rustow) 3
Hibat Allāh b. ʿAbd allāh b. Kāmil (chief qāḍī and chief dāʿī) 73
Hibat Allāh b. Aḥmad (deputy of ʿAbd al-Samīʿ b. ʿUmar al-ʿAbbāsī) 342
hidden imams 191, 255n10, 353, 356, 357, 362 Qāʾim (Messiah)
hierarchy, of spiritual authority 296, 298, 299
Hijaz
amīrs 389, 401
dependence on Fatimid support 389, 390, 401, 402, 403, 405
famine 400, 401, 402
jurisdiction over/control of 389, 390, 395, 406
migration to Egypt 401
military expeditions to 391n3, 392, 392n5
recognition of/loyalty to Fatimid imamate 390–392, 404
revolt of Abuʾl-Futūh (1010–11) 390, 395–396, 402
Hippocrates 150, 294
Hirschler, Konrad 218n22
Ḥishām b. ʿAbd al-Malik (10th Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, r. 724–743) 370n31
histories 213–214 Ittiʿāẓ al-ḥunafāʾ (al-Maqrīzī); al-Musabbiḥī, al-Mukhtār ʿIzz al-Mulk Muḥammad
History (al-Ṭabarī) 142, 144, 215
History of Mecca (al-Fākihī) 115
History of the Patriarchs of the Egyptian Church (Michael, Coptic Bishop of Tinnis) 230
History (Yaḥyā of Antioch) 220, 220–221, 222, 230
Hollenberg, David 248–249
holy cities Ḥaramayn; Madina; Mecca
horses
in army 97
ban for dhimmīs to ride 232, 236, 242
as gift 96, 181, 223, 400
in processions/parades 158, 159, 222, 223, 349, 350, 395n17
Ḥudhayfa b.al-Yamān 319
Ḥujr b. ʿAdī (Companion of the Prophet, d. 660) 368n18
Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī (3rd Shīʿī Imam, r. 670–680)
imamate of 11, 265, 325, 355
invocation in khuṭbas (sermons) 35–36, 355, 356
lineal descendants 191, 333, 335, 379, 392, 392n8
mourning of 109
opponents 368n14
Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī Ibn Dawwās (Kutāma chieftain) 185–187
al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. al-Nuʿmān (chief qāḍī and chief dāʿī, d. 1004) 39, 40–42, 66, 67, 169–170
al-Ḥusayn b. al-Ḥasan al-Bāzyār (wazīr) 163, 164
al-Ḥusayn b. Jawhar (wāsiṭa and al-Qāʾid al-Quwwād, “Commander of Commanders”)
attribution of rock crystal ewer to 219–220, 221, 221–222, 223, 227
background 221–222
drinking party 171–173
execution 220, 222
al-Ḥusayn b. Ṭāhir al-Wazzān (wāsiṭa) 163, 227, 234
Ibāḍīs/Ibāḍiyya (sect, branch of Kharijites)
doctrine 377, 378, 381, 382
elimination of Ibāḍī imamate by AbūʿAbdallāh al-Shī ʿī 382–383
Ibāḍī sources of information 383n16, 387–388
imamate 378, 380
internal quarrels 388
refutation of 6, 369, 377, 378, 387
revolts by 378n4, 384, 385, 388
“L‘ibadisme maghreébin en contexte fatimide” (Cyrille Aillet) 387–388
al-Ibāna ʿan sariqāt al-Mutanabbī (al-ʿAmīdī) 212
al-ʿIbānī, Aflaḥ b. Hārūn (dāʿī) 61n18, 250
Ibn ʿAbbād, al-Ṣāḥib 78
Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr 136
Ibn ʿAbd al-Qawī b. al-Jalīs (chief qāḍī and chief dāʿī) 74
Ibn ʿAbdūn (wāsiṭa) 240n23
Ibn Abiʾl-ʿAwwām (chief qāḍī, d. 1027) 66–67, 68, 69, 158, 346n18
Ibn Abiʾl-ʿAysh (qāḍī) 293
Ibn Abī Hāshim 404
Ibn Abiʾl-Minhāl (qāḍī) 65–66
Ibn Abī Ṭayyiʾ 143–144
Ibn Abī ʿUṣaybīʿa 146, 147, 148, 177n4, 286, 288
Ibn ʿAmmār, Abū Muḥammad 109, 110
Ibn ʿAmmār, al-Ḥasan (senior commander and wāsiṭa) 95–99
Ibn ʿAmmār (qāḍī of Alexandria) 133
Ibn Anas al-Dawla (sharīf) 112
Ibn al-ʿArabī, Abū Bakr (d. 1148) 137
Ibn al-ʿArabī (d. 1240) 203
Ibn al-Athīr 131n18, 353, 378n4
Ibn ʿAwf, Abū Ṭāhir 92, 127, 129, 129n16, 135, 136, 138, 139
Ibn Babūya al-Qūmī (teacher of al-Mufid) 199
Ibn Bajja (philosopher) 293
Ibn al-Baṭāʾiḥī (chief of staff of al-Afḍal) 293
Ibn al-Bawwāb (calligrapher) 144
Ibn al-Dawādārī 69n56
Ibn Diyāb (astronomer) 293
Ibn Duqmāq 225, 227
Ibn Fahd al-Makkī (Meccan historian) 391n3, 393n10, 395n16–17, 398, 398n24, 405
Ibn Ḥadīd (qāḍī of Alexandria, d. 1135) 133, 134, 135
Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī 64n31, 65, 68, 69n57, 164, 171
Ibn Ḥalabī (astronomer) 292, 293
Ibn al-Hāniʾ (d.c. 973) 31, 210
Ibn Ḥasdāi, Abū Jaʿfar Yūsuf b. Aḥmad 150–151, 150n28, 293–294
Ibn Hāshim (ʿAbd al-Aʿlā b. Hāshim b. al-Manṣūr) 168–169
Ibn Ḥawqal (d. after 978) 63
Ibn al-Haytham (dāʿī , b.c. 881–882)
conversations with Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shīʿī 146, 214, 381
on earliest experience in daʿwa 250, 277n8
on Fatimid court 156
on Ibāḍīs 381–382
on imamate 25–26
personal library of 146, 214–215
on qāḍīs 57–58, 58n7–8, 61n18
on Umayyads 370
Ibn al-Haytham (physicist, d.c. 1040) 213, 285, 290–291, 292, 293
Ibn ʿIdhārī (Sunnī historian) 345, 383, 396
Ibn al-Jawzī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (Sunnī historian, d. 1200) 340, 341, 346, 363, 394
Ibn al-Jazzār (student of Isaac Israeli) 285
Ibn Khaldūn (d. 1406) 108, 126, 403
Ibn Kharīṭa 169
Ibn Killis, Yaʿqūb (Fatimid wazīr, 979–991) 49–50, 51, 65, 70, 149–150, 208, 218n22
Ibn al-Mallāḥ (astronomer) 292
Ibn Mammatī 87
Ibn al-Maʾmūn, Jamāl al-Dīn Abū ʿAlī Mūsā (historian, d. 1192) 112, 112n13, 113, 159–160, 213
Ibn Mujāwir (d. 1204) 136
Ibn Muqla (calligrapher) 144
Ibn Mūsā al-Naṣrānī (astronomer) 292
Ibn al-Muslima (Abbasid wazīr) 49
Ibn al-Muyassar 48n6, 102n13, 213, 349n27
Ibn Naṣr (astronomer) 293
Ibn Nasturius (head financial officer) 95–96
Ibn al-Qalānisī 88, 102, 102n13
Ibn Qalāqis 211
Ibn al-Qaṭṭāʾ (ʿAlī b. Jaʿfar ʿAlī al-Shantarīnī, d. 1121) 106
Ibn Qirqa/Qaraqa (physician) 293
Ibn Qutayba (d. 889) 33, 317
Ibn Riḍwān (physician) 147, 213, 285, 290, 291
Ibn Rushd 262–263, 273
Ibn Saʿīd al-Maghribī 227
Ibn Sahl 374
Ibn al-Salār, al-ʿĀdil (Fatimid wazīr) 129
Ibn al-Ṣayrafī (head of Fatimid chancery, d. 1147) 89, 106n26, 212, 221
Ibn Sharaf al-Qayrawānī (poet) 345
Ibn Sīnā 193, 197, 201, 202, 203, 205, 209, 311n39
Ibn Surayj (Shāfiʿī scholar, d. 918) 33, 317
Ibn Taghrī Birdī (Sunnī historian, d. 1470) 185, 340, 342, 363, 398
Ibn al-Ṭahhān 212
Ibn Ṭāhir al-Wazzān 163
Ibn Taymiyya 148, 205, 313, 314
Ibn Tūmart 102, 138
Ibn al-Ṭuwayr (d. 1220)
on army 103
on citing of imams in khuṭbas (sermons) 36, 357
on dāʿīs/daʿwa 74
on festivals 107–108, 113, 117
history by 213
on processions 160–161
on royal libraries 143–144
Ibn al-ʿŪrīs (al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī b. Salāma, chief qāḍī and chief dāʿī) 73, 74
Ibn Yūnus, Abuʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlī (astronomer, d. 1009)
appearance and behavior 172, 287
astronomical tables (Zij) 213, 286
death 286, 289
sponsorship of 202, 213, 285, 288, 289
Ibn al-Ẓāhir (chronicler) 178, 394
Ibn Zūlāq 64n31, 109–110, 121, 213, 218n22
Ibrāhīm (“al-Jalīs”, tutor/boon-companion) 158–159
ʿīd festivals 112, 112n13, 160
ʿīd al-aḍḥā/īd al-naḥr (feast of sacrifice) 159, 344, 348
ʿīd al-fiṭr (fast-breaking festival) 158, 160, 161
khuṭbas (sermons) at 348–350, 352, 366–368
idol worshipers 304
Idrīs ʿImād al-Dīn 55n33, 63, 71–72n66, 378, 381, 394, 394n14–15
Ifrīqiya 99, 372
al-Iftikhār (“The Boast”, al-Sijistānī) 209, 301n2, 309n32, 313, 330
Iftitāḥ al-daʿwa (“Opening of the Appeal and Beginning of the State”, Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān) 208, 383
Iḥyāʾʿulūm al-dīn (“The Revification of Religious Sciences”, al-Ghazālī) 138
ijmāʿ (consensus) 317, 330, 336
ijtihād (interpretation) 317, 330, 336 taʿwīl
Ikhshidid dynasty 391
Ikhtilāf uṣūl al-madhāhib (“Disagreements of the Jurists”, Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān) 62, 62n24, 317, 329, 336
Illuminationism 203
Imāmīs/Imāmiyya (Twelver Shīʿa) 321
authority of/hidden imam 191, 325–326
courtiers 164
doctrine 199, 200
refutations of 317
scholarship/scholars 199
[al-]Mufīd, al-Shaykh; Mullā Ṣadrā; [al-]Ṭusī, Naṣīr al-Dīn
imamate
authority of 93
claims on, proof, legitimacy and recognition of 13, 15–16, 18, 34–35, 101–102, 369, 378 [al-]Maṣābīḥ fī ithbāt al-imāma
conditions for 12
daʿwa literature on 25–31
doctrine 189
Fatimid works on 13–25, 79
haḍīth on 27
imperial letters and decrees on 38–45
necessity of 14, 16
polemics, apologies and refutations 32–33
role, purpose and functions of 16–17, 19, 57n6
sermons on 33–38
Shiite position on 14, 17
“Das Imamate in der frühen ismailitischen Lehre” (Wilferd Madelung) 12
imams/imam-caliphs
acknowledgement of living 275–276
appointment of public positions by 38–44
at festivals,
attire 349, 349n25, 350
involvement in non-Islamic festivals 118n26
authority of 20–21, 330
application of inherited rules of the Prophet and ʿAlī 16, 239
delegation of authority 31, 50, 86, 90, 191, 275
Fatimid vs. non-Fatimid doctrine 11, 27, 44, 93–94, 191
religious vs. political 1, 13
rules for followers/believers 29–31
supreme/ultimate authority 57n6, 174, 190, 191, 261
waning of direct power 174
death of 11, 36–38
false imams/pretenders 18, 26, 29, 101–102, 131, 162, 333–383
hidden/concealed 191, 255n10, 353, 356, 357, 362
infallibility 16, 17, 42–43, 77, 79–80, 239, 261
in khuṭbas (sermons)/khuṭbas by khuṭbas
knowledge and intellect of 191, 199, 274
offspring 166–167
poetry on 13, 31–32
qualifications and virtues 11, 17, 20, 21, 333, 371, 374n33
rightly guided/righteous 14–15, 28, 322, 356, 358, 365
role/purpose of 16–17, 18, 19, 24–25, 79, 83–84, 333
security at public events 352
similarity to Jesus 32
succession of,
appointment/selection by people 27
designation 112, 165, 168, 333
