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Noémie Verdon
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Index

The index contains words in both Sanskrit and Arabic languages. Therefore, I enumerate the terms in the alphabetic order according to English spelling, regardless of the diacritic signs of the transliterated items. The Arabic article al- is not taken into account for sequencing the listed words. Many technical terms are also found in the glossary of Sanskrit and Arabic concepts of the present book. Lastly, words that occur frequently in the book, such as al-Bīrūnī, Sāṅkhya and Yoga, works’ titles, Kitābs Sānk and Pātanğal, etc., or common place names, e.g., al-Hind, Gandhāra and Panjab, are referred to in this index in case of substantial discussion or content.

Sanskrit and Arabic Technical Terms

abhyāsa 108, 151, 160
adharma 148, 207, 219–221
āgama 81, 106, 156
ʿağz (‮عجز‬‎) 222–224
ahaṃkāra 86, 104, 241, 243
aiśvarya 123, 147, 219–220
ajñāna 148, 219–221
ʿālim (‮عالم‬‎) 186–187n84
ʿamal (pl. aʿmāl) (sg. ‮عمل‬‎; pl. ‮اعمال‬‎) 179, 213
anaiśvarya 148, 219–221
aṅga, cf. aṣṭāṅga
anumāna 106
ʿāqil (‮عاقل‬‎) 186–187n84
ʿaql (‮عقل‬‎) 172, 176–177, 186–187n84, 240, 245
artha 192
aśakti 157, 222–223
asaṃprajñāta samādhi 107, 143–145, 172
āsana 107, 175
aṣṭāṅga 107, 124, 141, 172, 175–177
aṯqāl (‮اثقال‬‎) 4, 117n102, 120, 185
aum 153–154, 158, 248
avyakta 35–37, 84, 86, 88, 104, 106, 146, 148, 216, 240
(al-)ʿayš wa l-laḏḏa (‮العيش و اللذّة‬‎) 192
azaliyya (‮ازلية‬‎) 152
(al-)barāhima (‮البراهمة‬‎) 89–90
bhāṣya 113–116
bhāva 123, 147, 219–220
bi-l-ḥawāssi l-Kamis (‮بالحواسّ الخمس‬‎) 147
bi-l-samāʿi (‮بالسماع‬‎) 156
bi-l-ṭibāʿ (‮با لطباع‬‎) 213
brahmaloka 169
buddhi 88, 104, 123, 147, 157, 219–220, 222–224
buddhīndriya 87, 104–105
burhān (‮برهان‬‎) 193
citta 107, 108, 187–188
cittavṛtti 107, 140, 146, 149, 236
deva 35, 165, 192
dhāraṇā 107, 172, 176
dharma 123, 147, 192, 207, 219–221
dhyāna 107, 172, 175
ḏikr (‮ذكر‬‎) 140
(al-)dīn wa l-sīra (‮الدين والسيرة‬‎) 192
duḥkhatraya 104
dvīpa 169
fāʿil (‮فاعل‬‎) 239
fikra (‮فكرة‬‎) 169, 178–182
fiʿl (‮فعل‬‎) 156, 201, 207, 211, 239
Actuality, ilā fiʿl (‮إلى فعل‬‎) or bi-l-fiʿl (‮بالفعل‬‎) 86, 240, 243
ğahl (‮جهل‬‎) 222–224, 240
ğufūr (‮الجفور‬‎) 61–62
guṇa 106, 149, 208, 212, 236
grahaṇa 186–187n84
grahītṛ 186–187n84
grāhya 186–187n84
hayūlā (‮هيولى‬‎), cf. mādda
ʿibāda (‮عبادة‬‎) 151, 160
idāma l-fikra (‮ادامة الفكرة‬‎) 176
idrak (‮ادراك‬‎) 140, 156
