Editors:
Timo Koivurova
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Sanna Kopra
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Index

Air pollution 27 , 63 , 67 , 75 , 76 , 79 , 80 , 162
Airports (Greenland) 101 , 114 , 119 , 125 , 153
Air quality 66 , 68 , 7782
Aker Arctic 47 , 55 , 163 , 164 , 170
Alaska 102 , 109111 , 119 , 125
Alibaba 11 , 52 , 155 , 157
Antarctica 17 , 18 , 31 , 43 , 46 , 47 , 113
Arctia 162, 164
Arctic Circle Assembly 36 , 117
Arctic Council 1 , 3 , 2528 , 3032 , 38 , 43 , 44 , 4851 , 56 , 76 , 77 , 82 , 101 , 102 , 113 , 123 , 161 , 167 , 179181
Arctic Eight 17 , 26 , 28 , 93 , 179
Arctic expertise 137 , 138 , 157165 , 169 , 170
Arctic fisheries agreement 25 , 32 , 50
Arctic lng 80 , 108 , 110
Arctic Ocean 13 , 19 , 27 , 30 , 31 , 35 , 36 , 46 , 47 , 50n4 , 50n5 , 54 , 57 , 58 , 62 , 65 , 66 , 104 , 105 , 107109 , 117n5 , 121 , 142 , 149 , 153 , 162 , 165 , 169 , 170 , 179 , 182
Arctic Railway 3 , 34 , 137 , 149153
Arkhangelsk 99 , 106 , 108 , 114
Asia-Pacific 6 , 12 , 16 , 20 , 26 , 99 , 100 , 178
Baltic States 69 , 145 , 150
Barents region 149
Beijing 13 , 5 , 6 , 818 , 20 , 2628 , 33 , 34 , 3638 , 47 , 68 , 80 , 93 , 94 , 96 , 99 , 100 , 101 , 106 , 109 , 110 , 114 , 120 , 138 , 139 , 141 , 146 , 161 , 178 , 179182
Belt and Road Initiative (bri) 1 , 6 , 12 , 13 , 16 , 30 , 51 , 93 , 94 , 107 , 125 , 142 , 180
Biodiesel 143
Biofuels 143145 , 151 , 168 , 169
Biorefinery 143145 , 150 , 152 , 166 , 169 , 170
Black carbon 3 , 63 , 64 , 76 , 77 , 180
Brazil 12 , 17 , 69 , 70 , 74
Business Finland 139141 , 143 , 159 , 160 , 164n12
Canada 1 , 26 , 33 , 36 , 50 , 54 , 63 , 65 , 102 , 109 , 112 , 113 , 115 , 119 , 124 , 160
Carbon dioxide emissions 63 , 66 , 72 , 78
Central Arctic Ocean 31 , 44 , 50 , 54 , 104 , 179
China Dream 7
China National Offshore Oil Corporation (cnooc) 110
China National Petroleum Corporation (cnpc) 99 , 110
China-Nordic Arctic Research Centre (cnarc) 55 , 56 , 101
China Ocean Shipping Company (cosco) 108 , 164
chinare 46 , 47
Cinia 156 , 157
Cleantech 141 , 158160
Climate policy 73 , 7678
Climate science 42
Coal 11 , 64 , 6670 , 74 , 76 , 7882 , 110 , 180 , 182
Cold-climate testing 154 , 155 , 169
Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (caff) 49
Copenhagen 70 , 102 , 112
Cruise tourism 104n2 , 148 , 150
Data center 137, 155, 156, 169
Deng Xiaoping 7 , 15
Denmark 1 , 19 , 26 , 50 , 99 , 101 , 102 , 138
Digital 30 , 117 , 118 , 149 , 156 , 158 , 167
Donald J. Trump 7 , 9 , 15 , 36 , 56 , 73 , 111
Ecological civilization 67 , 73 , 75
Energy 11 , 19 , 26 , 35 , 48 , 57 , 63 , 67 , 70 , 72 , 74 , 7782 , 93 , 95 , 98 , 99 , 101103 , 109111 , 121 , 125 , 137 , 141144 , 154 , 155 , 157 , 158 , 160162 , 164 , 169 , 181
Entrepreneurship 52 , 91 , 143
Environmental footprint 64 , 66 , 82
European Free Trade Area (efta) 100
European Union (EU) 16 , 26 , 32 , 50 , 51 , 53 , 66 , 73 , 99 , 166 , 181
Exclusive Economic Zone (eez) 47 , 101 , 103n1 , 105 , 106 , 151n7
Extractive industries 66 , 92 , 122 , 125 , 150 , 154
Fibre-optic cables (Broadband) 154
Finland 1 , 3 , 6 , 12 , 13 , 26 , 46 , 55 , 56 , 58 , 99 , 117 , 120 , 121 , 126 , 137170 , 181
Finland-China Innovation Centre 141