lineage 11, 12, 13, 78–79, 155, 165
replacement of imams 165
Qāʾim (Messiah)
imperial letters 38–39
India 398
inheritance 64, 69, 166, 167, 168 orphans
inner meaning bāṭin
Inostrantsev, K.A. 107
Instiṣar (Ibn Duqmaq) 225
Institute of Ismaili Studies (London) 3
intellect 195, 196
Active Intellect 198, 199
chain/levels of intellects 197, 198
first 198, 199
God’s/divine command between God and 196
incarnation of 264
revelation and/vs. 194
second 198
single universal 195, 196, 197
reason/reasoning
intellectual tradition
definition 189, 191
Ismailis and making of Shīʿī 190–193
role of philosophy 204, 205
interpretive sciences 252, 280, 282 esoteric knowledge
Iran 210
scholars in/from 70, 124, 127, 128, 193, 207, 209, 249
[al-]Muʾayyad fiʾl-Dīn al-Shīrāzī; Mullā Ṣadrā; Naṣīr b. Khusraw; [al-]Sijistānī, Abū Yaʿqūb; [al-]Silafī, Abū Ṭāhir
Iraq 63, 178, 334n33, 340
Mālikī school 137
pilgrims from 389, 395, 396, 397, 398
al-ʿIrqī, Abū Yaʿlā Ḥamza b. al-Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad (chief qāḍī) 72n67
Isaac Israeli (Jewish physician of al-Mahdī) 285, 286
ʿĪsa b. Jaʿfar al-Ḥasanī (amīr of Mecca, c. 976/977) 390, 392
Isfahan, scholars in/from 127, 128
Ishāq b. Abiʾl-Minhāl (qāḍī) 60
Isḥāqiyya 336
al-Ishāra ilā man nāla al-wizāra (history of Fatimid wazīrs, Ibn al-Ṣayrafī) 221
Ishārāt (Ibn Sīnā) 202
Islamic law, observance of 57
Ismāʿīl b. Jaʿfar (6th Ismaili Imam, r. 702–762) 11, 15, 356, 365
Ismāʿīl b. al-Mustanṣir 101
The Ismāʿīlīs: Their History and Doctrines (Farhad Daftary) 12–13
Ismaili doctrine
natural science and 295–299
Neoplatonism and 194, 300, 304
philosophy and/vs. 194, 205, 274–275, 301, 301n4, 303–304, 304
pre-Fatimid 12
secrecy of 260
taʾwīl
Ismaili law 64, 149–150
Ismaili scholarship/scholars 190, 192, 194 [al-]Kirmānī, Ḥamīd al-Dīn; [al-]Sijistānī, Abū Yaʿqūb
Ismaili Shiism/Ismailis
authority of imams 191
conversion to Ismaili Shiism 98, 100, 384
in Fatimid Caliphate 1, 2, 77
festivals 110, 112
high level/government positions 57, 164–165
Mongol invasions and 201
opponents 326
promotion of Ismailism 216
qāḍīs 58, 59, 60, 61n18, 75
schisms 12, 75, 101–102, 108, 191
spread of 280–281
Ṭayyibī Ismailis
Ismaili (term) 11
Ismaili texts
audience 149
reading curricula 140, 148, 148n21, 318–319
in royal libraries 144
isnāds (chains of transmission) 128, 129
Isqīṭ monastery (Monastery of Abū Maqār, Maryut) 236
Israelites 319
al-Iṣṭakhrī, ʿAlī b. Saʿīd 32, 32n32
istidlāl (inference) 317, 330
istiḥsān (preference) 317, 330, 336
istiʿrāḍ doctrine 385
Ithbāt al-imāma (“Proof of the Imamate”, al-Naysābūrī) 18–22, 79
Ithbāt al-nubuwwāt (“Proof of Prophecy”, al-Sijistānī) 209, 297–298
Ittiʿāẓ al-ḥunafāʾ (al-Maqrīzī) 7n4, 66, 87, 112n11, 221, 230, 290, 349n27, 398
Jabāl/Jibāl (Iran) 379, 397
Jaʿfar II b. Yūsuf al-Kalbī (Tāj al-Dawla, amīr of Sicily, r. 998–1019) 104–106, 159
Jaʿfar (chamberlain of al-Mahdī) 156
Jaʿfarid/Sulaymānid Dynasty 390, 402
Jaʿfar b. Manṣūr al-Yaman 24n20, 207–208
Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad (amīr of Mecca, r. 967–980) 390
Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad (governor of Sicily, d. 985–6) 177, 177n6
Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (6th Shīʿī Imam, r. 732–765)
followers and opponents of 26
on imamate 27–28
knowledge of 26, 142
lineal descent from/succession of 11, 13, 15, 325, 356
removal of possessions to Cairo 389–390, 394, 405
on sermons 351, 351n33
al-Jāḥiẓ (d. 868/869) 332
Jaḥmiyya (sect, branch of Qadariyya) 322–324
Jahm b. Ṣafwān 322, 323, 324n9
al-Jamālī, Badr (Fatimid military wazīr, r. 1074–1094) 101
advent in Egypt (1074) 47–48, 53, 71, 72, 101, 130–131, 174, 211, 404
arts and sciences/patronage under 131, 132, 211, 292
authority/power 53–54, 55, 72
building program for mosques and city walls 211
death and succession 132
decree of appointment 52
formal titles 46, 47, 48, 51–53, 55, 72, 72n68, 75
immigration of Westerners under 103, 131
inscriptions 52–53
international relations 131
military background/career 48–49
policy towards Hijaz 404, 405
policy towards travelers 131, 132
popular festivals under 116
rebellions against 130–131
Jamīla bt. Nāṣir al-Dawla Ibn Ḥamdān 397
al-Jannābī, Abū Saʿīd (Ruler of the Qarmatian State, d. 913) 379
al-Jarjarāʾī, ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad (Fatimid wazīr, r. 1027–1045) 51
authority 39, 70, 90
as clerk 224, 225
corporal punishment 51n17, 181, 224, 225
decree of appointment 39, 46, 50, 90
Jarrāḥids (Arab dynasty) 395, 396, 397
al-Jawdharī, Manṣūr al-ʿAzīzī 26
Jawhar (“al-Qāʾid”, Fatimid general, d. 992) 64, 99–100, 171, 220, 342, 349, 370n32
Jerusalem 325
conquest by crusaders 1, 135n30
destruction of Church of the Holy Sepulchre 178n7, 231–232, 237, 344
scholars in 135n30, 137
Jerusalemites (Maqādisa) 135
Jesus 251n7, 320
apostles of 34, 352, 386
Christian festivals 119
crucifixion 256
daʿwa and 256
similarity of imams to 32
spiritual power of 296, 297
Jews 178n7
conversion to Islam 234
courtiers 165
dress code/appearance 228, 235, 243
festivals 118n26
persecution of 238
recognition of imams by 13
status and tolerance of 184, 228
dhimmīs
Jidda/Jeddah 395
jihād 348
Jilānīs 162
Jīlān (region) 379
Jīza/Jazīra 223
John of Damascus 303n9
John Philoponus 303n9, 312n41
Joseph, as wazīr to Pharaoh 51, 90
judges qāḍīs; qāḍīs al-quḍāt
judiciary
in earliest Maghrib phase 57–61, 75
in later Egypt phase 64–67, 69–70, 71, 75
level of rank 57
prominent families in 70, 75
relation with daʿwa 56, 59, 67, 74, 75
qāḍīs; qāḍīs al-quḍāt
Juljūlī, Ismāʿīl b. Salāma (chief qāḍī and chief dāʿī) 73, 74
jurisprudence fiqh
al-Juyūshī, Abū Manṣūr Sārtakīn 52n21
al-Juyūshī, Munīr al-Dawla (Governor of Syria) 52n21
al-Juyūshī, Nāṣir al-Dawla 52n21
al-Juyūshiyya (militia of Badr al-Jamālī) 52, 101, 103
Kaʿba
destruction 331
kiswa 392, 399, 400, 401, 402, 404
pilgrims/pilgrimage gifts 198, 395, 398
al-Kāfiyya (al-Kirmānī) 26
Kahak (village near Qum) 203
Kalbids 95, 98, 104 Ibn ʿAmmār, al-Ḥasan
Kalifen und Assassinen (Heinz Halm) 3
Die Kalifen von Kairo (Heinz Halm) 2–3
al-Kāmil fiʾl-taʾrikh (Ibn al-Athīr) 353
Karrāmiyya (sect) 324–325
Kashf al-asrār wa hatk al-astār (al-Bāqillānī) 32
Kashf al-asrār wa naqd al-afkār (al-Bustī) 32
Kashf al-maḥjūb (al-Sijistānī) 309n32
Kaysāniyya (sect) 321
al-Khalīl b. Aḥmad 142
Kharijites/Khawārij (sect)
on ʿAlī’s imamate 377
anti-Fatimid revolts 357, 378, 388
branches 321–322, 380–381, 387
Mālikīs vs. 60
refutations of/polemics against 33, 305, 321–322, 329
Abū Yazīd Makhlad b. Kaydad; Ibāḍīs/Ibāḍiyya
khaṭībs (preachers)
appointment 347–348
books of sample sermons 346
dāʿī vs. 347
indicating change in political allegiance 339, 341, 342, 343, 344
job description 347–348
salary 347
khuṭbas (ritual preaching/Friday sermons)
Khatkīn al-Ḍayf (chief dāʿī) 68–69, 394
Khāzimiyya (sect, branch of Kharijites) 380
al-Khiṭaṭ (al-Maqrīzī) 160n18, 221
editions 7n4
on Fatimid administration 87
chief qāḍīs and chief dāʿīs 56
wazirate 46, 51n18–20, 55n33
on observatory of al-Ḥāfiẓ 292
on pilgrim caravans 399
on popular festivals 107, 113, 122
Khurāsān 320, 325, 403
khuṭbas (ritual preaching/Friday sermons)
after Fatimid conquest of Egypt 342
announcement of death of imam-caliphs 36–37
audience and reception 33–34, 351–353, 366
authority over 68, 71n64, 74n72
blessings in 34–36, 353–358, 360, 386
books of sample sermons 346
by imams/imam-caliphs 33–38, 34n37, 35n40–41, 36–37, 38n44, 158, 159, 344, 348, 349, 351–352, 384–385, 391, 396
condemnation of enemies/curses in 345, 353, 354, 358–360, 364, 367–368, 384–386
festival khuṭbas 112–113, 112n13, 348–350, 351, 352, 366–368
on imamate 33–38
invocations in,
of army 34, 352, 357–358, 385–386
of Companions of the Prophet 393
of imams/rulers 338, 356–357, 391, 403
in Mecca/Madina 391, 391n3, 396, 398, 404
origins 347
rhetoric and rhetorical strategies 350–353
signaling change in political allegiance in 338, 339–350, 404
khaṭībs; Qirwāsh b. al-Muqallad
al-Kindī, al-Ashʿath b. Qays (chief of Kinda tribe, d. 661) 368, 368n23
al-Kindī (polymath, d. 873) 194
al-Kirmānī, Ḥamīd al-Dīn (dāʿī, d.c. 1021)
authority/reputation 192–193, 209
career 192, 209
on creation 198
on God 197–198
on heavenly spheres/cycles 298–299
on imamate 15–18, 26, 79, 149, 199, 284, 378–380
on intellect 194, 197–198
operation of taʿwīl in thought of 249, 257–258, 259
patronage of 69
philosophy in thought/work of 200, 204, 249, 298
Aristotelianism 197, 209
on prophecy 198–199
refutations of/polemics against 32–33, 336
Abū Bakr 335–336
Abū Bakr al-Rāzī 317, 326, 331–332
false imams 333–335, 378–380
Ibāḍis 378–380
al-Jāḥiẓ 332
refutations/polemics by 331–336
on relation between science and religion 285
on removal of Jaʿfar al-Sādiq’s possessions to Cairo 394
on revelation 194
on the Soul 197, 198
sources of inspiration/as source of inspiration 148n21, 194, 205, 209
on taʾwīl 266–270
on Umayyads 364, 369
works 209, 317
on ẓāhir and bāṭin 257–258
Kitāb al-Aḥkām al-sulṭaniyya (“Book of the Ordinances of Government”, al-Māwardī) 78
