List of Figures, Maps and Tables

In: Buddhism in Central Asia I
Open Access

List of Figures, Maps and Tables

Figures

1.1 T’aejo worshipping Dharmodgata, Kaesŏng (?), 1307. Treasure no. 1887, National Museum of Korea. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea 37

2.1 Remains of a Buddha sculpture with painted base with donors. In situ, from the temple Ta.i. in Tarishlak, Khotan, ca. 7th/8th c. (?). Stein Archive Photo 392/26(691), © British Library 43

2.2 Painted wooden panel, 12 × 46 cm. Excavated at Dandān-öiliq, Khotan, temple D.X, ca. 7th/8th century (?). 1907,1111.73, British Museum 46

2.3 Painted wooden tablet, 49,5 × 13 cm. Found in Dandān-öiliq, Khotan. ΓΑ-1125, State Hermitage Museum 47

2.4 Line drawing of the painting found in Toplukdong Small Temple in Domoko, Khotan, 7th/9th c. (?). Xinjiang Archaeological Team, The Excavation on the Buddhist Site of Domoko, 300, fig. 14 50

2.5 Plan of the Toplukdong Small Temple showing the positions of the paintings of Samjñāya and another protector, Domoko, Khotan. Modified after Xinjiang Archaeological Team, The Excavation on the Buddhist Site of Domoko, 294–295, figs. 3 and 4 52

2.6 The founding legend of Khotan. Wall painting from the ceiling of the main chamber (western) niche of Mogao Cave 237, end of 8th–first half of the 9th c. © Dunhuang Academy Dunhuang 57

2.7 Depiction of Mt. Gośirṣa/Gośṛṅga. Wall painting from the ceiling of the entrance corridor of Mogao Cave 9, 9th c. Sun Xiusheng 孫修身, ed., Dunhuang shiku quanji 12: Fojiao dongchuan gushihua juan 敦煌石窟全集12, 佛教東傳故事畫卷 [The Complete Collection of Dunhuang Caves, vol. 12: Section on Paintings on the Stories of the Transmission of Buddhism to East] (Shanghai: Renmin chubanshe and Sheji chuban jiduan, 2000), 90, fig. 72 58

2.8 The auspicious image of Pimo. Wall painting from the main chamber western niche ceiling of Mogao Cave 231, 9th c. Zhang Xiaogang 张小刚, Dunhuang fojiao gantonghua yanjiu 敦煌佛教感通画研究. [Research on Buddhist gantong tableau (感通画) in Dunhuang] (Shenzhen: Gansu jiaoyu chubanshe 甘肃教育出版社 [Gansu Education Press], 2015), 128, fig. 2-1-3 59

4.1 The Thousand-armed Avalokiteśvara. Dunhuang, 10th c. MG 17659 96

4.2 Ekādaśamukhāvalokiteśvara. Dunhuang, dated 985. 1943.57.14, Harvard Art Museum 100

4.3 Detail of Ekādaśamukhāvalokiteśvara (figure 4.2) 101

4.4 Amoghapāśa maṇḍala. Dunhuang, second half of the 10th c. MG 3579 106

4.5 Donor portrait of Cao Yijin. Mogao Cave 100, 10th c. © Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, Gansu, China 109

4.6 Donor portrait of Cao Yuande. Mogao Cave 100, 10th c. © Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, Gansu, China 109

4.7 Amoghapāśa. Dunhuang, dated 1010. MG 23079 112

4.8 Detail of Amoghapāśa (figure 4.7) 113

4.9 Kṣitigarbha with Vajrasattva as secondary image. Dunhuang, second half of 10th c. F1935.11, Freer Gallery 115

4.10 Dual image of Kṣitigarbha and Ekādaśamukha. Dunhuang, 10th c. MG 3644 118

6.1 Confluence of Chandra and Bhaga, view from Gandhola, Lahul. Christian Laczanits, 1993, WHAV 165

6.2 Marble head of an Avalokiteśvara. Gandhola, Lahul (?) Dated to the 8th century, kept in Tupchiling, Lahul. Christian Luczanits, 1993, WHAV 166

6.3 Imprints of Padmasambhava. Guru Temple (Tib. lha khang) in Nako, Kinnaur. Deborah Klimburg-Salter, 1998, WHAV 171

6.4 Lotsawa Temple (Tib. lo tsa ba lha khang). Ribba, Kinnaur. Restored in 2016 (top and middle) and before destruction in 1994 (bottom). Sources resp. YouTube, “Celebrating Buddha Jayanti at Ribba Village in Kinnaur,” published May 27, 2017, accessed November 26, 2018. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NFdSknJpqhc> (2:57 and 2:43); Deborah Klimburg-Salter, 1994>, WHAV 176