Fisheries 15 , 25 , 29 , 31 , 32 , 35 , 44 , 50 , 55n9 , 63 , 65 , 75 , 95
5G 117 , 121 , 139
Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence 14
Foreign Direct Investment (fdi). Investment (Investing, Investments)
Fossil fuel 11 , 17 , 62 , 64 , 72 , 7882 , 109 , 180
Free Trade Agreement (fta) 6 , 16 , 99 , 100 , 101
Gazprom 99 , 110
Greenhouse gas emissions (ghg) 62 , 63 , 75 , 77 , 79
Greenland 19 , 35 , 48 , 50 , 65 , 99 , 101 , 102 , 107 , 109112 , 114 , 119 , 120 , 124 , 125 , 153 , 160 , 166 , 181
Guangzhou shipyard 163
Helsinki 140 , 146 , 150 , 151
Hubei province 139
Hu Jintao 6 , 16 , 67
Ice-breaking 163
Iceland 1 , 6 , 26 , 32 , 46 , 48 , 50 , 54 , 55 , 80 , 98 , 100 , 106 , 110 , 113 , 117 , 119 , 124 , 166 , 181
Imports 12 , 35 , 94 , 97 , 98 , 101 , 110 , 139 , 145 , 150 , 151 , 154 , 155
India 12 , 16 , 26 , 35 , 69 , 70 , 74
Indigenous peoples 15 , 25 , 28 , 30 , 3234 , 38 , 122 , 123 , 142 , 180 , 181
Intellectual Property Rights (iprs) 53 , 100 , 114 , 165 , 167 , 168 , 183
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (indc) 71 , 73
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (ipcc) 63 , 74 , 76 , 82
International Arctic Science Committee (iasc) 25 , 47 , 54 , 180
International climate negotiations 3 , 70 , 73
International Maritime Organization (imo) 30 , 31
International Polar Year (ipy) 4347
Investment (Investing, Investments) 12 , 13 , 19 , 33 , 37 , 46n2 , 51 , 53 , 56 , 6467 , 8082 , 9096 , 98102 , 103 , 107 , 108 , 111126 , 137141 , 143145 , 147150 , 152156 , 160 , 163 , 165170 , 180 , 183
Iron 66 , 112 , 155
Japan 26 , 32 , 35 , 37 , 38 , 50 , 51 , 56n10 , 69 , 77 , 96 , 110 , 114 , 144 , 150 , 179
Jiangnan shipyard 163
Jiang Zemin 6 , 12 , 15 , 138n3
Kaidi 143 , 144 , 168
Kemi 143145 , 152 , 154 , 168 , 169
Kemijärvi 143145 , 152 , 169
Kirkenes 101 , 105 , 109 , 116 , 119 , 149153
Kola Peninsula 113
Korea (South, the Republic of) (Korean) 16 , 26 , 32 , 35 , 37 , 38 , 45 , 49 , 56n10 , 77 , 105 , 110 , 150 , 155 , 179
Kyoto Protocol 62 , 63n1 , 6971
Lapland 34 , 55 , 113 , 118 , 124 , 137 , 141150 , 152 , 154156 , 165169 , 181
Liquified natural gas (lng) 36 , 68 , 80 , 93 , 99 , 102 , 108 , 110 , 111 , 125 , 164 , 165
Liu Xiaobo 4n7 , 6 , 100 , 115
Microplastics 65
Mining (Mine, Mines) 33 , 34 , 81 , 107 , 111113 , 122 , 124 , 137 , 142 , 151 , 152 , 154 , 158160 , 162 , 181
National People’s Congress (npc) 5
Near-Arctic state 1 , 26 , 27 , 29 , 37 , 38 , 75 , 107
Northeast Passage (nep). the Northern Sea Route
Northern Sea Route (nsr) 30 , 3537 , 57 , 93 , 99 , 103109 , 149153 , 150 , 156 , 157 , 164
North Pole 27 , 47
Northwest Passage (nwp) 104 , 107
Norway (Norwegian) 1 , 6 , 26 , 50 , 54 , 55n9 , 100 , 101 , 106 , 110 , 115 , 119 , 124 , 139 , 149 , 151 , 166 , 183
Nuclear power 9 , 11 , 36 , 47 , 78 , 117 , 162
Nunavut 54 , 109 , 112
Oil and gas 48 , 78 , 90 , 102 , 109111 , 137 , 162 , 181
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (oecd) 69 , 81 , 122 , 139
Oulu 151 , 152 , 156
Outward Direct Investment (odi). Investment (Investing, Investments)
Paris Agreement 38 , 62 , 7174 , 81 , 82 , 180
People’s Liberation Army (pla) 6 , 27
Persistent organic pollutants (pops) 5 , 64 , 82 , 180
Philippines 15
Polar Code 25 , 31 , 105 , 179