Kitāb al-aqrābādhīn (Sahlān b. Kaysān) 286
Kitāb al-ʿayn (al-Khalīl) 142
Kitāb al-Bayzara (book on falconry) 211
Kitāb al-Dhakhāʾir waʾl-tuḥaf (“Book of Treasures and Rarities”) 399
Kitāb al-Diyārāt (“Book of Monasteries”, al-Shābustī) 143, 211
Kitāb al-Ḥawādith wa-l-bidaʾ (al-Ṭurṭūshī) 124n2
Kitāb al-himma fī ādāb atbāʿal-aʾimma (“Book of Resolution with Respect to the Comportment of the Followers of the Imams”, Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān) 26, 29–31, 156
Kitāb al-Iṣlāḥ (al-Rāzī) 209
Kitāb al-Majālis wa-l-musāyarāt (Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān) 62, 62n22, 149, 156
Kitāb al-Manāqib waʾl-mathālib (“Book of Virtues and Vices”, Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān) 327–328, 371, 372
Kitāb al-Munāẓarāt (Ibn al-Haytham) 25–26, 57–58, 57n7, 370
Kitāb al-Riyāḍ (al-Kirmānī) 148n21, 209
Kitāb al-rusūm waʾl-izdiwāj waʾl-tartīb (“Book of Norms, Pairedness and Ranking”, ʿAbdān) 295–296
Kitāb al-Shajara, “Chapter on Satan” (Abū Tammām) 319–326, 380–381
Kitāb al-Sīra wa akhbār al-aʾimma (al-Warjalānī) 383n16, 387
Kitāb al-Umm (al-Shāfiʿī) 241
Kitāb al-ʿUthmāniyya (al-Jāḥiẓ) 332
Kitāb al-Zīna (al-Rāzī) 209, 326
knowledge esoteric knowledge; religious knowledge
“knowledge of the steadfast” (Ibn Rushd) 274–275, 274–275n4
Kūfa 340, 397
scholars in 128
Kulthum, tomb of 109
al-Kundurī (Saljuk wazīr, r. 1055–1063) 49
al-Kurdī, Badr b. Ḥasnawayh (amīr of the Jabal) 397
Kurds 103
Kutāma Berbers 142, 169
on ʿĀshūrā festival 110
conversion to Ismaili Shiism 100, 384
Easterners vs. 96, 100
in Egypt 99
in Fatimid army 99–103, 156, 352, 357, 384
invocation in khuṭbas (sermons) 34, 352, 357–358, 385–386
mission of Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shīʿī to 382
origins 100
qāḍīs/on qāḍīs 58–59, 61n18
rebellions 95–98
in Syria 99
Turks vs. 97, 100
Landolt, H. 313
Laqbal, Musa 99n9
Lawāta (Berber tribe, Egypt) 48
leprosy 334, 379
Lessons for the True Believers in the History of the Fatimid Imams and Caliphs (al-Maqrīzī) 214
letters imperial letters
lexicography 326
Liber de Causis 301n4
libraries/librarians 143, 144, 206, 214–218, 215 Dār al-ʿIlm; private libraries/collections; royal libraries
The Life of al-Muʿizz li-Dīn Allāh (Ibn Zūlāq) 109–110
light 203, 264–265
literal wording ẓāhir
literary production book copying/production
The Lost Archive (Marina Rustow) 3
Maʿāṣim al-hudā (al-Kirmānī) 26, 332
al-Madāʾin (Iraq) 340, 346
Madelung, Wilferd 12, 13, 14, 26n27, 64n30, 313
madhhabs (schools of Islamic jurisprudence) 57, 58n10, 60, 64n32, 347, 381 Hanafī school; Hanbalī school; Ibāḍīs; Mālikī school/Mālikīs; Shāfʿī school
maʾdhūn (one who has license to teach doctrine) 251, 251n9
Madina/Medina
attempt to transfer Prophet’s remains to Egypt 390, 393n10, 405, 406
jurisdiction over/control of 390, 391, 406
Mālikī school 137, 139
qāḍīs/chief qāḍīs 41, 66
recognition of Fatimid imamate in 391
removal of Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq’s possessions to 389–390, 394, 405
scholars in/from 125, 128
shifts in political allegiance 339, 343
Ḥaramayn; Hijaz
madrasas
in Alexandria 127, 129, 129n16, 135, 136, 138–139
appointment of heads/teachers of 39, 87, 92–93, 127
in Cairo 139, 144, 144n15
in Damascus 218n22
Maghāriba Westerners (Maghāriba)
al-Maghribī, Abuʾl-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. (agent of Sitt al-Mulk) 184n29
al-Maghribī, Abuʾl-Ḥusayn b. (clerk) 163
al-Maghribī, Abuʾl-Qāsim (“al-Wazīr al-Maghribī”, d. 1027) 164, 393, 394–395, 396
al-Maghribī (wazīr) 143
Maghrib/Maghribīs 132, 143, 353
Almoravids 138
daʿwa in 63–64
Ḥanafīs 60
move of caliphate to Egypt 63, 65, 75, 98, 99, 100, 109, 157, 213, 372, 391–392
qāḍīs/chief qāḍīs 41, 57–61, 63, 64, 66, 75
revolts 378, 378n4, 388
scholars in/from 124, 138
travel of al-Mahdī to 141–142, 214, 388
Westerners (Maghāriba)
al-Mahdī bi-llāh (Imam-Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 909–934) 63, 353
book collection/royal library 141–142, 214
extravagance/lavishness at court 156, 156n3
invocation in khuṭbas(sermons) 36, 355, 356, 357, 358, 362
letter to followers in Yemen 24n20
lineal descent from 11
military expeditions 214
offspring 166
physicians of 285, 286
predecessors 255n10, 365
recognition as imam-caliph 1, 77, 156, 208
sermons by 365
travel from Egypt to Maghrib 141–142, 214, 388
mahdī-qāʾim Qāʾim (Messiah)
al-Mahdiyya (Ifrīqiyya)
capture by Kharijites 34, 352, 357, 385
qāḍīs in 61, 61n18, 62, 62n25, 64
Maḥmūd of Ghazna 398
al-Maḥqūf (astronomer) 292
al-Maḥṣūl (Muḥammad al-Nasafī) 209, 301n3
al-Majālis (al-Muʾayyad fiʾl-Dīn al-Shīrāzī) 26, 112n13, 370
Majālis al-ʿIlm/al-Ḥikma (sessions of knowledge) 145, 216, 272, 276–277, 280
al-Majālis waʾl-Musāyarāt (Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān) 31, 364, 369, 374
al-Makīn b. Ḥaydara (qāḍī) 117
al-Malījī, ʿAbd al-Ḥākim b. Wahb (chief qāḍī) 71, 71n64
Malik al-Ashtar (Governor of Egypt, r. 658) 85
Mālik ibn Anas (d. 795) 136, 139
refutations of 33, 317, 321
Mālikī school/Mālikīs
in Alexandria 126, 136, 138
Fatimids vs./and 146, 345, 364, 371, 384
Hanafī school vs. 58, 60
Khārijites vs. 60
madrasas 127
origins and threads of 137
qāḍīs 60–61, 64, 75, 346
Ibn ʿAwf, Abū Ṭāhir; [al-]Tūrṭūshī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad
Malik (title) 54
Mamluk Sultanate 55n34, 122
Mamṭūra Wāqifiyya
al-Maʾmūn (7th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, r. 813–833) 139, 331
al-Maʾmūn al-Baṭāʾḥī (Fatimid wazīr, r. 1121–1125) 74n72, 162
arts and sciences/patronage under 150, 213
popular festival under 116, 118
works dedicated to 126, 213, 241
Manjūtakīn (military commander, later Governor of Damascus) 51n19, 100, 163, 164
al-Manṣūr (2nd Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, r. 754–775) 331
al-Manṣūr bi-Allāh (Imam-Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 946–953)
death and reburial 37, 99
on imamate 13–14, 24
invocation in khuṭbas (sermons) 357, 362, 363
letter to al-Muʿizz 369
offspring 166
origins 99
personal pronoun 36
revolts against 378
sermons by 34n37, 35n40–41, 36–37, 36n42, 352, 355, 356, 358
testament 24n20
on Umayyads 369, 370n31
victory over Abū Yazīd 60, 61, 62, 98, 377
al-Manṣūriyya (Ifrīqiya) 169, 181n20
move of Caliphate to Cairo 176
qāḍīs/chief qāḍīs 62, 64, 65–66
al-Maqālīd (“The Keys”, al-Sijistānī) 205, 209, 264, 307, 313
Maqādisa (Jerusalemites) 135
al-Maqdisī, Abuʾl-Ḥusayn Yaḥyā b. al-Mufarrij 135
al-Maqdisī, Abuʾl-Qāsim Hibatallāh 135
al-Maqrīzī (d. 1442) 7n4, 99, 141, 148
on advent in Egypt of Badr al-Jamālī 101
on al-Ẓāhir 184
on Arab rule over Sicily 104
on astrology and astronomy 290, 292
on chief qāḍīs and chief dāʿīs 56, 66, 67, 68n50
on claims on imamate 102
on drinking parties 170–171
on festivals 107, 108, 109, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 118n26, 119, 123, 160n18, 349n27
on Ghabn (eunuch of al-Ḥākim) 221, 222, 222n11, 223, 225
on government apparatus 87, 162
on Ḥijāzī dependence and political allegiance 389, 404n50
history of Fatimid dynasty 213–214, 218n22, 221
on Ibn Ḥasdāi 150n28
on al-Jarjarāʾī 224
on Kalbids 105
on libraries 141, 145
on oaths of covenant 278–279, 278n10
on observatories 292
on persecution of dhimmīs 230, 231–232, 233, 237
on pilgrimage caravans 398–400
on political allegiance in Hijaz 404n50
on regency of Sitt al-Mulk 181n20, 183, 184, 185, 188
on royal family 166, 168–169
on Saljuk invasion of Egypt 48n6
on wazīrs 46, 48n7, 51n18–20, 53–54, 55, 55n33
al-Maqs Mosque (Cairo) 117, 232
market supervision (ḥisba) 39, 58n8, 83, 87, 223
Mār Qosmā Church (Fustat) 236n19
marriage, of royal women 167–168, 180
al-Marwadhī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar (al-Marwarūdhī, qāḍī) 34, 58–59, 60, 352
Marwān b. al-Ḥakam (Marwān I, 4th Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, r. 684–685) 359, 367, 368, 370n31
Marwānids (branch of Umayyad clan) 359, 367, 367n10, 368, 370n32
al-Maṣābīḥ fī ithbāt al-imāma (“Lights to illuminate the Proof of the Imamate”, al-Kirmānī) 15–18, 26, 79, 149, 266, 284, 332–333, 369
Masālta (branch of Kutāma) 382
Mashāriqa Easterners
Maṣmūdīs/Maṣāmida (Berber tribe) 102–103
al-Masʿūdī (d. 956) 119–120
al-Māturīdī, Abū Manṣūr (d. 944) 309n28
Maundy Thursday 118n26, 119, 243
Mawādd al-bayān (manual on chancery practice, ʿAlī b. Khalaf) 50n13, 89, 212
al-Māwardī (Sunnī polymath, d. 1058) 47, 78
al-Mawṣilī, ʿAmmār b. ʿAlī 286n2
Mawṣil/Mosul 340, 341
maẓālim (grievances) courts 39, 62–63, 65, 66, 71n64, 87
appointment of Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān as head of 39, 40, 62, 62n25, 63, 91–92
Mecca
alms to 400n37
festivals 115
jurisdiction over/control of 390, 391, 406
pilgrimages 127, 137, 255, 272
(dependency on) funds/goods brought by pilgrimage caravans 396, 397, 398–400, 401, 402, 403
qāḍīs/chief qāḍīs 41, 66
recognition of/loyalty to Fatimid imamate 389, 391, 392, 404
scholars in/from 125, 128, 138
shifting political allegiance 339, 343, 404
Ḥaramayn; Hijaz; pilgrimage caravans
medicine 150, 212–213, 285
