Chapter 21 The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā of Kuladatta and its Parallels in the Śaiva Pratiṣṭhātantras

In: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Ryugen Tanemura
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1 Introduction

Most people think that the prominent features of Tantric religions are their esoteric teachings. This might mislead us into supposing that these religions were limited to restricted communities. But in fact these religions extended over a much wider domain. We see this if we consider the fact that both Śaivism and Tantric Buddhism offered a wide range of public social rituals.1 Following Śaiva models, Tantric Buddhism offered various kinds of consecration ceremonies (pratiṣṭhā).2 Śaivism produced Paddhatis and Pratiṣṭhātantras3 which teach the details of these public social rituals. Tantric Buddhism also produced a number of manuals which are closely comparable to Śaiva Pratiṣṭhātantras and Paddhatis. Of these, three manuals are particularly rich in information: the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā of Kuladatta, the Vajrāvalī of Abhayākaragupta, and the Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya of Jagaddarpaṇa or Darpaṇācārya, which incorporates much of the Vajrāvalī but adds some new materials (Sanderson 2009, 126–127, note 293).

The purpose of this paper is to present a variety of Śaiva parallels in the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, especially textual parallels between the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā and the Devyāmata, a Śaiva Pratiṣṭhātantra, as materials to consider concerning the relations between Śaivism and Tantric Buddhism.

2 Rituals in the Public Domain

First, I would like to present parallels at the scriptural level between Śaivism and Tantric Buddhism. Just as in Śaivism, where the Saiddhāntika religion, which non-Saiddhāntikas considered to be a fundamental but exoteric and lower Śaiva teaching, is involved in the rituals in the public domain,4 so too the ritual system of the consecration ceremonies prescribed in the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā is based on the Yogatantras (more precisely, the Vajradhātumaṇḍala system prescribed in the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha, the principal scripture of the Yogatantra class), which was considered to be the Vajrayāna’s fundamental authority by the “higher,” more esoteric tantras, i.e. Yogottara- and Yoginītantras.5

The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā as a whole is a kind of construction manual for monasteries, and the author Kuladatta teaches details of various kinds of rituals within this framework.6 In chapter 2, having examined the site for a monastery and removed from the site extraneous substances that cause various calamities, the officiant (ācārya) should visualise the site, which has been divided into eighty-one compartments, as the Vajradhātumaṇḍala. He should visualise Vairocana in the centre and the other deities in the rest of the compartments. In chapter 3, the officiant should prepare water jugs which are to be used in the ritual. These water jugs represent the deities of the Vajradhātumaṇḍala, and he should draw the symbols of the deities on them. In the pratiṣṭhā of images, although images (or rather the deities of images) go through the brahmanical life cycle rites, they are sprinkled with water from the water jugs which represent the deities of the Vajradhātumaṇḍala.

The fact that the system of the Vajradhātumaṇḍala is fundamental is implied by the following remarks of Kuladatta.7

(1) Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, Kalaśādhivāsanā in chapter 3:

yasyācāryasya vajradhātau nādhimokṣas tasya sveṣṭadevatādhimokṣeṇa bhūśodhanapratiṣṭhāparyanteṣu sarvakriyākaraṇam aviruddham.8

Tanemura 2004, 135

If an ācārya does not have a strong conviction in the Vajradhātu, there is no obstacle to his doing all the rites from purification of the site to consecration [of images etc.] with a strong conviction in his own chosen deity.

The fact that the pratiṣṭhā prescribed in the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā is a public social ritual is implied in some parts in the text.

(2) Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, chapter 4:

tato bhūpatiḥ sthapatikarmakaraprekṣakalokān yathārhaṃ kaṅkaṇāṅgulīyakavastrahiraṇyasrakpūgatāmbulādibhiḥ samyak paritoṣayet.9

● bhūpatiḥ ] em.; bhūpati° N N2 O C1 C2 C3 T1 T2 T3; bhūpatiṃ N3 ] ●°karmakara° ] N N2 O C1 C2 C3; °karmakarau N3 °karmakaraḥ T1 T2; karmakare T3

Then the king should satisfy the architects, the assistants, and the spectators with a bracelet, a finger-ring, a garment, gold, heap of chaplet, tāmbūla, or other [articles] according to [the donor’s] wealth.