Polar Research Institute of China (pric) 47 , 48 , 54n6 , 163
Polar Silk Road 1 , 55n9 , 103
Pollution 27 , 31 , 50n5 , 6365 , 67 , 68 , 7476 , 79 , 80 , 119 , 162
Pompeo, Mike (US Secretary of State) 27 , 36 , 37 , 5658 , 167
Power 1 , 2 , 513 , 16 , 17 , 19 , 20 , 34 , 3638 , 50 , 52 , 53 , 56 , 58 , 68 , 70 , 7882 , 94 , 100 , 114120 , 139 , 155 , 162 , 164 , 165 , 178 , 179 , 181 , 183
Pulp 66 , 90 , 144 , 145 , 152
Putin, Vladimir 6 , 99 , 110
Rare earth elements (ree) 11 , 111
Renewable energy 48 , 67 , 78 , 80 , 82 , 137 , 143 , 144 , 154 , 155 , 157 , 158 , 160 , 162
Renewables 48 , 67 , 7880 , 82 , 137 , 141144 , 154157 , 159 , 160 , 162
Resources 11 , 17 , 18 , 26 , 29 , 30 , 33 , 35 , 36 , 48 , 52 , 53 , 57 , 58 , 63 , 64 , 66 , 75 , 78 , 79 , 81 , 82 , 9092 , 95 , 98 , 102106 , 108 , 110115 , 118 , 121123 , 125 , 143 , 147 , 150 , 154 , 157 , 158 , 161 , 180 , 181 , 183
Rovaniemi 27 , 36 , 55 , 56 , 58 , 61 , 102 , 119 , 121 , 141 , 145 , 146149 , 151153 , 155 , 161 , 166168
Russia (Russian) 1 , 6 , 10 , 12 , 13 , 16 , 18 , 26 , 33 , 3537 , 44 , 47 , 50 , 54 , 5658 , 69 , 90 , 91 , 96 , 9899 , 103110 , 113115 , 118 , 119 , 125 , 145 , 151 , 156 , 157 , 160 , 165 , 179 , 181 , 182
Safety 27 , 31 , 106 , 107 , 109 , 148 , 150 , 157159 , 162
Sami 34 , 149
Science 4258 , 68 , 82 , 140 , 158 , 180
Science collaboration 5457
Senior Arctic Official (sao) 31 , 38 , 49
Sharp power 114116 , 118 , 183
Shipbuilding 35 , 103109 , 159 , 162164 , 167
Shipping 1 , 19 , 31 , 35 , 36 , 63 , 65 , 66 , 90 , 93 , 99 , 101 , 103108 , 125 , 150153 , 157 , 158 , 161164 , 182
Short-lived climate pollutants 64 , 7677 , 81 , 82
Singapore 16 , 26 , 32 , 3537 , 49 , 101 , 181
Smart specialization 148
Soft Power 115117 , 120
South Africa 1 , 69 , 70 , 74
South China Sea 9 , 10 , 14 , 15 , 27 , 38 , 179
Sparsity 91
Spitsbergen Treaty 25 , 28
Sport 13 , 94 , 141 , 159 , 161 , 169
State Owned Enterprises (soes) 8 , 34 , 93 , 112 , 122 , 153
Sustainable development 29 , 30 , 42 , 50 , 55n9 , 67 , 72 , 74 , 75 , 119 , 147
Svalbard 35 , 54 , 117 , 119 , 124 , 166 , 180
Sweden 1 , 26 , 49 , 99 , 100 , 120 , 121 , 138 , 139 , 144 , 145 , 155 , 156
Taimyr Peninsula 113
Tecent Supercell 139
Tourism 63 , 90 , 92 , 100 , 104n2 , 113114 , 124 , 125 , 137 , 138 , 141 , 142 , 145157 , 169 , 181
Trade 58 , 10 , 11 , 13 , 19 , 35 , 38 , 5153 , 58 , 63 , 66 , 94 , 96102 , 106108 , 111 , 119 , 138 , 139 , 141 , 151 , 167
Trump, Donald 7 , 9 , 15 , 36 , 56 , 73 , 111
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (unclos) 15 , 27 , 28 , 30 , 38 , 103n1 , 179
United Nations (UN) 14 , 15 , 27 , 30 , 45 , 62 , 69 , 122 , 179 , 180
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (unfccc) 62 , 69 , 7173 , 76 , 77
United States 1 , 712 , 1518 , 26 , 27 , 31 , 3638 , 44 , 45 , 5054 , 56 , 58 , 63 , 6971 , 73 , 94 , 9799 , 101 , 102 , 109112 , 117 , 119 , 121 , 139 , 151 , 153n9 , 154 , 167 , 180 , 182
Uranium 112 , 113
Wartsila 139 , 163165 , 170
Washington 7 , 10 , 14 , 38 , 102 , 121 , 167
World Trade Organization 63 , 94
Xi Jinping 1 , 5 , 6 , 8 , 51 , 73 , 102 , 106 , 140 , 167 , 169 , 182
Xuelong 1 , 46 , 47 , 53 , 56 , 107 , 170
Yamal lng 93 , 108 , 110
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