iḵlāṣ (‮اخلاص‬‎) 175
ʿilm (‮علم‬‎) 186–187n84
īśvarapraṇidhāna 152, 160
jñāna 108, 123, 147, 219–220
(al-)kaff ʿani l-šarr (‮الكفّ عن الشرّ‬‎) 175
kaivalya 91n127, 105, 106, 107, 160–161, 175, 236
kāla 211, 213
kalām (‮كلام‬‎) 154
ḵalāṣ (‮خلاص‬‎) 91n127, 151, 160, 185, 218
(al-)ḵalāṣ wa l-daymūma (‮الخلاص والديمومة‬‎) 192–193
kāma 192
karma 108, 146, 153, 163, 165, 236
karman, cf. karma
karmendriya 87, 105, 242
ḵaṣla (‮خصلة‬‎) 141, 175–177
kleśa 108, 153, 163–164, 236
loka, cf. brahmaloka
lokāloka 169
mabādīʾ (‮مبادئِ‬‎) 125
mādda (‮مادّة‬‎) 201, 213, 216, 239
Absolute (‮المطلقة‬‎), pure primary (‮الهيولى المخردّة‬‎) 86, 148, 240, 242
mahābhūta 86, 105, 212, 241
mahat, cf. buddhi
(al-)māl wa l-naʿma (‮المال والنعمة‬‎) 192
malak (‮ملك‬‎) 35–36, 165, 192, 205
maʿlūm (‮معلوم‬‎) 186–187n84
manas 87, 105, 107, 242
maʿqūl (‮معقول‬‎) 186–187n84
maʿrifa (‮معرفة‬‎) 222
(al-)maṭālib al-arbaʿa (‮المطالب الاربعة‬‎) 192
mokṣa 91n127, 193
mufassir (‮مفسّر‬‎) 119–120, 167, 169, 171–173
mūlaprakṛti, cf. prakṛti
nafs (‮نفس‬‎) 85, 126, 161–162, 185, 201, 207–208, 213, 225, 240, 252
naqala (‮نقل‬‎) 2
naraka 169
nidrā 140
nirīśvara (-sāṅkhya) 122
niyama 107, 123–124, 165–166, 175
pātāla 169
pradhāna, cf. prakṛti
prakṛti 35–36, 86, 88, 104, 105–106, 148, 211, 213, 215, 236, 240
pramāṇa 106, 140, 147, 156, 193, 236
praṇava 153–154
prāṇāyāma 107, 175
pratyāhāra 107, 176
pratyakṣa 106, 147
puruṣa 85, 105–106, 124, 146, 152, 153, 158, 208, 211, 213, 215–216, 236, 239–240
puruṣārtha 192
qabḍ (‮قبض‬‎) 185
qabḍ al-ḥawāss (‮قبض الحواسّ‬‎) 175
qalb (‮قلب‬‎) 185, 242
(al-)quds ẓāhiran wa bāṭinan (‮القدس ظاهرا و باطنا‬‎) 175
quwwa (pl. quwan) (sg. ‮قوة‬‎; pl. ‮قوى‬‎) 149, 247
Potentiality, bi-l-quwwa (‮بالقوّة‬‎) or min al-quwwa (‮من القوّة‬‎) 240, 243
quwwa nafsiyya (‮قوة نفسية‬‎), quwwan al-nafs (‮قوى النفس‬‎) 140, 149, 186
quwan ṯalāṯ (‮قوى ثلاث‬‎), al-quwan al-ṯalāṯ al-uwal (‮القوى الثلث الاول‬‎) 149, 161–162, 201, 208, 239, 240, 245
rāga 148, 219–221
rajas 86, 106, 149, 211, 240
rasāyan (‮رساين‬‎) 160–161
rasāyana 160–161, 166
ribāṭāt (‮رباطات‬‎) 61–62
rūḥ (pl. arwāḥ) (sg. ‮روح‬‎; pl. ‮ارواح‬‎) 242
rūḥānī (‮روحانى‬‎) 192, 205–206
ruʾyā (‮رؤيا‬‎) 140
šahāda
Bilingual dirham 34–37
(al-)sakīna al-ṭumāʾnīna (‮السكينة والطمأنينة‬‎) 176
samādhi 107, 143–145, 152, 172, 175–176, 236
(al-)šamaniyya (‮الشمنيّة‬‎) 89–90, 240
samāpatti 145, 186
saṃprajñāta samādhi 107, 143–145
samudra 169
saṃyama 169, 178–182