(3) Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, Pratiṣṭhā in chapter 6:

prekṣakajanāṃś ca tāmbūlādibhiḥ saṃtoṣya śreyase bhojanaṃ baliś ca deyaḥ.10

Tanemura 2004, 162

[The ācārya should] also entertain spectators with tāmbūla etc. [In addition,] food and a bali should be offered for [their] good fortune.

(4) Cf. Vajrāvalī (Vihāragandhakūṭīcaityāvasathāśramārghavidhi)

pūgasrakcandanaiḥ prekṣakalokān sampūjya

EM § 1.1.6, vol. 1, p. 58; A 4r1; B 3v4

In the above-quoted passages from the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, it is envisaged that the ritual is performed in the presence of spectators. The same characteristic of the ritual is also found in the above-quoted passage of the Vajrāvalī. It is also envisaged from the first quotation that the sponsor of the ritual is a king. I shall come back to this point later.

From the passage quoted below, we see that people are not only passive spectators but also active performers of the ritual.

(5) Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, Vanayātrā in chapter 5:

tato nagarapraveśasamaye vṛkṣāṇāṃ śilānāṃ vā rājani paurajaneṣu vā vārttāṃ vidhāya madanasphūrtimūrtibhiḥ puṣṭacittair janair vāhayet.11

● °samaye ] N N3 K O C1 C2 T1 T2; °samaya° N2; °sa++ C3; °samayai T3 ●śilānāṃ ] N N2 N3 K O C1 T1 T2 T3; śilānā C2; [śilānā] C3 ●paurajaneṣu vā ] N N3 C1 T2; paurujaneṣu vā N2; porajaneṣu vā K; porajaneduvā O; poruṣajaneṣu vā C2; paurajaneṣu C3; purajaneyuvā T1; porajaneṣu cā T3 ●vārttāṃ ] K C2 C3 T2 T3; vārttā N N3 C1; vattāṃ O; vartta T1 ●vidhāya ] N N3 K O C1 C2 C3 T1 T2 T3; vidhātāṃ N2 ●madana° ] em.; madanamada° N N2 N3 K O C1 C2 C3 T1 T2 T3 ●°mūrtibhiḥ ] N N3 K O C1 C2 C3 T1 T3; mūrttibhi N2 ●puṣṭacittair ] N2 K O C2 C3 T2 T3; puṣṭacittai N; puṣṭicittair N3; puṣṭacirtte C1; puṣṭicitter T1 ●janair ] N N3 K O C1 C3 T1 T2 T3; janai N2 C2; janer

When the wood [to be used for the construction of a monastery] or the stones [to be used for the construction of a caitya] are brought into the city, [the ācārya] should send a message [that these materials are being brought into the city] to the king or the citizens. He should make people with joyful minds whose bodies quiver with excitement carry [these materials].

3 Royal Patronage

The above-quoted passage (5) too implies not only that the pratiṣṭhā prescribed is a public social ritual, but also that the king might be envisaged as a donor. Royal patronage of the ritual is also implied by the following passage in the nimittokti section of chapter 3:

śiraḥkaṇḍūyamānaṃ yady ācāryaśilpiyajamānatanniyogijanānāṃ madhye kaścit karoti tadaikapauruṣād adhaḥ śalyam asti.12

Tanemura 2004, 150

If someone, either the tantric officiant, a craftsman [involved in the rite], the donor or his officials scratches his head [in the site for a monastery etc.], then there is an extraneous thing [that causes a calamity at a depth of] the full height of a man underground.

While an ordinary donor might be present on his own, the king would never be seen without his retinue of officials.

As already mentioned in footnote 3 in this paper, Sanderson proposes that the fundamental reason for Śaivism’s success was “that it greatly increased its appeal to royal patrons by extending and adapting its repertoire to contain a body of rituals and theory that legitimated, empowered, or promoted key elements of the social, political and economic process that characterizes the early medieval period (Sanderson 2009, 253).” With regard to the second element, he states as follows:

The second element of the early medieval process to which I have drawn attention is the proliferation of land-owning temples. All but the most ephemeral sovereigns during this period, both in the subcontinent and in Southeast Asia, gave material form to the legitimacy and solidity of their power by building grand temples in which images of their chosen God were installed, animated, named after themselves (svanāmnā), and endowed with land and officiants to support their cult. As we have seen, the great majority of these temples enshrined Śiva [in the form of a Liṅga].

Sanderson 2009, 274

The first line after the opening verses of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā might reflect similar activities done by royal patrons for tantric Buddhism.

Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, Ācāryaparīkṣā in chapter 1:
tatra vihārādikam abhidhātukāmo yajamāna ādāv ācāryaṃ parīkṣayet.13

● tatra ] C1 C2 T2; tatrā K T1; tato C3 T3 ●vihārādikam ] K C1 C2 C3 T1 T3; vihārādikrama T2 ●abhidhātukāmo ] C1 C2 T3; vidhātukāmo K T2; katukāmo C3; vidhātukāme T1 ●yajamāna ] K C1 C2 T1 T2 T3; yajamāne C3 ●ādāv ] K C1 C2 T1 T3; n.e. C3 T2 ●ācāryaṃ ] K C1 C2 C3 T2 T3; ācārya T1 ●parīkṣayet ] K C1 C2 C3 T1 T2; parīkṣa[ye]+ T3

In this case (tatra), a donor who wants to name a monastery and other [thing for religious purpose after himself] should, first of all, choose an [appropriate] officiant.

The manuscripts are divided into two groups with regard to the reading of the third word. Mss. C1 C2 T3 read abhidhātukāmo, which is employed in the above quotation, and Mss. K T2 vidhātukāmo. (The reading of T1 is a corruption of vidhātukāmo, and that of C3 is a corruption of kartukāmo, which is a synonym of vidhātukāmo.14) I suspect that the author, Kuladatta, envisages a king as a donor of a monastery, which should be named after the king. The original reading of the third word is therefore abhidhātukāmo. The prescriptions in the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā are applied to other rituals related to the construction of a temple. In some cases, objects of pratiṣṭhā are not named after the donor. This might have changed the reading abhidhātukāmo to vidhātukāmo. Alternatively, it might be the case that the custom that monasteries, caityas, and other religious objects are named after the donor had died out or was dying out in Kathmandu in Kuladatta’s time. Sanderson points out that the Licchavis of Nepal supported Buddhism (Sanderson 2009, 74–77). According to the Gopālarājavaṃśāvalī, the earliest local chronicle, the following monasteries and caitya were named after the donor: the Mānavihāra by Mānadeva, the Dharmadevacaitya by Dharmadeva, and the Devalavihāra by Devaladeva (Sanderson 2009, 74). The first one is confirmed by its mention in an undated inscription assigned to his reign (Sanderson 2009, 75). Several of the monasteries of the Kathmadu valley are attributed to kings of the period of the Ṭhākurī kings—most probably Kuladatta flourished in this period—in inscriptions, palm-leaf deeds, manuscript colophons, or their own tradition. But no monastery or caitya named after a king is reported (Sanderson 2009, 77–80). I am not able to draw a firm conclusion, but there might be factors which changed the reading abhidhātukāmo to vidhātukāmo.15

4 Textual Parallels

Next, I would like to present textual parallels between the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā and Śaiva Pratiṣṭhātantras. The section which contains these Śaiva parallels is called the nimittokti. In chapter 3, the ācārya should divide the site into thirty-six compartments. He should drive ritual spikes (kīla) symbolising the thirty-two wrathful deities into the compartments, excluding the four central ones, and worship the spikes. Then he should visualise himself as Vajrahūṃkāra in order to remove obstacles from the site. Then the ācārya should re-arrange the placement of the spikes in a proper way. After that, the ācārya should connect the pañcasūtras—the cords of Brahman, the root cords, the direction cords, and the side cords—to the spikes driven to the ground (sūtrapātana). The nimittokti explains various kinds of good and bad omens during the sūtrapātana. I have already shown parallels in the Piṅgalāmata, a Śaiva Pratiṣṭhātantra, the Īśānaśivagurudevapaddhati, and some other sources (Tanemura 2004, 148–155), and I have found yet other parallels in the Devyāmata, another Śaiva Pratiṣṭhātantra.

4.1 The Nimittokti of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā and the Śalyoddhārapaṭala of the Devyāmata

First I shall quote the relevant part of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā (abbreviated as KSP) from Tanemura 2004, 148–155. The corresponding verse numbers of the Devyāmata (DM) are indicated at the end of each section. For the convenience of readers, the corresponding section number of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā are also indicated at the end of each section of the Devyāmata, both in the edition and in the translation.

