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Historically, control of international shipping was the foundation of international power and economic development, from the days of the Greeks and Phoenicians (and their control of the Mediterranean), to the dominance of the British Empire in more recent centuries. After World War II, many developing nations saw shipping as a means to control their economic destiny, and their efforts were supported by Elisabeth Mann Borgese. So while very little of her work on ocean governance related to shipping, she has inspired a vessel named after her!1

Elisabeth would be surprised to see that there are eight papers in this part, as only seafarers’ rights and port state control were close to her heart. The thought that a Polar Code to govern the Arctic Ocean has materialized would delight her; the introduction of autonomous ships to confound that governance would definitely be of interest. She recognized shipping as a truly global industry, and that it was one with serious capital requirements that do not incent the best in human behavior. Each of the eight papers in this part would be received with enthusiasm by her as her mission of good ocean governance for the benefit of the planet, as a whole, and the prosperity of its citizens were a key driver in each of the topics covered in this part. Enjoy!

*

“Preface,” in The Crisis of Knowledge: New Directions for Learning and Informed Decision-making for Oceans and Coasts, Proceedings of Pacem in Maribus XXVI, Halifax, Canada, 29 November-3 December 1998, ed. S.J. Rolston (Halifax: International Ocean Institute, 1999), xii.

1

The research vessel Elisabeth Mann Borgese, IMO no. 8521438, was built in 1987 and is registered in Germany, see http://www.marinetraffic.com/en/ais/details/ships/shipid:152735/mmsi:218601000/imo:8521438/vessel:ELISABETH_MANN_BORGESE#cmJKM69AwyzrrsFv.99.

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The Future of Ocean Governance and Capacity Development

Essays in Honor of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002)