sāṅkhya 97, 110, 112, 121, 122, 126, 127, 216, 229
śāstra 112–116, 120–122
satkāryavāda 106–107, 148
sattva 86, 106, 123, 149, 211, 240
seśvara (-sāṅkhya) 122
siddhi 157, 222
smṛti 140
sukūn (‮سكون‬‎) 175
sūkṣmaśarīra 141, 147, 206
sūtra 113–116
svabhāva 211, 213
ṭabīʿa (‮طبيعة‬‎) 86, 241, 242, 243
tafakkur (‮تفكّر‬‎), cf. fikra
tafsīr (‮تفسير‬‎) 119–120, 133, 167
taḵayyul (‮تخيّل‬‎) 140
taksīn al-tanaffus (‮تكسين التنفّس‬‎) 175
tamas 86, 106, 123, 149, 211, 240
tanmātra 86, 105, 241
tarāḵin (‮تراخى‬‎) 222–224
taṣawwur (‮تصوّر‬‎) 143–144, 172
tattva 87, 106, 146, 149, 211–212, 242
taʿwīd (‮تعويد‬‎) 151, 160
tuṣṭi 157, 219, 222
vācaka 153–154
vācya 153
vairāgya 108, 123, 147, 151, 160, 219–220
vikalpa 140
viparyaya 140, 157, 222
vyakta 86, 88, 148, 216, 240
waḥdāniyya (‮وحدانية‬‎) 152
yama 107, 123–124, 165–166, 175
yoga 97, 107, 120–121, 122, 126, 142, 177
zāhid (‮زاهد‬‎) 161, 220
ẓanna (‮ظنّ‬‎) 140
zīğ (‮زيج‬‎) 63–64
zuhd (‮زهد‬‎) 151, 160

Geographical Terms

Barikot, cf. Swāt
Chota Lahore 30n106
Dunpūr 28, 48n199
Gandhāra 17–18, 20, 21, 29, 31–33, 35, 38, 45, 48, 57–58, 96, 127, 231–232, 234
Culture and society sections 1.3 and 2.4
Gardez 71
Ghazna 15–17, 21–22n58, 28, 38, 41, 42, 49, 57–58, 72, 77, 80, 96, 231–232
Ghorvand River 51
Ğūrğān / Gorgan 14–15, 57–58, 66, 231
Ğūrğānīya / Kunya-Urgench 15, 57–58, 231
Himavant or Himalaya 23, 30
(al-)Hind 2, 2n7, 7–8, 11
Terminology with regard to al-Bīrūnī’s travels 25
Language of al-Hind 59
Hund, cf. Wayhind
India, cf. al-Hind
Indian Ocean 22, 65–66, 69
Jhelum 29, 48n199
Kābul 15–18, 28, 38, 42, 48, 54, 57–58, 77, 80, 96, 231–232
Kanauj 29n95, 30, 32–33, 38, 41, 42, 45–46, 52, 57n256, 58, 81, 83–84, 156
Kangra, cf. Nagarkot
Kashmir (Valley) 23, 29, 30, 51–52, 57n256
Al-Bīrūnī’s knowledge of 43–45
Intellectual centre and interactions 81–83
Kāṯ(-Kala) 13–14, 57, 231
Khwarezm 13–16, 38, 41, 66
Kindī 28, 28n93, 48n199
Kulārğak (mountain) 23
Kunya-Urgench, cf. Ğūrğānīya
Laghmān 28–30, 32, 38, 42, 58, 78, 80, 231
Culture 48–50
Lahore 23n64, 26, 29, 29n94, 38, 49, 49n207, 54, 71, 78–80, 84, 96, 234
Bilingual dirham 33–38
Mandahūkūr 23n64, 46
Lahūr (Fort) 23, 23n64, 28, 30, 30n106, 31, 32, 38, 51–52, 42, 58, 78, 82, 231
Culture 51–52
Lohara(koṭṭa), cf. Lahūr
Lohkot, cf. Lahūr
Maḥmūdpur, cf. Lahore
Mandahūkūr, cf. Lahore
Multan 29, 31, 31n112, 38, 45, 71, 78–80, 81, 83–84, 96
Nagarkot 18, 18n43, 38, 46, 78–80, 94, 96
Nandana (Fort) 29, 31, 32, 38, 54, 56, 57–58, 78–80, 96, 231
Culture 52–53