(1) The Nimittokti of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā16 (Tanemura 2004, 148–155)

[0] animittair asiddhiḥ syāt sūtracchede guroḥ kṣayaḥ17

ity vacanān nimittāny upalakṣayet. liṅgāni sūtracchedanarodanasūtrasamullaṅghanagātrasparśananāmasaṃkīrtanādīni.18 (= DM vv. 9–10)

[1] tatra sūtracchedanenācāryasya maraṇam.19 (= DM v. 7ab)

[2] śvaśṛgālagṛdhrakaṅkarutair yajamānasya maraṇam āhuḥ.20

[3] (1) mārjāreṇa sūtralaṅghane tadasthi rāsabhasya vā. (= DM v. 18) (2) gardabhena laṅghane tadasthi. (= DM v. 23b) (3) kukkureṇa laṅghane tadasthi. (= DM v. 19ab) (4) ajāvibhyāṃ laṅghane tayor asthi gor asthi vā. (= DM v. 20a) (5) aśvenāśvāsthi. (= DM v. 20cd) (6) hastinā hastyasthy uṣṭrāsthi vā. (= DM v. 22c) (7) aśvatareṇa tadasthi. (8) mahiṣeṇa śṛgālāsthi. (= DM v. 21ab) (9) mṛgena mṛgāsthi. (10) ṛkṣena ṛkṣāsthi. (11) varāheṇa vyāghrāsthi. (= DM v. 22a) (12) vyāghreṇa gajāsthi. (= DM v. 22b) (13) mūṣakeṇa mūṣakāsthi. (= DM v. 19cd) (14) sarpeṇa sarpāsthi. (15) kacchapena kacchapāsthi.21

[4] (1) śiraḥkaṇḍūyamānaṃ yady ācāryaśilpiyajamānatanniyogijanānāṃ madhye kaścit karoti tadaikapauruṣād adhaḥ śalyam asti. (= DM vv. 63c–64b) (2) bhrūsparśe suvarṇaṃ hastatrayāt kācaṃ vā.22 (3) netrasparśe netraparyantādhastān muktā.23 (4) mukhasparśe keśaṃ kāṣṭhaṃ vā trikarādhare. (= DM vv. 64c–65b) (5) dantasparśāt tribhir hastair dantam anumīyate. (= DM v. 65cd) (6) karṇakaṇḍūyane karṇāntādhastād rūpyaṃ suvarṇaṃ vidrumaṃ vā bhavet.24 (7) galasparśena tatpramāṇādhaḥ kaṇṭhikā lohaśṛṅkhalā vā, mārjārakaṅkālaṃ vā trikarādhare. (= DM vv. 66c–67b) (8) aṃsasparśe tatpramāṇādhare tadābharaṇam. (9) kakṣasparśe kakṣāntādho loham.25 (10) bāhupīḍane kaṇṭhapramāṇādhare tadābharaṇam. (= DM vv. 69c–70b) (11) dakṣiṇakarasparśe kaṭimātrādhaḥ †pṛṣṭha†kapālaṃ mṛnmayakapālaṃ vā. (= DM vv. 71c–72b) (12) vāmahastasparśe jānumātrādhaḥ kaṭvāpādaḥ. (= DM v. 70cd) (13) pārśvakaṇḍūyane narārdhamātrādho dhūlī. (= DM vv. 74c–75b) (14) uraḥsparśe kaṭimātrādhaḥ paśukīkasam. (= DM vv. 72c–73b) (15) pṛṣṭhasparśe pṛṣṭhāsthi tatpramāṇādhaḥ. (= DM vv. 74ab) (16) kaṭisparśe dvikarādhaḥ pradeśe lohakaṇṭakam. (= DM vv. 75c–76b) (17) liṅgasparśena hastapramāṇādhare trilohaśalyam.26 (18) jaṃghāsparśe tadasthy ekādaśāṅgulādhare. (= DM vv. 78c–79b) (19) gulphasparśe ’ṣṭādaśāṅgulādhare ’śvakhuraḥ.27 (20) pādasparśād dvādaśāṅgulādhare śālmalī kaṇṭako vā. (= DM vv. 79c–80b) (21) pādakaniṣṭhāṅgulīsparśe ’ṣṭāṅgulādhare kāṃsyam. (= DM vv. 82c–83b) (22) pārṣṇisparśe dvādaśāṅgulādhare ’bhrakam.28

[5] sūtrapātanasamaye yajamānasya pārśve sthitvā kenacid anyena puruṣeṇa yasya prāṇino nāma saṃkīrtyate tadasthi tatrāstīti niścayaḥ.29 (= DM v. 12cd)

