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In: The Books Sānk and Pātanğal
Noémie Verdon
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This is an open access title distributed under the terms of the CC BY-NC 4.0 license, which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Further information and the complete license text can be found at The terms of the CC license apply only to the original material. The use of material from other sources (indicated by a reference) such as diagrams, illustrations, photos and text samples may require further permission from the respective copyright holder.

Cover illustration: drawing by Françoise Verdon.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Verdon, Noémie, author.

Title: The books Sānk and Pātanğal : a socio-cultural history of al-Bīrūnī’s interpretation of Sāṅkhya and Yoga / by Noémie Verdon.

Description: Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2024. | Series: Perspectives on islamicate South Asia, 2666-0202 ; volume 2 | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2023048725 (print) | LCCN 2023048726 (ebook) | ISBN 9789004548534 (hardback) | ISBN 9789004680302 (ebook)

Subjects: LCSH: Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, 973?-1048–Criticism and interpretation. | Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, 973?-1048. Kitāb Bātanjal al-Hindī fī al-khalāṣ min al-irtibāk. | Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, 973?-1048. Tārīkh al-Hind. | Sanskrit literature–Translations into Arabic. | Islamic Empire–Relations–India. | India–Relations–Islamic Empire.

Classification: LCC Q143.B5 V47 2024 (print) | LCC Q143.B5 (ebook) | DDC 500–dc23/eng/20231026

LC record available at

LC ebook record available at

Typeface for the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic scripts: “Brill”. See and download:

ISSN 2666-0202

ISBN 978-90-04-54853-4 (hardback)

ISBN 978-90-04-68030-2 (e-book)

DOI 10.1163/9789004680302

Copyright 2024 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Brill Nijhoff, Brill Schöningh, Brill Fink, Brill mentis, Brill Wageningen Academic, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Böhlau and V&R unipress.

Koninklijke Brill NV reserves the right to protect this publication against unauthorized use.

This book is printed on acid-free paper and produced in a sustainable manner.

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