6.5 Tenzin Kalzang Lochen Tulku Rinpoche, the 19th incarnation of Rinchen Zangpo inside the restored Lotsawa Temple in Ribba, 2016. Youtube, “His Eminence the Lotswa Rinchen Zangpo in Ribba Lotswa Lakhang, Kinnaur,” published August 14, 2016, accessed November 26, 2018. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ht6gg0KPZog> (2:50) 177

6.6 Dilapidated maṇḍala. Lha Lama Temple (Tib. lha bla ma lha khang). Johling, Lahul. Dated to the time of Rinchen Zangpo. Verena Widorn, 2002, WHAV  178

6.7 Interior and clay sculptures of Tonpa Gompa (Monastery). Gumrang, Lahul. Dated to 12th century. Verena Widorn, 2002, WHAV 180

6.8 Old stone stūpas. Near Gumrang, Lahul. Dated to the time of Rinchen Zangpo. Verena Widorn, 2002, WHAV 181

6.9 Local Drukpa Kagyü lineage with Padmasambhava (left), sculptures in the monastery of Gandhola, Lahul. Christian Luczanits, 1993, WHAV 184

6.10 Yurdong Monastery. Bhaga Valley, Lahul. Verena Widorn, 2017, WHAV 186

8.1 Fragment of an Old Uyghur translation of the Wutai shan zan 五台山贊 [Praise of Mt. Wutai]. Ch/U 6956 verso, © Depositum der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Orientabteilung 207

8.2 Buddhist wall painting with scenes from hell and pilgrim inscriptions from Bezeklik Cave 18 (Grünwedel’s no. 8). III 8453, © Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Museum für Asiatische Kunst 213

8.3 Old Uyghur inscription from a wall of ruin Q in Kočo. III 386, © Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Museum für Asiatische Kunst 219

8.4 Old Uyghur inscription from a wall of ruin Q in Kočo. III 367, © Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Museum für Asiatische Kunst 220

8.5 Old Uyghur inscription from a wall of ruin Q in Kočo. III 1046, © Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Museum für Asiatische Kunst 221

8.6 Old Uyghur inscription from a wall of ruin Q in Kočo. III 393, © Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Museum für Asiatische Kunst 223

8.7 Mongolian document (‘Geleitbrief für Kuriere’) preserved in the Berlin Turfan collection. Mainz 869, catalogue no. MongHT 75, © Depositum der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in der Staats­bibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Orientabteilung 224

8.8 Old Uyghur inscription from a wall of ruin Q in Kočo. III 379, © Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Museum für Asiatische Kunst. 226

8.9 Buddha image painted on beam in Kočo. III 4435c, © Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Museum für Asiatische Kunst/Martina Runge 228

9.1 Samantabhadra. Yulin Cave 3, ca. 12th/13th c. © Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, Gansu, China 232

9.2 Mañjuśrī. Yulin Cave 3. Ca. 12th/13th c. © Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, Gansu, China 233

9.3 Detail of figure 9.1, Xuanzang and proto-Sun Wukong. Yulin Cave 3, ca. 12th/13th c. © Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, Gansu, China 234

9.4 Detail of figure 9.1, Suddhana. Yulin Cave 3, ca. 12th/13th c. © Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, Gansu, China 235

9.5 Detail of figure 9.2, drainage scene. Yulin Cave 3, ca. 12th/13th c. © Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, Gansu, China 240

9.6 Detail of figure 9.2, Mañjuśrī and his entourage. Yulin Cave 3, ca. 12th/13th c. © Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, Gansu, China 241

10.1 Mogao Cave 465, Dunhuang, late 12th c. (?). Yang Xiong 楊雄 and Wu Jian 吳健, eds., Dunhuang shiku yishu. Mogao ku di siliuwu ku (Yuan) 敦煌石窟藝術。莫高窟第四六五窟(元) [Art from the Caves of Dunhuang. Mogao Cave 465 (Yuan)] (Nanjing: Jiansu meishu chubanshe, 1996), plate 3 (p. 34) 254