[6] (1) akasmād gaur āgatya yadi viṣṭhām utsṛjati tadadho ’vaśyaṃ tatpramāṇaṃ kanakam astīti niścīyate. (= DM v. 32ab) (2) yady akasmād āgatya purīṣam utsṛjati bālakumārikā tadā tadadho ’vaśyaṃ tatpramāṇaṃ rūpyaṃ bhavet. (3) bhekarutena jalabhayam. (4) śukaśarikāhaṃsakokilamayūrajīvaṃjīvakacakravākavṛṣabhāṇāṃ hṛdayopakūjanaṃ kalyāṇāya bhavati. (= DM v. 34abc) (5) siṃhagajameghamanojñasvano dhanadhānyārthalābhodayāya bhavati. (6) śaṅkhamaṅgalagītikābālakrīḍanair arthāptiḥ. (7) dhūmadarśane cittapīḍā. (8) hīnadīnavyādhiparipīḍitajanadarśane rogaḥ. (9) dhvajacchatrapatākāmadyamāṃsaghaṇṭālaṅkārāmbhojadadhīndravahnijvālāphalamīnayugarājāṅganadīnāṃ saṃdarśane śubhaṃ bhavati. (10) vidvadbrāhmaṇabhikṣusādhujanānāṃ saṃdarśane dharmaḥ syāt.30

iti nimittoktiḥ.

(2) The Śalyoddhārapaṭala of the Devyāmata (excerpted) (Ms. A 91r5–93v5, Ms. B 50r2–54v5)31

Preliminary Edition

ataḥ paraṃ pravakṣyāmi yathoktaṃ śalyalakṣaṇam |
sattvānām apakārāya vāstumadhye vyavasthitam ||1||

1b yathoktaṃ ] A; yathoktaX B 1c sattvānām ] B; satvānāṃ m A 1d vāstumadhye ] A; vāstumadhya B

caturasrīkṛte kṣetre sūtrite śakunādibhiḥ |
vāstudehavibhāgajño vāstuśalyaṃ nirūpayet ||2||
gṛhaprāsādayor vidvān ārambhe sūtrakarmaṇi |
lakṣayec chakunaṃ samyag nimittaṃ copalakṣayet ||3||
darśanaṃ kīrtanaṃ śabdaṃ yajamānasya ceṣṭitam |
vastudehe yathāvasthaṃ lakṣaye śalyam ādarāt ||4||

4a darśanaṃ ] A; daśanaṃ B 4c lakṣaye śalyam ] A; lakṣayec chalyam B

pāṣaṇḍidarśane neṣṭaṃ gṛhiṇām asukhāvaham |
hataṃ kṣataṃ mṛtaṃ bhagnaṃ śrutvā na sūtrayed gṛham ||5||

5a pāṣaṇḍidarśane ] em.; pāṣaṇḍidarśanaṃ A; pāṣaṇḍidaśane B 5a neṣṭaṃ ] A; neṣṭhaṃ B

†aśastān† ye ’pi ye ’śastā neṣṭā sattvāś ca garhitāḥ |
darśanaṃ kīrtanaṃ śabdaṃ †sattvās† teṣāṃ vivarjayet ||6||

6a aśastān ye ’pi ] B; aśastāmy api A 6d vivarjayet ] B; vivajayet A

sūtracchedena maraṇaṃ duḥkhaṃ vā maraṇāntikam | (v. 7ab = KSP [1])
evaṃ jñātvā vidhānajñaḥ śāntihomaṃ tu kārayet ||7||
sarvasukhāvahaṃ yasmāt samaṃ śriyānvitaṃ gṛham |
tasmāt susūtritaṃ kṛtvā śalyaṃ veśmani lakṣayet ||8||

8c susūtritaṃ ] A; svasūtritaṃ B 8d śalyaṃ ] B; śalya A

sūtrasya laṅghanād vāpi darśanān nāmakīrtanāt |
śabdasaṃśrāvaṇād vāpi lakṣaye śalyam ādarāt ||9||

9b nāmakīrtanāt ] em.; nāmakīrtanā A; nāmakīrttināt B 9d lakṣaye śalyam ] A; lakṣayec chalyam B

laṅghanaṃ darśanaṃ yasya ruditaṃ nāmakīrtitam |
tasya sattvasya tac chalyam ādiśel laṅghanādibhiḥ ||10|| (vv. 9–10 = KSP [0])

10a darśanaṃ ] A; darśanaṃ [ve] B

anyasya prāṇino ’py aṅgaṃ vidyād anyasya laṅghanāt |
gṛhiṇo ’ṅgavikāreṇa vāstunaḥ śalyam ādiśet ||11||