Panjab 17–18, 20, 21–22, 29, 31–33, 35, 38, 45, 48, 54, 57–58, 71, 71n51, 96, 127, 231–232, 234
Culture and society sections 1.3 and 2.4
Peshawar 29, 32–33, 42, 48, 58, 78, 80, 96, 231
Culture 50–51
vikāra 18, 18n44
Rāja Gīrā 30n105
Rājagirī (Fort) 23, 29, 30, 30n105, 58, 78, 231
Culture 51–52
Rājāwūri (Rajauri) 23, 23n66, 52
Ravi River 29n94
Ray 14–15, 57–58, 66, 72, 231
Salt Range 31, 49, 53, 56, 79
Sāwa River 50
Sialkot 29, 48n199
Sind 1n2, 21–22, 23, 32–33, 38, 78–79, 90n125
Somnāth 32, 38, 41, 42, 45, 58, 80, 81, 83–84
Srinagar 23n63
Sumatra 23n68
Suvarṇadvīpa, cf. Sumatra
Swāt (Valley) 30n105–106, 52n231, 56, 70
Udabhāṇḍa, cf. Wayhind
Uḍegrām 30n105
Varanasi 29, 43, 46, 81, 84
Volga 42
Wayhind 29, 32, 38, 49, 49n207, 51, 53–54, 78, 80, 96
Zalamkot 70

Personal Names, Dynastic and Ethnic Groups

Abhinavagupta 83, 115
Abū Aḥmad Ibn Ğīlaġtakīn 29n95
Abū l-Wafāʾ 14n11
Abū Maʿšar 62, 62n7
Abū Muḥammad al-Nāʾib al-Āmulī 64–65
Abū Naṣr ʿIrāq 15
Abū Sahl al-Masīḥī al-Ğurğānī 15
Achaemenids 17
Afrighids 13–15, 57
Alberonius 237
Alexander the Great 17
Alkhans 17
Aliboron, cf. Alberonius
Ali Huğwīri 71
Alptigīn 15, 48, 53, 54
Ānandapāla 18, 48, 49n207, 77, 82
Aristotle (Aristotelian ideas) 86, 87, 132, 148–149
Āryabhaṭa 173
Days of Āryabhaṭa (book) 63–64
Āsuri 108–109, 111
Balabhadra 29n95, 135, 168n43
(al-)Balāḏurī 21, 72
Barhatigīn 17, 19
Bayhaqī 8, 28, 39, 41, 42, 70
Bhīma(deva) 18, 54, 55, 56, 82
Bhīmapāla 18, 48
Bhoja 103, 162–163, 165, 175, 233
(al-)Bīrūnī
Epistolary exchanges 44, 82, 139
Literary review (in general) 4–6, (on his visits to al-Hind) 24–28
Work’s reception 237
Sanskrit literature known to al-Bīrūnī 3–4, 47
Brahmagupta 1, 83, 135, 173
Buzurg Ibn Šahriyār 69
Durlabha 47, 83
Farruḵī 41, 72
Firdawsī 39
Galen 69, 132
Gardīzī 8, 41, 75–76
Gauḍa, cf. Gauḍapāda, the Sāṅkhya author
Gauḍapāda, the Advaita-Vedānta author 99n11, 111n76
Gauḍapāda, the Sāṅkhya author 99, 99n11, 111, 111n76, 197, 230
(al-)Ğayhānnī 65, 66, 66n24, 75
Ghaznavids 57–58
Court situation 39–43, 68–73, 95, 233
Political agenda 26, 32–33, 37–39, 78–79, 163
Relations with local rulers 77
Studies on 5
Greek
Literature known to al-Bīrūnī 132
Greek philosophy 148–150, 164, 172
Hindu Šāhis, cf. Shahis
Hiraṇyagarbha 113, 116, 127, 191–193
Ibn Ḥawqal 14n13, 16n35, 21
Ibn Ḵurdāḏbah 21
Ibn Sīnā 14, 15, 139, 149, 172n61, 237
Ibn Zakariyyāʾ Rāzī 44, 89n119
Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī 1, 1n2
(al-)Īrānšahrī 89, 89n119