Medieval Damascus (Konrad Hirschler) 218n22
Medina Madina/Medina
Melkite Church/Melkites 118n26, 176–177, 286
emigration of Melkites 221, 237
merit (tafāḍul), differences in 19–20
Mernissi, Fatima 176
Mesopotamia 339
Messiah Qāʾim (Messiah)
Messina (Sicily) 98
metaphysics 190, 202, 209, 330
Miʿḍād (eunuch) 401
Michael (Coptic Bishop of Tinnīs), on persecution of dhimmīs 230, 237–238, 243
Michot, Yaḥya 313
migration
of Christians/dhimmīs 221, 237
to Egypt 103–104, 105, 106, 131, 132, 401
Miknāsa (tribe) 371
military army
military campaigns/expeditions 214, 378n4
to Egypt 47–48, 100
to Hijaz 391n3, 392, 392n5
to Sicily 98
to Syria 96, 97, 100, 178
military commanders 46, 51, 96 [al-]Afḍal; Ibn ʿAmmār, al-Ḥasan; [al-]Jamālī, Badr; Jawhar
military coups 165, 174
military wazīrs 174
position of chief qāḍī and chief dāʿī under 72–74
[al-]Afḍal; Amīr al-juyūsh; [al-]Jamālī, Badr
Mina Jaʿfar (near Bilbays, Egypt) 178
minbars (pulpits)
destruction of minbars 344–345, 404
khaṭībs (preachers) as ‘knights of the minbar 347–348
mounting of 155, 158, 159, 160, 161, 349, 350
mint
control of the 65, 66, 66n43, 68, 74, 74n72
coins/coinage
Mirʾat al-zamān (Sibt Ibn al-Jawzī) 48n6
Mīr Damād (scholar) 202, 203
Mirḍāsid Dynasty/Mirḍāsids 103
Mīrgūsh (residential area, Cairo) 52
mirrors for princes (Fürstenspiegel) 24, 78, 79, 80–81n11, 85n14, 86, 126, 213
Miṣr Egypt
monasteries, destruction of 229, 232, 236
Monastery of Abū Maqār (previously Isqīṭ Monastery, Maryut) 236
Mongol invasions (1250s) 193, 201
Mortel, Richard T. 392
Moses 34, 90, 251n7, 297, 320, 354
Aaron as wazīr of 39, 50–51, 51n15, 90
mosques
in Cairo 65, 111, 113, 114, 117, 145, 158, 226n27, 232, 291
in Constantinople 344
donation of books to 144–145
expansion of 232
financial support to 145
Four Nights of Lighting 113–117
in Fustat 65, 109, 110, 117, 342
in Rāshida 117, 350
supervision of and control over 57, 65, 66
treasure underneath mosque at Birkat Rusays 289
Mosul Mawṣil/Mosul
mourning ʿĀshūrāʾ (Shīʿī festival)
Muʿjam al-safar (Abū Ṭāhir al-Silafī) 128
Muʿāwiya b. Abī Sufyān (Muʿāwiya I, 1st Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, r. 661–680) 368n13–14
condemnation of/polemics against 322, 331, 359, 367, 370n31
al-Muʾayyad biʾllāh Aḥmad b. Ḥusayn b. Hārūn (Zaydi imam, Caspian region, d. 1020), condemnation of/polemics against 333, 334, 334n34
al-Muʾayyad fiʾl-Dīn al-Shīrāzī (poet and chief dāʿī, d. 1078)
authority and reputation 76, 193
career as dāʿī/chief dāʿī 70–71, 71n65, 72n66
death 53, 72, 73
decree of appointment 39, 40, 71, 91
residence/public academy of 216
works 26, 31–32, 71–72n66, 112n13, 209, 210
al-Mubashshir b. Fātik (philosopher, fl. 11th c.) 211–212
Mudawwana (Saḥnūn) 127
Mufarrij b. Daghfal b. al-Jarrāḥ (chief of Ṭayy Bedouins) 395, 396
al-Mufīd, al-Shaykh (Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥamma al-Nuʿmān, d. 1032) 192, 199–200
authority and reputation 193, 199
philosophy in thought/work of 204
on reason 199, 200
on sin and condemnation 200
sources of inspiration 200
students 193, 199
works 199
al-Mughāzilī (astronomer) 168, 169
al-Mughīra b. Shuʿba (Governor of Kūfa) 368, 368n17
Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr 109
Muḥammad b. Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Ḥusayn 102
Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Bāqir ʿUlūm al-Dīn (5th Shī ʿī Imam, r. 712–733) 325, 356
Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl (7th Ismaili Imam, r. 762–813)
concealment of 356
as rightful imam 14
succession of 11, 12, 211n10
Muḥammad b. Jaʿfar b. Abī Hāshim (amīr of Mecca, r. 1063–?) 403
Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Juhayr 404
Muḥammad b. al-Mustanṣir 101
Muḥammad b. al-Nuʿmān (chief qāḍī and chief dāʿī) 66, 95, 97, 98, 114, 169, 170
Muḥammad (the Prophet)
ʿahd of ʿAlī and 85
ʿAlī as wazīr of 39, 50–51, 50n13, 51n15, 90
attempt to transfer Prophet’s remains to Cairo 390, 393n10, 405, 406
family members 109, 354–355
imam’s and/vs. Prophet’s function 16–17, 24–25, 79, 197
invocation in khuṭbas (sermons) 353
law/rules of 197, 239, 251n7
lineal descent from/descendants of 1, 17, 25, 29, 32, 34, 35, 39, 364–365
observation of birthday 108
recognition of 242, 324
spiritual power 296, 297
succession of 25, 79, 109, 319
appointment of successor by Prophet 25, 35, 108, 112, 322
Muḥammad b. Ṭughj (autonomous ruler of Egypt and parts of Syria, r. 935–946) 119
al-Muʿizz li-Dīn Allāh (Imam-Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 953–975) 12, 62
conquest of and move to Egypt 65, 98, 99, 100, 109, 157, 213, 372, 391–392
correspondence 24n20, 369
court of 156
death and eulogies 176, 210
dream about al-Nāṣir 370n32
festivals under 109–110, 121
gifts to kaʿba 398
invocation in khuṭbas (sermons) 342, 362, 391, 391n3
literary production by order of/under protection of 149, 207, 208, 330
military expeditions 378n4
offspring 166, 167, 175
pilgrimage to Mecca/Madina 392
pronouncements of 208
recognition in Hijaz/Ḥaramayn 391, 391n3
reputation 370
sermons by 37, 349, 355–356, 391
on/and Umayyads 369, 374, 375
al-Muʿizz b. Bādīs (Zīrid ruler, r. 1016–1062) 345, 345n15
al-Mūjaza al-kāfiya fī adab martaba wa shurūt al-daʿwa al-hādiya (al-Naysābūrī) 22–24, 80, 81–85, 86
mukāsirs (ones who break) novices
Mukhtaṣar fiʾl-ṭīb (Sahlān b. Kaysān) 286
Mukhtaṣar al-wazīr (Ibn Killis) 149–150
Mukthār al-ḥikam wa maḥāsin al-kalim (al-Mubashshir b. Fātik) 211–212
Mullā Ṣadrā (Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm al-Shīrāzī, d. 1640) 192
authority and reputation 193
educational background 202
on existence and essence 203–204
fusion of theology and philosophy by 202, 203, 205
period of retreat 203
sources of inspiration 203
al-Muntaẓam fi taʾrīkh al-mulūk waʾl-umam (“The Well-Organized Book Concerning the History of Kings and Peoples”, Ibn al-Jawzī) 363
Muqaffā (al-Maqrīzī) 66n39,n45, 68n50, 99
Muqaṭṭam (Eastern Desert Plateau, Egypt) 52
al-Muqtadī (27th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, r. 1075–1094) 404
al-Muqtadir (18th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, r. 908–929) 331, 367, 367n5
al-Murādī, al-Ḥasan b. Majallī b. Asad b. Abī Kudayna 71n65
Murjiʾa (sect) 321
al-Murtaḍā, al-Sharīf 193, 193n4, 397
Murūj al-Dhahab (“Meadows of Gold”, al-Masʿūdī) 119
al-Musabbiḥī, al-Mukhtār ʿIzz al-Mulk Muḥammad (Fatimid amīr, d. 1029)
on al-Ṭabarānī 290
on court sessions/audiences 163
on daʿwa 74
on drinking parties 171
on Ghabn 221n10
history by 210–211, 213, 221, 230
on Ibn Yūnus 287
on popular festivals 111, 114, 120
on processions 158–159, 161
on Sitt al-Mulk 184, 184n28–29
on Tāj al-Dawla (Jaʿfar II) 105
Mūsā b. Jaʿfar (al-Kazim, 7th Shīʿī Imam, 765–799) 14, 325–326
al-Musawī, al-Sharīf 184n29
Museum of Islamic Art (Cairo) 221, 226
music/musicians 120, 122, 126, 133, 171, 172, 184, 212, 286, 328, 372
Muslims
concept 75
participation in Christian festivals 120–121, 243
al-Mustaʿlī bi-llāh (Imam-Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 1094–1101) 36, 73
invocation in khuṭbas (sermons) 357
succession of al-Mustanṣir 101, 132, 162 Nizār b. Mustanṣir
al-Mustanṣir bi-llāh (Imam-Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 1036–1094)
appointment of Badr al-Jamālī 47, 49, 53, 130
arts and sciences/patronage under 291
biography 212
court/courtiers 157, 224
death 101
economic crisis 157, 157n9
inheritance of family estates 167–168
invocation in khuṭbas 344, 403, 404
offspring 166, 166–167
physicians of 213, 291
recognition in Ḥaramayn 404, 405
succession crisis 101, 131, 132 Nizār b. Mustanṣir
al-Muṭīʾ li-llāh (23rd Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, r. 946–974) 391n3
al-Mutanabbī (poet, d. 965) 212
Muʿtazilī/Muʿtazila 137, 321
Ashʿarīs vs. 189
condemnation of 305, 321, 336
doctrine 193, 199, 200, 381
Shīʿīs and 189
Muwaḥḥidūn Almohads
Muwaṭṭaʾ (Mālik ibn Anas) 136, 139
Muẓaffar Bahāʾ al-Dawla (Slav royal parasol bearer) 159
mysticism/mystics 137, 300, 311
Nāfiʾ b. al-Azraq (leader of the Azāriqa, d. 685) 321
Nafīsa bt. al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī 109
al-Nafṭī, Muḥammad b. ʿImrān (qāḍī) 60
Nahj al-balāgha (“The Path of Eloquence”, al-Sharīf al-Raḍī) 80, 85, 85n14
al-Najashī, Abū ʿAbbās Aḥmad (d. 1058–1059 or 1071) 193
Najdiyya (sect, branch of Kharijites) 380
Najjāriyya (sect) 324
al-Nasafī, Muḥammad (d.c. 943)
on creation 196
execution 320
philosophy in thought/work of 194
works 148n21, 207, 208, 301, 301n3
Nāṣir al-Dawla Ibn Ḥamdān 397
Naṣīr al-Dīn Muhtashim (governor of Kuhistan) 201
Naṣīr b. Khusraw (traveler and dāʿī) 200, 209
on Fatimid army 100, 102, 102n16
on pilgrimages 398, 400–401
works 26n27, 31, 209
al-Nāṣir li-Dīn Allāh ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III
Naṣr Aftikīn 52n21
Nativity festival 118n26, 119
natural sciences 285
doctrinal writings and 295–299
Nawrūz (Coptic New Year) 107, 118–119, 118n26, 121–123, 243
nawrūz (Persian festival) 118, 118n27
Nawshirwan 83
Naysabur (Iran) 49
al-Naysābūrī, Aḥmad b. Ibrāhīm (dāʿī, fl. 10th/11th c.)