11c gṛhiṇo ’ṅgavikāreṇa ] B; gṛhiṇodbhavikāreṇa A

dṛśyate śakuno vāpi sa yasya śrūyate svanaḥ |
nāmasaṃkīrtanaṃ yasya tasya śalyaṃ vinirdiśet ||12|| (v. 12cd = KSP [5])

12c nāmasaṃkīrtanaṃ ] em.; nāmasaṃkīrtta[na] A; nāmasaṃkīrttate B

sūtre prasāryamāṇe tu mārjāro yadi laṅghanam |
rāsabhāsthi vijānīyā tadaṅge vāstuno hy adhaḥ ||18|| (v. 18 = KSP [3](1))

18b laṅghanam ] A; laṃghayete B (hypermetrical) 18c rāsabhāsthi ] A; rāsabhāsthim B 18d tadaṅge ] A; tadaṅgo B

yadi śvā laṅghate sūtraṃ tasmiṃ śvānāsthim ādiśet | (v. 19ab = KSP [3](3))
mūṣikālaṅghanenaiva ajāvikāsthim ādiśet ||19|| (v. 19cd = KSP [3](13))

19a laṅghate ] A Bpc; laṃghayete Bac 19b śvānāsthim ] em.; śvāno sthim A; śvāno ’sthim B 19c mūṣikālaṅghanenaiva ] A; mūsakālaṃghanenaiva B

ajāvikāś ca gosthi syād gāva-m-aśvāsthim ādiśet | (v. 20a = KSP [3](4))
aśvasya laṅghanenaiva māhiṣaṃ śalyam ādiśet ||20|| (v. 20cd = KSP [3](5))

20b aśvāsthi ] A; Bpc; āśvāsthi Bac B 20d māhiṣaṃ śalyam ādiśet ] A; māhiśet B (haplographical error)

mahiṣalaṅghanenaiva asthi syāj jambukasya tu | (v. 21ab = KSP [3](8))
jambukalaṅghanenaiva śūkarāsthi samādiśet ||21||
śūkarākramaṇe vyāghraṃ vyāghreṇaiva tu kuñjaram | (v. 22a = KSP [3](11), v. 22b = KSP [3](12))
kuñjarākramaṇe hy uṣṭram †aṅgāraso†ṣṭralaṅghanāt ||22|| (v. 22c = KSP [3](6))

22a vyāghraṃ ] A; n.e. B (caused by eye-skip) 22c uṣṭram ] A; aṣṭam B

nṛlaṅghanān narāsthi syāt kharāsthi kharalaṅghaṇāt | (v. 23b = KSP [3](2))
evaṃ saṃlakṣayec chalyaṃ laṅghanādarśanādibhiḥ ||23||

23a nṛlaṅghanān ] A; nṛlaṃghanā B 23a narāsthi ] A Bpc; nṛrāsthi Bac 23c saṃlakṣayec ] A; śalakṣayec B

gavāṃ mūtreṇa rūpyaṃ syāt purīṣeṇaiva kāñcanam | (v. 32ab = KSP [6](1))
lohaṃ mārjāramūtreṇa purīṣenāśam ādiśet ||32||

32a gavāṃ ] A; gavā B 32a rūpyaṃ ] conj.; ruśmaṃ A; rugmaṃ B 32c lohaṃ ] em.; loha A B 32c mārjāramūtreṇa ] B.; mārjāmūtreṇa A 32d purīṣenāśam ] A; purīṣenāgam B

śāntāyāṃ diśi śakuno madhuraṃ ravate yadi |
arthaṃ tatra vijānīyād … ||34|| (v. 34abc = KSP [5](4))

34a śāntāyāṃ ] A; śāntāyā B

śiraḥkaṇḍūyamāne tu śirasi śalyam uddharet ||63||

63c śiraḥkaṇḍūyamāne ] A; śirakaṇḍuyamā*ṇde(?) B 63d śirasi ] B; ++[sa] A

asthiśalyaṃ tu taṃ jñeyaṃ puruṣārdhena tiṣṭhati | (vv. 63c–64b = KSP [4](1))
mukhe kaṇḍūyamānena kāṣṭhajaṃ vā śirobhavaḥ ||64||

