Appendix 1 Interview Guides and Examples

In: Worship, Ritual, and Pentecostal Spirituality-as-Theology
Martina Björkander
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Table A1.1

Interview guide, part I

Name of interviewee: 

Role in church (if any): 

Do you want to remain anonymous in the report?













Marital status:






What language do you consider your mother tongue?













Other language, please specify:

In what province of Kenya where you brought up?




North Eastern



Rift Valley


Other nation, please specify:

Which of the following categories best describes the religious affiliation of the family you where brought up in:


African traditional

Evangelical, non-Pentecostal





No religion


Other, please specify:

What is the highest level of school you have completed or highest degree you have received?

Not completed primary school

College diploma

Primary school

Bachelor degree

Secondary school

Graduate degree

College certificate

Doctorate degree

For how long have you been affiliated with or worked in this church?

Less than 1 year

1–3 years

3–5 years

5–10 years

More than 10 years

Table A1.2

Interview guide, part II: Example, pastor in citam Woodley

Main questions

Probing questions (optional)

Let me tell you first that there are no right and wrong answers. This is not a test and I will not use the answers to evaluate your faith or your ministry. Rather I am most of all interested in your thoughts and experiences, so please feel free to share them simply and boldly.

1. Please tell me a bit about your personal background and your role in citam Woodley.


spiritual journey

education—professional career—passions

current position and role

2. How would you describe the theology of citam woodley?

How would you position your church within the wider Christian theological landscape?

How would you define Pentecostal theology?

How would you describe your church’s view of:—God—Christ—Holy Spirit—salvation—the role of the church in the world—baptism in the Spirit—baptism in water—Holy communion—(creation—the Bible—eschatology—evil)

I have understood that the word worship has several meanings, and I would like us to look at the concept from different angles.

3. If you look att worship as a theological concept, how would you explain it?

What different levels of meaning does the word ‘worship’ have?

What does it mean to ‘worship God’ and why is that important?

If you were to give me some Scripture verses or a Bible story that captures the meaning of ‘worship’ for you, what would that be?

In your church I often hear people say things like: ‘we worship/ honour/ bless/ exalt/praise/thank you’. Is there a difference between these words or are they basically the same?

4. If you instead look at worship as music, how would you describe it?

How would you describe the musical genre called ‘praise & worship’? Is this genre more fitting for worshipping God than other genres? Why or why not?

How would you describe the musical style of your church?

How would you categorise the different types of songs used in your church? Are different types of songs used for different occasions?

Is there a difference between ‘praise-songs’, ‘worship-songs’ and ‘gospel songs’? If so, what is it?

Who decides on what kind of music should be used, and on what basis is that decision made?

What is the origin of the songs used in your church?

How important is language and the level of language when you choose songs?

What is most important when you pick a song—the content or the musical style?

5. What role would you say that worship plays as part of the sunday services in your church?

What is the function of worship (songs & music) within the church service? How does it affect the congregation spiritually or psychologically?

Do you choose songs that will fit the theme of the sermon or are they chosen independently?

How important is the actual performance of worship within the church service? For example, the musical quality, sound, clothing, dance etc?

In your church I often hear the expressions ‘sanctuary’ and ‘altar’. How important are the physical surroundings for worship? Does the hall itself have a certain meaning?

Your Sunday program always has more or less the same structure. Is that structure the same for all citam churches? Do you see this structure as a pragmatic choice due to your spiritual heritage or a God-given liturgy? Could it be changed?

How would you describe the relationship between structure and spontaneity in the Sunday services? Is there a tension between allowing God to move freely in the service and yet keeping to the time and program?

You always have three services each Sunday; is there any difference between them and how do you feel about doing the same program over and over again?

If you look ten years ahead, what do you think the church services and worship music in your church will look like? Do you work strategically to develop services?

6. How do you see the relationship between worship music, church services and culture?

How important is it for you as a church to relate to the surrounding culture in the way you structure your services and the kind of music you choose? Do you deliberately engage with culture in any way?

What culture would you say is closest to you in your expressions as a church; Kenyan traditional culture—Kenyan popular/urban culture—Western culture—Protestant church culture—African church culture—African culture in general—or any other?

What effect does popular music have on Christian music in Kenya and vice versa?

Now I would like to ask you a little bit more about your personal experiences of worship and serving as a worship pastor.

7. You have served as a worship pastor for many years, how do you see your role in leading worship?

What is your most important task as a worship pastor?

Have you experienced a calling to lead worship? How did that come about?

What Scripture verses or Bible stories inspire you in your role as a worship pastor?

What other sources of inspiration do you have: books, pastors, artists, churches?

What are the major challenges that you face as a worship pastor in citam Woodley?

8. As a worship pastor, I guess that worship also means a lot to you in your personal walk with god?

What does worship mean to you spiritually, in your relationship with God?

If you were to pick a certain song that has meant a lot in your spiritual journey, what would that be? Why?

Can you describe how you feel when you go before God in worship?

Finally, I have a question that relates to the role of Worship in Pentecostal churches in general.

9. Why do you think that worship in the form of music, plays such an important part within pentecostal or charismatic churches today?

Has songs and music always played an important part in Pentecostal/Charismatic spirituality?

How has the function of music and the type of music used changed over the years?

How do you think that worship music will sound and be performed in Pentecostal churches globally, 10 years from now?

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