on daʿwa/dāʿīs 22–24, 80, 81–85, 86, 93
on imamate 15, 18–24, 79
on oaths of covenant 277–278
naẓar (speculation) 317, 330
al-Nazwānī, ʿUmar (Ibāḍī imam in Jabāl ʿUmān) 333, 334, 334n36, 379
negation, twofold 310–311, 312
negative theology/via negativa 305–306, 310
Neoplatonism 192, 194, 197, 198, 202, 209, 263
Neoplatonic/unknowable God 197, 300, 302, 305, 306–307, 312–313
New Year’s Festival (mawsim raʾs al-sanna) 107–108
Nihāyat al-arab (al-Nuwayrī) 289
Nile 119–120, 171, 402
control of rise and fall of 290–291
Niẓām al-Mulk (Saljuk wazīr, 1064–1092) 49
Nizārīs 101–102, 191
Nizār b. al-Mustanṣir (Fatimid prince, d. 1095)
claim on imamate 101–102, 131, 162
revolt of 132, 133, 134
Noah 251n7, 296, 297, 360, 367
nobility ʿAlid ashrāf; social elites
noble families
in government service 169–170
social elites
non-Muslim population dhimmīs
North Africa 1, 6, 77, 98
book production 206
hierarchy of qāḍīs for 64
Ibāḍīs 377
Mālikī school 137
scholars from 129
Egypt; Ifrīqiya; Maghrib
novices (mustajīb)
‘breaking’ of 318
compared to newborns (in taʾwīl) 253
fasting 277
knowledge transferred to 276
al-Nujūm al-Ẓāhira (Ibn Taghrī Birdī) 363
al-Nujūm al-Ẓāhira (Ibn Saʿīd al-Maghribī) 227
Nukkarīs (branch of Ibāḍīs) 378n4, 384, 384n19, 385, 387, 388
al-Nuʿmān family 169–170, 174
al-Nuʿmān, Qāḍī Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān
Nuremberg 219
Nusayrīs/Nuṣayriyya (sect) 317, 336
al-Nuwayrī
on astrology 289, 290
on attempt to move Prophet’s remains to Cairo 406
on order of salutations 162
on Tāj al-Dawla (Jaʿfar II) 105
oaths of covenant (daʿwa) 253, 254, 256, 276–280, 318
obedience 16, 24, 28, 38, 254, 255, 269, 322, 323, 324, 379, 380
observatories 201, 285, 289, 292–293
The Observatory in Islam (Aydin Sayılı) 293
Old Mosque (Mosque of ʿAmr ibn al-ʿĀṣ, Fustat) 117, 342
Oneness of God tawḥīd
One, the God
opponents 27, 32–33
claim of bāṭinī heresy 260
condemnation in khuṭbas (sermons) 345, 353, 354, 358–360, 364, 367–368, 384–386
open debates between daʿwa and 336
Abbasid Caliphate/Abbasids; Ibāḍīs/Ibāḍiyya; Kharijites/Khawārij; Mālikī school/Mālikīs; polemics; refutations; Umayyad Caliphate/Umayyads
Orations of the Fatimid Caliphs: Festival Sermons of the Ismaili Imams (Paul E. Walker) 5
Orestes (Melkite Patriarch of Jerusalem) 176–177
origination (abdaʿa) 196, 198
orphans, qāḍīs managing funds of orphans 43, 43n48, 89, 89n23
Pact of ʿUmar (al-shurūṭ al-ʿumariyya), al-Ḥākim’s dhimmī policy and 230, 239, 241–242
Palermo 105, 106
Palestine 68, 395
Palm Sunday 231
paradise 267, 320, 322, 324n9
paramilitary groups 68
Parmenides (Plato) 302
patronage poetry/poets; scholarship/scholars
pederasty 328–329, 370n32, 372, 373
persecution, dhimmīs 228–237
Persians 100
personal judgment raʾy
philosophy
fusion of theology and 202, 203, 205
Greek 190, 194
Ismaili doctrine and/vs. 194, 204, 205, 274–275, 301, 301n4, 303–304
refutations of philosophers 317
Aristotelism; natural sciences; Neoplatonism
physicians 147, 163, 164, 213, 225, 285, 290, 291, 293, 326
Jewish 146–148, 150, 216–217, 285, 286
Melkite Christian 164, 170–171, 172–173, 212–213, 286, 287–288
pilgrimage (ḥajj) 127, 137, 198, 392
Abbasid/Iraqi pilgrims 389, 403
importance to Fatimids 405
sermons during 403–404
in taʾwīl 254–255, 272
pilgrimage caravans 389
of al-ʿAzīz 391, 391n3, 392n5
cancellations and interceptions/robberies 393–394, 395, 396, 397, 398n24
(dependency on) funds/goods brought by Fatimid 391–392, 391n3, 396, 397, 398–400, 401, 402, 403, 405
Iraqi 395, 397–398, 398n24
value of goods and costs of caravan 400
Pillars of Islam (Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān) Daʿāʾim al-islām
Pitti Palace (Florence), rock crystal ewer in 219, 220
plagiarism 212
Plato 146, 214, 302, 327
Plotinus (d. 270) 309n27
on the One 302–303, 303n8, 311
as source of inspiration 194, 209, 301n4
on unknowability of God 306, 312–313
poetry/poets
Ismaili/pro-Fatimid 133, 209–211, 358
patronage 106, 210, 211
praising/on imams 13, 31–32, 133, 210
polemics
against sects 319–326, 380–381
anti-Umayyad 328, 364–376, 405
definition 317
on imamate 32–33
phrases/words indicating 327
polemical techniques 319–320
in program of daʿwa 318–319
Sunnī vs. Ismaili 321
curses/cursing; refutations
political allegiance
signals of change in,
colors 341, 342, 344, 392, 404
khuṭbas 338, 339–350, 404
smashing of minbars (pulpits) 344–345, 404
polytheism/polytheists 251, 343, 375, 381, 382
Poonawala, Ismail 33, 141, 141n3–4, 313, 329
population
acceptance of Fatimid rule by 346, 384
diversity of 77, 108, 174, 346
prayers
regulation of 57, 68, 71n64, 74n72
khuṭbas
preachers khaṭībs
preaching khuṭbas
Prevention of Bodily Ills in Egypt (Ibn Riḍwān) 213
private libraries/collections 146–148, 206, 207, 216–217
procession (emanation, inbaʿatha) 198
processions 158–161, 162
animals in 158, 159, 349, 350
festivals
Proclus 306
prominent families, in government service 169–170
Proof (ḥujja) 251, 251n7
prophecy 19, 197
Abū Bakr al-Rāzī on 327
natural sciences and/proof of 296–297
Proponents of Ḥadīth 334n35
proselytization daʿwa
protected peoples dhimmīs
Pseudo-Dionysius (fl. 5th-early 6th c.) 303, 303n9, 312
public duty
ʿahd of ʿAlī as statement of 80, 85–87, 93
concept 77–80, 94
works on 78–87 decrees
public libraries Dār al- ʿIlm
public office/positions
appointments to 38–44
decrees of appointment 46, 78, 87–93
duties of 89–90, 94
dāʿīs; dāʿīs al-quḍāt; maẓālim (grievances) courts; qāḍīs; qāḍīs al-quḍāt; wazīrs
Qadariyya (sect) 321, 322–324
Qāḍī ʿAbdallāh (Syrian judge) 400
al-Qāḍī al-Fāḍil (Chief Secretary of Ṣalāh al-Dīn, d. 1200)
on Coptic nawrūz festival 122–123
literary skills/production 89, 212, 348n22
madrasa of 144, 144n15, 218n22
on Salāh al-Dīn’s visit to Alexandria 139
Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān (d. 974)
on Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shīʿī 383
audience and access to works 149
authority 75, 330
background 371
career,
as dāʿī 63, 67
(decree of) appointment as head of maẓālim 39, 40, 62, 62–63n25, 63, 91–92
as qāḍī al-quḍāt (chief judge) 62–63, 75
death 65
descendants’ role in judiciary/daʿwa 69, 70, 95, 169–170, 171, 222
on Fatimid court 156, 372
on imamate/authority of imams 13, 26–31, 330, 372
on Ismaili law 64
literary production/works 207, 208, 243, 284, 317, 372
on/and taʾwīl 249, 251
on public duties 80, 85
refutations 33, 284, 327–330, 336
of Abū Ḥanīfa 317, 329
of Aḥmad b. Surayj 329
of al-Shāfiʿī 317, 329
of Ibn Qutayba 317, 329
of Ibn Surayj 317
of Khawārij 329, 377–378
of Mālik b. Anas 317, 329
of Umayyads/ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III 328–329, 364, 369, 370–374, 375
al-Qādir (25th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, r. 991–1031)
claim on imamate 379
invocation in khuṭbas (sermons) 340, 341
refutation of 333–334
substitution of al-Ṭāʾiʿ 78, 165, 334n33, 392
qāḍīs (judges)
adab al-qāḍī (judge’s comportment) 78
appointment of/decrees of appointment 39, 40, 57–59, 68
authority/power 57n6, 76
coinage 46, 49, 74
conflicts on gaining qāḍīship 58–59
duties 40–42
in earliest Maghrib phase 57–61, 75
in later Egypt phase 64–67, 75
Mālikī 60–61, 64, 75, 346
managing funds of orphans 43, 43n48, 89, 89n23
relation with dāʿīs 59
qāḍīs al-quḍāt (chief judges) 164
appointment of/decrees of appointment 40, 61, 65, 66, 71, 74n72, 86, 87, 88
attire 56, 61
authority/rank 56, 59, 65, 75, 76, 81
duties/responsibilities 74, 163
joint office of chief dāʿī, wazīr and 67, 70, 73, 75
in later Egypt phase 61, 64–67, 69–70, 75
in Maghrib 61, 75
prominent families in position of 70, 75, 169–170
role in festivals/processions 158, 159, 160, 161
title 65
Qāʾid al-Quwwād (“Commander of Commanders”, title) 220, 222–223, 225, 226
Qāʾim (Messiah) 12, 13, 251n7, 255n11, 296, 297, 298, 319, 325–326, 332, 353
al-Qāʾim bi Amr Allāh (Imam-Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 934–946)
on Abbasids 371
death 36, 65
invocation in khuṭbas (sermons) 355, 358, 362
military expeditions 214
offspring 166
revolt of Abū Yazīd against 34, 60, 62, 98, 352, 357–358, 377, 378, 384–386
second invasion of Egypt 390
sermons by 38n44, 348, 351, 352, 357–358, 359–360, 366–368, 369, 384–386
al-Qāʾim bi-amri ʾllāh (26th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, r. 1031–1075)
invocation in khuṭbas (sermons) 403, 404
sermons by 344
al-Qalʿī, Abū Muḥammad b. (astronomer) 292
al-Qalqashandī
appointment decrees and 66, 87, 88