Īśvarakṛṣṇa 108n60, 109–111, 126, 197
Jaimini 91
Jayapāla 18, 48, 49n207, 50, 82
Inscription 54
Jīvaśarman 44, 47, 52n231
Kallara 18
Kamalū 18
Kaniṣka (Kanik) 18, 19, 51
Kapila 91–92, 108–111, 113, 126, 134, 203, 247
Khalajs 19
Kidarites 17
Kuṣāṇas 17, 19
(al-)Ḵwarizmī 64, 237
Lagatūrmān 18
Maḥmūd (of Ghazna) 2, 16, 58, 70, 78–80, 84, 95, 98, 231
Conquests to al-Hind 28–29, 30n106, 32, 52–53
Court situation, cf. Ghaznavids
Encounter with the Shahis 48
Political agenda 32–34, 37–39
Maʾmūnids 14–15, 58
(al-)Muqaddasī 49n207
Masʿūd (of Ghazna) 16, 26
Masʿūd-I Saʿd-I Salmān 71
Nahuṣa 164–165, 188
Nandikeśvara (also Nandīśvara) 164–165, 188
Nezaks 17
Pañcaśikha 109, 111
Paramārtha, author of the *Suvarṇasaptati¨ 99, 198–199
Parāśara, father of Vyāsa 117, 242
Pātanğal (author and commentator of the Kitāb Pātanğal) 93, 119–120, 121, 125, 136
References to him in the Taḥqīq mā li-l-Hind 117–118
Patañjali, the yoga composer 113–116, 117, 123, 127, 165
Plato (Neo-Platonic ideas) 87, 132, 164
Ptolemy 63, 66n24, 132
Qābūs bin Wušmagīr bin Ziyār 14, 58–59
Qutayba b. Muslim al-Bāhilī 13
Rutbils 17
Šāhi of Kābul, or Kābulšāhs, cf. Early Shahis
Samanids 13, 15, 66n24
Sāmanta(deva) 18, 55
Śaṅkara 102, 102n35, 114, 175
Sebüktigīn 16, 32, 48
Shahis 17–20, 46, 48, 50–51, 53–58, 77–78, 80–82, 84, 94–96, 231–232, 234
Encounter with Maḥmūd 32, 48–49, 52
Literary review 5, 20n56
Terminology 7n24
Śrīpāla 47
Syāvapala 45
Tilak 70
Trilocanapāla 18, 41, 48, 52, 77
Turki Šāhis, cf. Shahis
Turks 13, 17–18, 23, 42
(al-)ʿUtbī 8, 28, 41, 50, 51, 69
Utpala 47, 83
Vācaspatimiśra 99, 100, 101, 102, 111, 115, 116, 124, 175
Vārṣagaṇya 108n60, 109
Vateśvara 29n95, 47, 62n9
Vijayanandin 3, 47, 62n9, 83
Vijñānabhikṣu 115, 196–197
Vindhyavāsin 108n60
Vyāsa (Veda-) 113–117, 127, 242
Yaḥyā al-Barmakī 1
Yaʿqūb Ibn Ṭāriq 1, 1n2, 29n95, 64, 65

Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian Literature

Adab 139
Ādityapurāṇa 3, 45, 47, 84, 92, 93, 233
Agastimata 91
(Al-)arkand (Zīğ) 62n9, 63–64
(Al-)āṯār al-bāqiya 59, 62, 65–68
Date of composition 8
Bhagavadgītā 3, 5, 36–37, 47, 84, 97, 122, 160, 233, 236
Bhāraṯa (Kitāb) 117
Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta, or Brāhmasiddhānta 1, 3, 47, 64n16, 66, 83, 135
Bṛhatsaṃhitā 3, 47
Buddhacarita 88, 97–98
Carakasaṃhitā or Čaraka (Kitāb) 1, 1n4, 3, 97–98
Dharma Pātañjala 139
Futūḥ al-buldān (Kitāb) 21
(Al-)ğamāhir fī l-ğawāhir 49n207, 72
Gauḍapādabhāṣya 100, 103, 110