10.2 Mural of Uṣṇīṣavijayā maṇḍala. Yulin Cave 3, Southern wall, Eastern section, late 12th c. (?). Dunhuang yanjiu yuan 敦煌研究院, ed., Zhongguo shiku. Anxi Yulin ku 中國石窟。安西榆林窟 [Caves of China. Yulin Caves in Anxi] (Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe, 1997), plate 153 256

10.3 Mural of Uṣṇīṣavijayā. Eastern Thousand Buddha Cave 2, Guazhou. Zhang Baoxi 张宝玺, Guazhou Dong qianfodong Xixia shiku yishu 瓜洲東千佛洞西夏石窟藝術 [The Art of the Tangut Caves in the Eastern Buddhas Caves in Guazhou] (Beijing: Xuyuan chuban she, 2012), plate 6 (p. 105) 258

10.4 Wooden panel of Uṣṇīṣavijayā maṇḍala. Karakhoto, late 12th c. (?). x2406, The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg 259

10.5–6 Male and female donors in lower right corner of wooden panels of Uṣṇīṣavijayā maṇḍala. Karakhoto, late 12th c. (?). Details of x2406 (fig. 10.4, male donor) and x2407 (female donor). The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg 260

10.7 Thangka with a portrait of a Buddhist master with imperial couple. ­Karakhoto, late 12th c. (?). x2400, The State Hermitage Museum, St. ­Petersburg 261

10.8 Detail of the portrait of a Buddhist master (figure 10.7). Karakhoto, late 12th c. (?). x2400, The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg 262

10.9–10 Thangka of Vajravārāhī and detail of Buddhist master in lower corner of left register. Karakhoto, late 12th c. (?). x2393, The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg 263

10.11–12 Thangka of Cakrasaṃvara-Vajravārāhī in union and detail of Buddhist master in lower left corner. Karakhoto, late 12th c. (?). x3556, The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg 263

10.13–14 Thangka of Vajravārāhī and detail of Buddhist master in lower left corner. Western Trans-Himalaya, anonymous collection. Deborah E. Klimburg-­Salter, The Silk Route and the Diamond Path: Esoteric Buddhist Art on the Trans-Himalayan Trade Routes (Los Angeles: UCLA Art Council, 1982), plate 112 264

10.15 Mural of portrait of Buddhist master with white hat. Eastern Thousand Buddha Cave 4, Guazhou. Zhang Baoxi, Guazhou Dong qianfodong Xixia shiku yishu, plate 35 (p. 184) 265

10.16 Buddhist master with white hat. Mogao Cave 465, Eastern wall, above entrance in main chamber, Dunhuang, late 12th c. (?). Yang Xiong and Wu Jian, Dunhuang shiku yishu. Mogao ku di siliuwu ku (Yuan), plate 117 (p. 145) 266

10.17 Buddhist master with white hat. Mogao Cave 464, Dunhuang. Xie Jisheng, “Mogao ku di 465 ku bihua hua yu Xixia kao,” 80 (plate 12) 267

10.18 Buddha crown for Tantric ritual practice. Dunhuang. P. 4518 (7), © The British Library Board 267

10.19–20 Fragments of crowns for Tantric ritual practice. Karakhoto. x2500 (left) and x2503 (right), The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg 268

Maps

0.1 Network of Buddhist nodes in Eastern Central Asia. © ERC project ­BuddhistRoad. The map was prepared by Jürgen Schörflinger 4

2.1 Main Buddhist sites of Khotan oasis, where depictions of legends have been found. Modified after Stein, Ancient Khotan, “Map of Khotan Area,” by J. Schörflinger 41

6.1 Map of Himachal Pradesh, India. Western Himalaya Archive Vienna (WHAV) 153

6.2 Map of Lahul, India. Cultural History Information System (CHIS) 157

6.3 Map of Kinner Kailash, India. CHIS 158

8.1 Sketch plan drawn by Albert Grünwedel in 1902 showing a route section of the First German Turfan expedition. TA 6876-24, © Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Museum für Asiatische Kunst 215

8.2 Sketch plan of Kočo drawn by Albert Grünwedel (First German Turfan expedition, 1902–1903). TA 253, © Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Museum für Asiatische Kunst 216

10.1 Territory of Tangut Empire around 1150. © ERC project BuddhistRoad. The map was prepared by Jürgen Schörflinger 252

Tables

3.1 The titles of the rulers in the East Uyghur Kaganate 64

3.2 The titles of the rulers in the West Uyghur Kingdom 67

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