on government apparatus 50n10, 89, 162, 212
on khaṭībs (preachers) 347–348
al-Qalqī (astronomer) 293
al-Qamūdī, Muḥammad b. Maḥfūz (qāḍī) 60
al-Qānūn fi dīwān al-rasāʾil (“The Code of the Chancery”, Ibn al-Ṣayrafī) 89, 212
Qarāfa (City of the Dead, Cairo) 114, 115, 117
al-Qarāfi (groom of al-Ḥākim) 187
Qarmatism/Qarmatians 12, 333, 335n37, 369, 379, 391n3
Qāsim b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Nuʿmān (chief dāʿī and chief qāḍī) 69, 70, 159, 170
Qaṣr ibn Hubayra (Iraq) 340, 346
Qaṣriyya (guard force of Sitt al-Mulk) 178, 179
Qaṭʿiyya Imāmiya Ithnā ʿashariyya 336
Qaṭʿiyya (sect) 326
al-Qawī, al-Jalīs b. ʿAbd (librarian) 144
Qayrawān (Ifrīqiya)
capture by Khārijites/Abū Yazīd 60, 384, 385, 387
conquest by Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Shīʿī 382–383, 384
dāʿīʾs 381
qāḍīs 58, 58n8, 61, 62, 62n25, 64, 64n32
Qazvin/Qazwin 66n43, 202
Qirwāsh b. al-Muqallad (ʿUqaylid emir of Mosul, r. 1001–1050)
khuṭba (Friday sermon) of 35n38–39, 36, 340, 341, 346, 348, 353, 356, 357
complete text 360–363
shift in political allegiance 339–341
qiyās (analogy) 317, 330, 336
al-Quḍāʿī (qāḍī, d. 1062) 211
Queen of Sheba 265
Qulzum (ancient town and seaport on Red Sea) 396, 400
Qum (Iran) 66n43, 203
Qurʾan 26, 264, 323, 324
Qurʾanic interpretation taʾwīl
Qurʾanic verses
3 The Family of Imran (Āl ʿImrān) 268, 273n2
3:7 262, 273
3:61 354
3:97 254
3:102 360
3:103 361
4 Women (al-Nisāʾ),
4:6 254
4:59 16, 38, 361
4:64 24
4:103 42
4:128 367n12
5 The Feast (al-Māʾidā),
5:3 252
5:4 254
6 Livestock (al-Anʿām),
6:149 250
6:164 268
8 Battle Gains (al-Anfāl),
8:11 267
8:42 251
9 Repentance (al-Tawba),
9:31 367
9:100 386n25
9:128 38
12 Joseph (Yūsuf),
12:53 385n21
12:55 51n16
17 The Night Journey (al-Isrāʾ),
17:60 331, 369
17:71 16, 361, 379
20 Ta Ha (ṬāʾHā), 20:25–34 50n14
21 The Prophets (al-Anbiyāʾ),
21:15 386n26
21:73 22
21:105 343
22 The Pilgrimage (al-Ḥajj), 22:27 40
24 Light (al-Nūr),
24:35 264, 264n5
24:59 254
25 The Criterion (al-Furqān), 25:35 50n14
33 The Joint Forces (al-Aḥzāb),
33:27 386
33:64 367n7
37 Ranged in Rows (al-Ṣāffāt),
37:62–65 369
37:79 367n8
38 Ṣād (Ṣād), 38:3 362
39 The Throngs (al-Zumar), 39: 56–58 362
41 [Verses] Made Distinct (Fuṣṣilat),
41:11 267
41:53 295
44 Smoke (al-Dukhān), 44:43–46 369
47 Muhammad (Muḥammad), 47:25 385n22
51 Scattering Winds (al-Dhāriyyāt), 51:46 367n9
56 That Which is Coming (al-Wāqiʿa), 56:52 369
58 The Pleading (al-Mujādilah),
58:18 366
58:19 386n29
58:22 386n29
60 Women Tested (al-Mumtaḥanah), 60:10 251–252
63 The Hypocrites (al-Munāfiqūn) 63:4 386n27
74 Wrapped in his Cloak (al-Muddaththir), 74:50 386n28
88 The Overwhelming Event (al-Ghāshiyya), 88:1 349
90 The City (al-Balad),
90:8–10 251
90:11 251
90:12–13 251
92 The Night (al-Layl),
92:8–9 282
92:10 282
92:14–16 385n24
92:14 385n23
92:15 385
99 The Earthquake (al-Zalzalah), 99:7–8 361
Quraysh (clan) 364
Qusayr Monastery 177, 232
Qutbuddin, Tahera 31–32, 71–72n66, 112n13
al-Raḍī, al-Sharīf 80, 193, 193n4, 397
Rafʿ al-iṣr ʿan quḍāt Miṣr (Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī) 64n31, 65, 68, 69n57, 164
Rāhat al-ʿaql (“The Comfort of Reason”, al-Kirmānī) 148n21, 209, 298
Rajāʾ b. Abiʾl-Ḥusayn 164
Ramaḍān 164, 348, 352 ʿid al-fiṭr
Rametta (fortress, Sicily) 98
Ramla 395, 395n16, 396
Raqqāda (Maghrib) 58, 167, 382–383
qāḍīs 61, 61n18
Rasāʾil al-Ḥikma (“Epistles of Wisdom”, Druze sacred writings) 68, 242
Rasāʾil (Ibn ʿAbbād) 78
Rāshida, Mosque of 117, 350
Rāshida bt. al-Muʿizz (d. 1050) 157, 165, 167
al-Rass, Associates of 360, 367
al-Rassī, Abuʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm (ʿAlīd nobleman) 163, 172, 173
Rawāfiḍ (derogatory term Sunnīs use for the Shīʿa) 305
al-Rawḍa (Egypt) 114
Rawda-yi taslīm (“Paradise of Submission”, Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭusī) 201
Raydān (royal parasol bearer) 179
Rayḥāniyya (military regiment) 103
raʾy (personal judgment) 317, 330, 336
Rayy (Iran) 66n43
al-Rāzī, Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn al-Khaṭṭāb (d. 1131) 130n17
al-Rāzī, Abū Bakr (Rhazes, d. c. 925 or 935)
polemics against/refutation of 33, 209, 317, 326–327, 331–332, 336
on prophecy 327
al-Rāzī, Abū Ḥātim (d. 934)
on creation 196
literary production and circulation 207, 209
Neoplatonism of 194
refutations by, of Abū Bakr al-Rāzī 326–327, 331, 336
al-Rāzī, Ibn al-Khaṭṭāb 134–135
reading 144
reading curricula 140, 148, 148n21, 318–319
reason (ʿaql)/reasoning
deductive reasoning 29
esotericism based on authority vs. 260, 261–272
rationally determined judgment 189
revelation/revealed scripture and 194, 199, 200, 247, 272
Shīʿīs vs. Sunnīs 191
in taʾwīl 262–270, 275
intellect
rebellions revolts/rebellions
refutations 6, 199, 317
on imamate 32–33
curses/cursing; polemics
Das Reich des Mahdi: Der Aufstieg der Fatimiden (875–973) (Heinz Halm) 2, 13
religious allegiance, signaling of conversion in khuṭbas (sermons) 338, 339
religious authority, justice vs. daʿwa 57
revelation (tanzīl) 28, 262
intellect and/vs. 194
reason and 194, 199, 200, 247, 272
taʾwīl vs. 257, 264
revolts/rebellions
of Abuʾl-Futūḥ (1010–11) 390, 395–396, 402
of Abū Rakwa (1005–1006) 393
of Abū Yazīd (944–947) 34, 60, 62, 98, 352, 357–358, 377, 378, 384–386
against irreligious or unjust caliphs 78
Bāghāya uprising (969) 388
of Ibāḍīs 378n4, 384, 385, 388
of Kutāma Berbers 95–96
of Mufarrij b. Daghfal b. al-Jarrāḥ 395, 396
of Nizār b. al-Mustanṣir (1095) 101, 131, 132, 133, 134
of son of Badr al-Jamālī (1084) 130–131
rhetoric, in Friday khuṭbas (sermons) 350–353
Rice, D.S. 219–220, 222, 226n24
Riḍwān b. Walakhshī (wazīr) 127, 228n3
rightly guided/righteous imams 14–15, 28, 322, 356, 358, 365
al-Risāla al-kāfiya fiʾl-radd ʿalā al-Hārūnī al-Ḥusaynī al-Kirmānī al-Zaydi (al-Kirmānī) 32–33
al-Risāla fi-l-imāma (“Letter on the Imamate”, Abuʾl-Fawāris Aḥmad b. Yaʿqūb) 14
al-Risāla al-miṣriyya fiʾl-radd ʿala al-Shāfiʿī (Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān) 329
al-Risāla al-miṣriyya (“The Egyptian Letter”, Abuʾl-Ṣalt) 103, 133, 211
Risālat dhāt al-bayān fiʾl-radd ʿalā Ibn Qutayba (Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān) 329
al-Risāla al-wāʿiẓa (al-Kirmānī) 26
Ritual, Politics and the City in Fatimid Cairo (Paula Sanders) 107, 109, 161
ritual preaching khuṭbas
rituals festivals
rock crystal 219–221, 226, 227
royal family
availability of information on 165, 166
detention after end of rule 166
in government positions/authority 165, 174
inheritance 166
list of members 166–167
offspring 166
supervision over 168–169
royal libraries
access to 144
acquisition of works 150–151, 215–216
daʿwa and 140–141, 216
dispersion by Ayyubids 144, 147–148, 217, 218n22
donations to 215
holdings 140, 143, 144, 206, 215, 217
Ismaili texts in 144
origins of 142
selling off books during economic crisis 143, 215–216
Dār al-ʿIlm
Rustamid Dynasty/Rustamids 383, 384n19, 387
Rustow, Marina 3
Ruzzīk b. Ṭalāʾiʿ 39
Saʿīd b. ʿĪsā b. Nastūras (wāsiṭa) 240n23
Sabāʾiyya (branch of Ghāliyya) 325
al-Sābiʾ, Hilāl (historian, d. 1056) 185, 187
Safarnāma (Nāṣir b. Khusraw) 210, 400
Safavid Dynasty/Safavids 193
Ṣaḥāba (Companions of the Prophet) 332
condemnation/cursing of 229, 335, 392–393
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 150
Sāḥil al-Ghalla Mosque (Fustat) 117
Sahlān b. Kaysān (Melkite physician) 177n4, 212–213, 285–286
Sahlūn (astronomer) 292, 293
Saḥnūn (d. 854–855) 127
Salāh al-Dīn (Sultan of Egypt and Syria, r. 1174–1193) 74, 89, 136
detention of Fatimid ruling family 166
Fatimid royal libraries and 218n22
as Fatimid wazīr 1, 51, 52, 54, 55, 55n34, 139
scholarship under 139
Salamiyya (Syria) 214
Saljuks/Seljuks
Abbasids and 49, 55, 343, 403
control of over Ḥaramayn 390, 398, 403, 406
invasion of Egypt 48
Salmān b. Jaʿfar b. Falāḥ (Kutāma military commander) 96
salutations 162
Samanid Dynasty/Samanids 320
Sanders, Paula 107, 109, 111, 161
Ṣanhāja Berbers 345
San Marco, Treasury of 219
satans, “Chapter on Satan” (Abū Tammām) 319–326, 380–381
Sayılı, Aydin 293
The Sayings, Sermons and Teachings of ʿAlī (al-Quḍāʿī) 211
al-Ṣayrafī Ibn al-Ṣayrafī
Sayr wa sulūk (Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭusī) 201
al-Sayyida al-ʿAzīziyya (concubine of al-ʿAzīz) 175, 176–177, 178–179, 178n7, 286
Sayyid, Ayman Fuad 7n4, 72n66, 160n18
Scheiner, Jens 241n25
scholarship/scholars
authority/status of 190, 193
East-West scholar exchange (Alexandria) 124–140
Fatimid studies 2–7
Imāmī 190, 192, 194