Commentarial tradition 197–199, 227–230
Date of composition 99
Gītā (Kitāb) 3, 5, 36, 47, 68, 85, 125, 160, 211
(Al-)ġurra (Kitāb) 3n12, 64–65
Ḥadiṯs 139
Ḥudūd al-ꜥālam 9, 13, 50
Jayamaṅgalā 103, 110
Commentarial tradition 197–199, 227–230
Date of composition 101
Karaṇasāra 29n95
Laghujātaka 3, 47
Mahābhārata 2, 47, 84, 88, 97, 109, 113, 116, 213, 215, 217
Maʾḵaḏ al-mawāqīt (Kitāb) 65
(The)Marvels of India (‮عجايب الهند‬‎) 69
(Al-)masālik wa l-mamālik (Kitāb) 21
Māṭharavṛtti 100, 103, 110
Commentarial tradition 197–199, 227–230
Date of composition 99
Matsyapurāṇa 45, 47, 84, 92, 93, 233
Mokṣadharma 97, 109
Nyāyabhāṣya 91–92
Pātañjalayogaśāstra 103, 126, 127, 129–131, 161, 194–195, 233, 235–236
Composition and authorship 113–116, 134
Date of composition 102
Pātañjalayogaśāstravivaraṇa 98, 114–117, 159, 164, 175, 195
Date of composition 102–103
Pātanğal (Kitāb) 4, 4n18, 40, 47, 76, 84–86, 88, 91, 96–97, 129, 132–133, 195, 235–236, 247
Date of composition 98
Literary review 5–6
References to it in the Taḥqīq mā li-l-Hind 1, 118, 125–127
Work’s status 9, 237
Pauliśasiddhānta 3, 47
Purāṇas 5, 47n196, 68, 76, 84, 85, 93, 125, 170, 171, 173, 233, 236
(Al-)qānūn al-Masʿūdī 5, 29, 29n96, 30
Quran 69, 139, 164n24
Rājamārtaṇḍa
103, 115, 159, 175, 195, 233
Date of composition 103
Rājataraṅgiṇī 9, 20, 30, 48n205, 56, 82
Sānk (Kitāb) 4, 4n18, 36, 47, 83–85, 88, 96–97, 129, 135, 230, 235–236
Commentarial tradition 197–199, 227–230
Date of composition 98
Literary review 5–6
References to it in the Taḥqīq mā li-l-Hind 1, 91, 111–112, 125–127, 202–203, Appendix
Work’s status 9, 237
Sāṅkhyakārikā 35, 85, 88, 98, 112, 234–235
Commentarial tradition 197–199, 227–230
Date of composition 99
Sāṅkhyapravacana (work by Vijñānabhikṣu) 115, 196
Sāṅkhyasaptativṛtti 100, 103, 110, 112
Commentarial tradition 197–199, 227–230
Date of composition 99–100
Sāṅkhyavṛtti 100, 103, 110, 112
Commentarial tradition 197–199, 227–230
Date of composition 99–100
Šašnāma 21
Ṣaṣṭitantra 109
(Al-)ṣaydana fī l-ṭibb (Kitāb) 43n169, 71
Sindhind 63–64
Ṣūrat al-arḍ 21
Suvarṇasaptati 100, 103, 110
Commentarial tradition 197–199, 227–230
Date of composition 99
Tafhīm 22n61, 33n119
Date of composition 8
Taḥdīd al-amākin 13n2, 16, 26, 29, 30, 46n190, 49, 66n24
Date of composition 8, 28
Taḥqīq mā li-l-Hind 3, 25, 59, 66–68, 80, 90, 232–234
Date of composition 3, 3n10, 8, 28
Work’s status 237
Tattvakaumudī 103, 110, 196, 234
Commentarial tradition 197–199, 227–230