64b tiṣṭhati ] A; tiṣṭati B 64c kaṇḍūyamānena ] A; kaṇḍuyamānena B 64d kāṣṭhajaṃ ] B; kāṣṭajaṃ A

adhasthād dhastadvayenaiva tiṣṭhate nātra saṃśayaḥ | (vv. 64c–65b = KSP [4](4))
hanujaṃ dantasaṃsparśād uddhare tatpramāṇataḥ ||65|| (v. 65cd = KSP [4](5))

65a adhasthād ] A; adha B 65b tiṣṭhate ] em.; tiṣṭate A B 65b saṃśayaḥ ] A; saśayaḥ B 65c dantasaṃsparśād ] B; dattasaṃspārśād Aac; dattasaṃsparśād Apc 65d uddhare ] em.; urddhare A; dhaddhare B

yadaṅgaṃ spṛśate hy arthaṃ tadaṅge śalyam ādiśet |
yadi kaṇḍūyate grīvā śṛṅkhalālohajaṃ viduḥ ||66||

66a spṛśate hy ] A; spṛtete ty B

hastatrayeṇa sā jñeyā śṛṅkhalā nātra saṃśayaḥ | (vv. 66c–67b = KSP [4](7))
aṅge kaṇdūyāmāne tu aṅgajaṃ śalyam ādiśet ||67||

67b nātra ] A; śātra B

adhastāt tatpramāṇe tu uddharec chalyam ādarāt |
sphaṇake spṛśyamāne tu sphaṇajaṃ śalyam ādiśet ||68||

68b uddharec chalyam ādarāt ] A; śiraśi śalya sudarāt B 68cd Sphaṇa(ka) is a corruption of skandha?

tiṣṭhate tatpramāṇe tu samyag jñātvā samuddharet |
bāhukaṇḍūyamāne tu bāhuke kaṭakaḥ sthitaḥ ||69||

69b jñātvā ] A; kṛtvā B 69c bāhu° ] B; vāhū° A 69d bāhuke kaṭakaḥ ] conj.; vāhuje nakalaḥ A; vāhyaje nalakaḥ B

hastatrayeṇa sārdhena tiṣṭhate nātra saṃśayaḥ | (vv. 69c–70b = KSP [4](10))
haste kaṇḍūyamāne tu khaṭvāpādaṃ vinirdiśet ||70|| (v. 70cd = KSP [4](12))

70a sārdhena ] A; sāddhena B 70b tiṣṭhate ] A; tiṣṭate B

jānumātre sthitaṃ vidyāt karajāṅgulisparśanāt |
haste kaṇḍūyamāne vā kaṭimātre sthitaṃ viduḥ ||71||

71a vidyāt ] B; vindyān A 71c haste kaṇḍūyamāne vā ] A; hastena kaṇḍūyamāne *vā(?) B (hypermetrical)

śalyaṃ śamuddhared vidvān kapālaṃ vātha mṛnmayam | (vv. 71c–72b = KSP [4](11))
uraḥkaṇḍūyamāne tu paśuśalyam athāṅgajam ||72||

72a śalyaṃ ] A; śalya B 72c uraḥkaṇḍūyamāne ] em.; uraḥkaṇḍūyamānena A; urakaṇḍūyamāne B

sārdhahastadvaye ’dhastāc chalyaṃ yatnāt samuddharet | (vv. 72c–73b = KSP [4](14))
hṛdaye hṛdayasparśāt tatpramāṇena tanmayam ||73||

73a sārdhahastadvaye ] A; sārddhahastādvayo B 73b yatnāt ] em.; yannān A; yannā B 73c hṛdayasparśāt ] em.; hṛdayaṃ sparśāt A B

pṛṣṭhajaṃ pṛṣṭhasaṃsparśād udare tatpramāṇataḥ | (v. 74ab = KSP [4](15))
pārśve saṃsparśanād vidyāc chalyaṃ pāṃsulikodbhavam ||74||

74a pṛṣṭhajaṃ ] B; spṛṣṭhajaṃ A 74a pṛṣṭhasaṃsparśād ] em.; spṛṣṭhasaṃsparśād A B 74d chalyaṃ ] A; chalyāṃ B

tatpramāṇe sthitaṃ śalyam uddharec chalyavittamaḥ | (vv. 74c–75b = KSP [4](13))
kaṭijaṃ kaṭisaṃsparśād athavā lohakaṇṭakam ||75||
hastadvayapramāṇe tu śalyaṃ tatra samuddharet | (vv. 75c–76b = KSP [4](16))
ūrukaṇḍūyamāne tu ūrujaṃ vātha dārujam ||76||