patronage 103, 124, 133, 134, 139, 144, 211, 285, 288, 291, 292, 294, 299
science/scientists
daʿwa and 285, 294
interpretation of scientific texts 247
second intellect 198
sects, polemics against 319–326, 380–381
sermons khuṭbas
sexual intercourse 329, 370n32, 372, 373
al-Shābustī, Abuʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlī (librarian) 143, 211
al-Shāfiʿī, Muḥammad b. Idrīs (d. 820) 33
Abū Ḥanīfa vs. 322
on dhimmīs 241, 242
refutations of 317, 321
Shāfiʿī school/Shāfiʿiyya 128, 129, 135, 136, 139, 322, 329 [al-]Shāfiʿī, Muḥammad b. Idrīs; [al-]Silafī, Abū Ṭāhir
Shafīʿ (royal parasol bearer) 349
Shams al-Dīn Abuʾl-Fatḥ Masʿūd b. Ṭāhir al-Wazzān 159
Shams al-Mulk (chief dāʿī) 159
al-Shantarīnī, ʿAlī b. Jaʿfar ʿAlī Ibn al-Qaṭṭāʿ
Sharḥ al-akhbār (Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān) 377
Shāwar (Fatimid wazīr, r. 1162–1169) 54
Shaybān (dāʿī in India) 24n20
al-Shayyal, Jamāl al-Dīn 7n4
Sheba, Queen of 265
al-Shīʿī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shīʿī
Shiism/Shīʿīs 189–190
conversion to Sunnism/conversion from Sunnism to 339, 341
festivals ʿĀshūrāʾ; Ghadīr Khumm
main topics of scholarly treatment and works 190–191 imamate; philosophy; reason/reasoning
Sunnīs vs. 58, 126, 191
Imāmīs/Imāmiyya; Ismaili Shiism/Ismailis
Shimrākhiyya (sect, branch of Kharijites) 380
Shiraz 202
al-Shīrāzī, al-Muʾayyad fiʾl-Dīn [al-]Muʾayyad fiʾl-Dīn al-Shīrāzī
al-Shīrāzī, Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm Mullā Ṣadrā
shirk (compromising God through association) 304, 305
Shukr b. Abuʾl-Futūḥ (amir of Mecca, r. 1010–1012) 390, 402
Sibt Ibn al-Jawzī (preacher and historian, d. 1256/1257) 48n6, 404
Sicily/Sicilians 1, 68, 77, 132, 171
Arabic poetry 106, 106n26, 211
Arab rule 104–106
hierarchy of judges 64
Muslim conquest (965) 98
nobility 98
Norman conquest (1071) 211
qāḍīs in 66
Sicilian roots of Sitt al-Mulk 177
Ṣiffīn, Battle of 368n13, 368n21–23
signatures (tawqīʿ), for appointment of wazīrs 54–55
sijillāt decrees
Sijilmāsa (Morocco) 156, 382, 383, 388
al-Sijistānī, Abū Yaʿqūb (d. 971) 194–197
allegiance to Fatimid imams 208
authority/reputation 192, 193, 330
on creation 195, 196
doctrines 195–197
on God/the One 195–196
cognizance/existence of God 306–307, 311
command between God and intellect 196
God as cause 308, 308n27
God as a thing 309
Oneness of God/tawḥīd 304, 308, 313
unknowability of God 307, 308, 310, 312, 312–313
on imamate 197
on intellect 194, 195, 196
natural sciences in work 295n20, 297–298
opponents 309, 330
philosophy in thought/work 200, 204, 249
Neoplatonism 192, 197, 198, 209, 263, 300–301
pilgrimage 301n2
on prophecy 197
refutations/polemics by 195, 330–331
on revelation 194, 257, 264
on the Soul 196
sources of inspiration/as source of inspiration 192, 194–195, 205, 304
on/and taʾwīl 249, 256–257, 259, 263–266
twofold negation 310–311, 312
works 26n27, 148n21, 192, 195, 207, 301, 301n3
on worship 304–305, 312, 313
al-Sijistānī, Muḥammad b. Karrām (d. 868) 324, 325
al-Silafī, Abū Ṭāhir (haḍīth scholar, d. 1180)
in Alexandria 128, 129–130, 138
background/career 127–128
collection and transmission of haḍīth 128, 129, 134–135
epithet 128
madrasa 129, 129n16, 136
reputation 139
students 136
teachers 135
travels 127–128, 133
works 128
Silvestre de Sacy, Antoine Isaac 12
Simāṭ al-ḥuzn (“Meal of sorrow”, feast) 108
al-Ṣinhājī, ʿAbbās b. Abiʾl-Futūḥ b. Tamīm b. Muʿizz b. Bādīs (Fatimid wazīr, 548–549) 103–104
sin/sinners 200, 304
Sīra (al-Muʾayyad fiʾl-Dīn al-Shīrāzī) 210
Sirāj al-mulūk (“Lamplight of the Kings”, al-Ṭurṭūshī) 80–81n11, 126, 213, 241
Sitt Miṣr (“Lady of Egypt”, daughter of al-Ḥākim, d. 1063) 167
Sitt al-Mulk (Regent of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 1021–1023) 166, 167, 224
allegedly planned coup by 179–180, 181, 183
correction of excesses of al-Ḥākim 184–185
death 184, 188
disappearance/murder of al-Ḥākim 182, 183, 185–187
executions by 185
family roots 175, 176–177, 178
gifts to/from 181, 181n20
mother of 175, 176–177, 178–179, 178n7, 286
participation in government affairs 179, 180, 181, 182
regency of 183–187
relation with father 178
romantic liaisons 67n48, 179, 180, 181–182, 182n21, 185
wealth and power 179, 180
Siyāsat-nāma (“Book of Government”, Niẓām al-Mulk) 78
slaves
in army 105, 171, 395, 395n16
dhimmīs and 229, 232, 234
enslaved nobility 177
eunuch 177, 181
freeing of 279
slave girls at courts 97
Slavs 159, 171, 173
Smoor, Pieter 32n30
social elites
at court/court sessions 155, 162–164, 164
influence/status 174
prominent families in government service 169–170
religious affiliation 164–165
role in processions 158–161
royal family 165–169
Socrates 327
sons, of imam-caliphs 166, 167, 172
Soul, the 196, 197, 198
Spain 132
Mālikī school 137
scholars from 124, 213
Umayyad Caliphate/Umayyads
Speaker (Nāṭiq) 251, 251n7, 255, 255n11
Ṣubḥ al-aʿshā (al-Qalqashandī) 50n10, 87, 88, 89
Sufism/Sufis 137, 300, 306 al-Ghazālī
Ṣufriyya (sect, branch of Kharijites) 380
al-Suhrawardī (d. 1191) 203
al-Sulamī, Abuʾl-Aʿwar ʿAmr b. Sufyān (general) 368, 368n20
Sulaymān b. ʿAbd al-Malik (7th Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, r. 715–717) 370n31
Sulaymān (Solomon, prophet) 265
al-Ṣūlī (d. between 941 and 948) 371
sultanates 55
sulṭān (title) 53, 54, 55, 55n34
Sunnī law, Mālikī school/Mālikīs
Sunnī scholars 213, 216
Sunnism/Sunnīs 139
appointment, removal and replacement of caliphs 78
appointment to public office 43
conversion to Shiism/conversion from Shiism to 339, 341
imams and 11, 13
participation in pilgrimage caravans 398
reception/interpretation of khuṭbas by 352–353, 366
on religious authority 27
Shīʿīs vs. 58, 126, 191
Sunni population in Fatimid Caliphate 77, 103, 384
Hanafī school/Hanafīs; Hanbalī school/Hanbalīs; Mālikī school/Mālikīs; Shāfiʿī school/Shāfiʿiyya
Suspended Church (Fustat) 233, 236n19
synagogues 229, 231, 238
Syria 1, 77
astronomy/astronomers 292, 295
daʿwa operations 295
Jarrāhids in 395, 396
Kutāma in 96, 99
al-Mahdī’s travel to Egypt from 141–142, 214
military expeditions,
from Syria to Egypt 47, 48, 130
to Syria 96, 97, 100, 178
qāḍīs 66
scholars in/from 125, 128, 131, 137
al-Tabarānī, Abuʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl (court astronomer)
at drinking party 171, 173, 287
career and works 288
al-Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr (d. 923) 142, 144, 215
Tabriz (Iran) 201
tafāḍul (merit) 19–20
tafāwut (disparity) 19–20
tafsīr (exegesis) 249 taʾwīl
Tāhart (modern Tiaret, Algeria) 382, 383, 384, 387
Ṭāhir b. al-Mustanṣir 101
al-Ṭāʾiʿ biʾllāh (24th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, r. 974–991) 78, 165, 334n33, 392, 392n5
Tāj al-Dawla wa Sayf al-Milla (Jaʿfar II b. Yūsuf al-Kalbī, amīr of Sicily, r. 998–1019) 104–106, 159
Tajrīd al-kalām (“Abstract of Theology”, Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭusī) 202
Ṭalāʾiʿ b. Ruzzīk (Fatimid wazīr, r. 1154–1161) 54, 102, 211
Ṭalḥa ibn ʿUbayd Allāh (Companion of the Prophet, d. 656) 322
Tamīm b. al-Muʿizz (d.c. 984) 31, 176, 210
Tanbīh al-hādī waʾl-mustahdī (“The Exhortation to the Guiders and the Guided”, al-Kirmānī) 317, 332–333, 336
tanzīl revelation
tanzīh (removing all association from God) 309, 310–311
Taormina (Sicily) 98
Taqarrub (spy of Sitt al-Mulk) 184
taqlīd (arbitrary submission to authorities) 317, 330, 336
Tarīkh al-Ṭabarī (“History”, al-Ṭabarī) 142, 144
tashbīh (trying to understand God by analogy and comparison) 304, 305, 309, 310
taʿṭīl (denuding God of all content by strict denial of tashbīh) 304, 309, 310
Tathbīt al-imāma (“Confirming the Imamate”, al-Manṣūr) 13–14, 24, 370n31
tawḥīd (Oneness of God) 302–303, 302n5, 304, 307, 308, 309, 313, 334
Taʾwīl al-daʿāʾim (Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān) 249
taʾwīl (Qurʾanic interpretation) 6
access by general public 273–274
access to knowledge of and authority to perform 249, 251–253, 264, 273–274
al-Kirmānī on 266–270
al-Sijistānī on 263–266
ambiguity and 247, 262, 265, 273
of both scripture and scientific texts 247
examples 250–257, 259
Ibn Rushd on 262–263, 273
meaning/employment in Ismaili context 247, 248–249, 260
methods and results 249, 260
payment of dues and access to 251–252, 271, 276, 280–282, 283, 284
reason vs./and authority in 262–270, 272, 275
revelation vs. 257, 264
tailored to circumstances and audience 250
term/meaning 275n5, 282
ẓāhir vs./and bāṭin 247, 248, 257–258, 260, 266, 274, 312