Date of composition 101
Tattvavaiśāradī 103, 115, 159, 165, 175, 195
Date of composition 101
Upaniṣads 97, 97n4, 98, 126
Vāyupurāṇa 45, 47, 84, 86, 92, 93, 233
Vedas 47, 67, 84, 91, 117, 203n28, 211, 213, 214–215, 218, 228, 229, 233, 239
Viṣṇudharma or Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa 47, 92, 93, 160, 184, 233
Viṣṇupurāṇa 3, 45, 47, 84, 92, 93, 233
Vivaraṇa, cf. Pātañjalayogaśāstravivaraṇa
Yogabhāṣya 113, 116
Yogasūtra 113, 115, 116, 159
Yuktidīpikā 103, 110, 138n31, 196
Commentarial tradition 197–199, 227–230
Date of composition 100–101

Concepts related to Culture, Religion and Science

Actuality (Aristotelian concept) 85–87, 148, 240, 243
Advaita-Vedānta 90–91, 91n126, 99n11, 111–112n76
Allah 34–37, 40, 64n14, 84, 90–91n126, 92, 93, 150–155, 166, 192, 210–213, 239, 245, 247, 248
Bayt al-Ḥikma (or Dār al-Ḥikma) 15, 69
Brahminical, or Brahminism 58, 74, 77, 80, 129, 155, 170, 193, 232
Terminology 11
Brahmin(s) 11, 18, 28n92, 44, 46, 50, 55, 57, 66n27, 70, 72, 74–77, 81–82, 84, 89–90,
Brahmin(s) (cont.) 91, 95, 101, 109, 139, 201, 224, 233–234, 235
Encounter with al-Bīrūnī 28n92, 43, 46–47, 58, 73–80, 94–95, 233
Buddhist, or Buddhism 19, 51, 21–22n58, 232
In the Taḥqīq mā li-l-Hind 89–90
Dār al-Ḥikma, cf. Bayt al-Ḥikma
Durgā 49, 55, 56
Falsafa, or Islamic philosophy 88, 132, 143–144, 148–149. 164
Festivals (Hindu) 28n92, 44, 56, 57, 59, 63–64, 68
God, cf. Allah or Īśvara
Hindu, or Hinduism 19, 20n56, 36, 40n151, 50, 51, 54–57, 57n256, 58, 74, 77, 80, 90, 125, 125n129, 231, 233
Terminology 11
Indian astronomers/astrologers, cf. Brahmins
Indian philosophers, cf. Brahmins
Indra 155n88, 206, 250, 250n33
Īśvara 35, 90–91n126, 123, 124n123, 150–155, 158, 166, 192, 210–213, 215, 215n66, 236
Lakṣmī 56
Lokāyata 91, 91n130
Maʾmūn Academy 15
Mazdeism 89
Meru (Mount) 67, 93, 146, 188–190
Mihrğān 64
Mīmāṃsā 90–91
Muslim, or Islam 38, 90, 232
Intellectual history 1–2, 15, 21–22, 62, 69–70, 95, 172
Terminology 11
Nārāyaṇa 67, 92, 151n71, 234n2
Nowrūz 63
Nyāya 90–91
Pārvatī 49
Polyglotism 33–37, 69–71
Potentiality 85, 86, 87, 148, 148–149n60, 240, 243
Sāṅkhya (philosophy) 111–112, 233, 235, 236, 237
Its knowledge in Panjab 35–37, 80–88, 234
Śiva 54–57, 139, 165, 234
Sufism 88
Tantra, or Tantric ideas 97, 166
Vaiśeṣika 90–92
Viṣṇu 51, 56–57, 234
Yoga (philosophy) 235–236
Its knowledge in Gandhāra and Panjab 80–88, 233–234
Zoroastrianism 90
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