tawqīʿ signatures
taxes 184
Ṭayy Bedouins 395, 397
Ṭayyibī Ismailis 76, 191, 193 [al-]Muʿayyad fiʿl-Dīn al-Shīrāzī
teachers
appointment of/decrees of appointment 39, 87, 92–93
men compared to (in taʾwīl) 252
Thaʿāliba (sect, branch of Kharijites) 380
Thamūd (tribe) 360, 367
theology 199
fusion of philosophy and 202, 203, 205
Theology of Aristotle (Enneads) 194, 301n4, 304
Thiqa al-Dawla (Yūsuf b. ʿAbdallāh al-Kalbī, amīr of Sicily, r. 990–998) 104, 105
al-Ṭibb al-rūḥānī (“Spiritual Medicine”, al-Rāzī) 33, 331
time cycles 296, 298
Tinnīs/Tennis (medieval Egypt) 65, 70, 132
Ṭirāz (Abū ʿAlī Sanad b. ʿImān al-Azdī) 126
tirāẓ (medieval Islamic embroideries/inscribed textiles) 46, 49, 52
Tortosa (Spain) 124
transvestites 121, 122
travel/travelers 100, 125, 131, 132, 133 Naṣīr b. Khusraw; pilgrimage; pilgrimage caravans; [al-]Silafī, Abū Ṭāhir; [al-]Ṭurṭūshī, Abū Bakr
“A Treatise on the Imamate of the Fatimid Caliph al-Manṣūr bi-Allāh” (Wilferd Madelung) 14
Tripoli, qāḍīs 61n18, 62
Tughril Beg (Sultan of the Saljuk Empire, r. 1037–1063) 49, 344
Tulunid Mosque (Egypt) 117
Tunisia 1, 77
Mālikī school 137
Turks
in Egypt 100
in Fatimid army 103
Westerners (Maghāriba) vs. 96, 97–98, 100
al-Ṭurṭūshī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad (d. 1126)
arrival and settlement in Alexandria 125, 128, 129–130, 132–133, 137, 213
Ibn Khaldūn on 126
reputation/success 103, 125, 126n4, 128, 135
rivalries/opponents 133, 138
students/disciples 103, 126–127, 136, 139
travels 103, 125, 133
works 80n11, 126, 138, 213
al-Ṭusī, Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad (d. 1067) 193, 193n4
al-Ṭusī, Naṣīr al-Din (d. 1274) 204–205
background 200–201
conversion from Ismaili to Imāmī Shiism 192, 193, 200, 201
on divine/God’s command 201
on imamate 201
on intellect 201
on metaphysics 202
philosophy in thought/work of 202, 204
on reason 201
sources of inspiration 200–201, 205
works 201, 201–202
Twelver Shīʿa Imāmīs (Twelver Shīʿa)
Tyre (Lebanon) 128, 289
ʿUbaydallāh b. Ziyād (Umayyad Governor of Iraq, d. 686) 368, 368n19
al-ʿUkbarī (astrologer) 288–289
ʿUmān (country) 380
ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz 241, 242
ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb (2nd Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate, r. 634–644) 115, 322, 332, 359, 374, 381, 405
ʿUmar, Pact of 230, 239, 241–242
Umayya b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, Abuʾl-Ṣalt al-Dānī Abuʿl-Ṣalt
Umayya b. ʿAbd Shams (b.c. 515) 328, 359, 372
Umayyad Caliphate/Umayyads 60
condemnation of Fatimids by 364, 374
condemnation of/polemics against 405
by Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān 328–329, 364, 369, 370–374, 375
comparison to Zaqqūm/Accursed Tree 331, 335, 364, 369, 370n32
in khuṭbas (sermons) 359, 367–368
rulers 328, 330, 331, 333, 372–373, 376
Spanish Umayyads 328–329, 369
origins of rivalry between Fatimids and 364–365, 366, 371
Umm Mallāl (sister of Bādis, Zīrid ruler) 181n20
unio mystica 306, 307
ʿUqayl (head of intelligence bureau under al-Ḥākim) 224
Uṣayfira (tribe) 397
Ustādh al-Ustādhīn (“Master Eunuch of Eunuchs”, title) 222–223, 225, 226
Ustādh Jawdhar (high-ranking eunuch, d. 973) 156, 156n4, 223, 369, 386, 387
ustādh (term) 222–223, 222n12
ʿUtba b. Abī Sufyān 367–368
ʿUthmān (3rd Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate, r. 644–656) 322, 332, 368n15, 380, 381
al-ʿUthmānī, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-Jabbār (d. 1218) 136
ʿUyūn al-akhbār (Idrīs ʿImād al-Dīn) 55n33, 63, 71–72n66
Valencia 136
Venice 219
viziers wazīrs
Wadi al-Qura 392
al-Walakhshī, Riḍwān b. (Fatimid wazīr) 92
Walīʾl-Dawla Abū ʿAlī b. Khayrān 50n10
al-Walīd b. Abī Muʿayṭ 368
al-Walīd b. ʿUtba (Governor of Madīna, d. 624) 368, 368n14
al-Walīd b. Yazīd (11th Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, r. 743–744) 331, 370n31
Walker, Paul E. 2, 5
waqfs (endowments) 145, 146, 216
Wāqifiyya (branch of Imāmiyya) 325–326
al-Warjalānī, Abū Zakariyyāʾ 383n16, 387
Wārjlān, Basin of 383
Wasit (early Islamic city) 128
wāsiṭa (rank/title) 50, 50n10, 96, 240n23
wazirate, development/evolution of 46–47, 51n18, 52, 55
wazīrs
appointment of/decrees of appointment 39, 46, 50, 50n13, 51, 52, 54–55, 87, 90, 96
attire 55n33
ṭirāz (medieval Islamic embroideries) 46, 49, 52
classes of 47, 51n18, 54
military wazīrs 46, 47, 48–49, 52, 53, 55, 72, 73, 174
Fatimid vs. non-Fatimid 39, 46, 49
joint office of chief qāḍī, chief dāʿī and 70
in late Fatimid vs. early Fatimid period 46, 49–51, 52, 90
rank/status 53–54, 56, 75, 81, 90
residences 55n33
role in festivals/processions 159, 160, 161
title 46–47, 50, 51n18, 54, 55, 72
The Wazīr’s Epistle (Ibn Killis) 208
weights and measures, control of 66, 66n43,n45
Westerners (Maghāriba)
on day of ʿĀshūrā 109–110
definition/term 99
Easterners (Mashāriqa) vs. 96–99, 100
in Egypt/Cairo 95, 96
migration to Egypt 103–104, 131
scholars 124–127
Kalbids; Kutāma Berbers; Maṣmūdīs
William of Tyre 178n7
wine consumption 122, 331, 370n31, 374–375
by rulers 329, 331, 335, 372, 373
drinking parties 163, 164, 170–173, 174, 286, 287–288
prohibition of alcohol by al-Ḥākim 173, 229, 288
“Wine, Love and Praise for the Fāṭimid Imāms” (Pieter Smoor) 32n30
wine trade 333, 370n31, 373
women
compared to students (in taʾwīl) 252
confinement of 182, 184, 229
conversion to Islam 251–252
in daʿwa 250
instruction in Ismaili teachings/in majālis 276–277, 277n7
royal 167–168, 180
marriage 167–168
wealth 167–168, 180
rule by 175 Sitt al-Mulk
worship/worshipers 311, 312, 313
types of worshipers 304–305
Yaḥyā of Antioch (Melkite historian, d.c. 1066)
accessibility of work 230
on destruction of houses of worship 236
on Ghabn (eunuch of al-Ḥākim) 220–221, 222, 225, 227
on persecution of dhimmīs 230, 233–235, 237–238, 240
al-Yamanī, ʿUmāra (poet, d. 1174) 211
al-Yanābīʿ (al-Sijistānī) 209
Yānis (chief eunuch) 180
Yaʿqūb b. Nasṭās (physician of al-Ḥākim) 164, 170–171, 172–173
Yaqẓān (Ibāḍī imam, r. 906–909) 382–383, 383
Yazīd b. Muʿawiya (Yazīd I, 2nd Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, r. 680–683) 331, 370n31
Yazīdiyya (sect, branch of Kharijites) 380
al-Yāzūrī, al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī (Fatimid wazīr, r. 1050–1058) 49, 51
as chief dāʿī, chief qāḍī and wazīr 70–71
expenditure on pilgrim caravans 399–400, 400n36
fall and execution 71, 402
rank/authority 70–71, 76
Yemen 53, 115, 193, 209, 403, 405
Yumgan (region, modern Afghanistan) 210
Yūnus b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (ḥadīth transmitter, d. 823–824) 326
Yūsuf b. ʿAbdallāh al-Kalbī (Thiqa al-Dawla, amīr of Sicily, r. 990–998) 104, 105
Yūsuf b. Tāshfīn (amīr of the Almoravids, r. 1061–1106) 131, 138
al-Ẓāfir bi-Aʿdāʾ Allāh (Imam-Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 1149–1154) 217
Ẓāfir al-Ḥaddād (poet) 134, 135
al-Ẓāḥir li-Iʿzāz Dīn Allāh (Imam-Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate, r. 1021–1036)
alms by 400n37
arts and sciences/patronage under 288
censorship 149–150, 208
courtiers 224
inheritance 168
invocation in khuṭbas 344
offspring 166
popular festivals under 111, 113, 115, 120
in royal processions 158–159
sermons by 105
succession of al-Ḥākim 183, 184, 186
regent Sitt al-Mulk
ẓāhir (literal wording), bāṭin (inner meaning) vs./and 247, 257–258, 260, 266, 272, 274, 312, 320–321
al-Zamakhsharī (d. 1143) 136–137
Zamzam (well) 404
Zaqqūm/Accursed Tree, Umayyads compared to 331, 335, 364, 369, 370n32
Zayd ibn ʿAlī (5th Zaydi Imam, r. 714/715–739/740) 26
Zaydīs/Zaydiyya (Shīʿī sect) 317, 321, 333, 336
imams 26, 32, 191, 332, 369, 379
scholarship 190
al-Zaylaʿī, Aḥmad ʿUmar 392
Zayn al-Dawla Intiṣār b. Yaḥyā 103
Zenāta/Zanāta (tribe) 371, 378n4
Zīj al-kabīr al-Ḥākimī (Ibn Yūnus) 213, 286
zījs (astronomical tables) 286, 292, 293, 294, 295
Zīrid Dynasty/Zīrids 99, 100–101, 103–104, 343, 345, 345n15, 346, 350
Ziyād b. Summayya (Ziyād b. Abīhī, Umayyad commander) 368, 368n18
al-Zubayr ibn al-ʿAwwām (Companion of the Prophet, d. 656) 322
Zurʿa b. ʿĪsā b. Nastūras (wāsiṭa) 240n23
Zurāra b. Aḥmad (qāḍī) 62
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The Fatimids

Select Papers on Their Governing Institutions, Social and Cultural Organization, Religious Appeal, and Rivalries

Series:  Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 1 The Near and Middle East, Volume: 172

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