76b śalyaṃ ] A; śalya B 76c ūrukaṇḍūyamāne ] A; urukaṇḍūyamāṇe B 76d ūrujaṃ ] A; urujaṃ B

sārdhahastapramāṇena śalyaṃ yatnāt samuddharet |
jānukaṇḍūyato dṛṣṭvā sthāṇujaṃ vātha jānujam ||77||

77a sārdhahastapramāṇena ] A; sāddhastapramāṇena B 77b yatnāt ] A; yannāt B 77c jānukaṇḍūyato ] A; jānukaṇḍūto B 77d sthāṇujaṃ ] corr.; sthānujaṃ A B

†nādhitopaskarasvāpi† hastamātre samuddharet |
yadā saṃspṛśyate jaṅghāṃ jaṅghāsthiṃ tatra nirdiśet ||78||

78a nādhitopaskarasvāpi ] A; nāditopaskaramvā B (The readings of both A and B are suspected but undiagnosed corruption.)

ekādaśāṅgule ’dhastāt tiṣṭhate nātra saṃśayaḥ | (vv. 78c–79b = KSP [4](18))
pāde kāṇḍūyamāṇe tu kauñjaraṃ śalyam ādiśet ||79||

79a ekādaśāṅgule ’dhastāt ] A; ekādaśāṅgulodhastā B 79b tiṣṭhate ] A; tiṣṭate B 79d kauñjaraṃ ] B; kaujeraṃ A

dvādaśāṅgulamāne tu śalyaṃ kaṇṭakam uddharet | (vv. 79c–80b = KSP [4](20))
aṅguṣṭake yadā kaṇḍū khaṭikāśalyam ādiśet ||80||

80b śalyaṃ ] A; śalya B

rītikācitrasaṃmiśraṃ lohaṃ vā tatra nirdiśet |
aṅgulyāṃ yadi kaṇḍūya aśvapādaṃ vinirdiśet ||81||

81a rītikācitrasaṃmiśraṃ ] B; rītikācitrasanmriśraṃ A 81b lohaṃ ] A; loha B 81d aśvapādaṃ ] B; aṣṭapādaṃ A 81d vinirdiśet ] A; vinidiśet B

sārdhavitastimātreṇa tiṣṭhate nātra saṃśayaḥ |
kaniṣṭhikāyāṃ kaṇḍūya kāṃsyaṃ tatra vinirdiśet ||82||

82a sārdha° ] em.; sārddhaṃ A; sāddha° B 82b tiṣṭhate ] A; tiṣṭate B 82c kaniṣṭhikāyāṃ ] A; kaniṣṭhikāyā B 82d kāṃsyaṃ ] B; kāṃsaṃsyavit A

tac cāṣṭāṅgulamāne tu tiṣṭhate nātra saṃśayaḥ | (vv. 82c–83b = KSP [4](21))
adhopādasya kaṇḍūya carma śalyaṃ samādiśet ||83||

83a tac ] A; ta[ṃ] B 83d carma ] A; cama B

aṣṭāṅgulapramāṇe tu tiṣṭhate śalyakaṇṭakam |
iti śalyoddhārapaṭalaḥ.

Provisional translation

Next, I shall, as told before, teach the characteristics of extraneous substances, which exist beneath the site (vāstumadhye) and cause calamities to people. (1)

When the site, which has been made square, is being divided with cords, [the officiant] who has knowledge of divisions of the site (vāstudehavibhāgajñaḥ) should investigate extraneous substances by omens, etc. (2)

When the division of [the sites for] a house and a shrine with cords has been commenced, the wise man [i.e. the officiant] should notice an omen and observe it correctly. (3)

[The omens are] seeing [someone or something], announcing [a creature’s name], cries [of animals], and the actions of a donor. [The officiant] should carefully notice an extraneous substance as situated beneath the site. (4)

If a heretic is seen, that brings an undesirable outcome to householders. If one hears someone hurt, wounded, or killed, or something broken, then [the officiant] should not divide the site with cords. (5)

If there are persons who are not praised, undesirable, or blameworthy, then one should avoid seeing such persons, hearing [the names of] such persons announced, and hearing the voices of such persons. (6)

If a cord is cut, there is death or deadly pain.32 (= KSP [1]) (7ab)

[The officiant] who has knowledge of the ritual should perform the fire rite for quelling of calamities, if he becomes aware of such [omens]. (7cd)

Since a levelled house brings every comfort and prosperity [to the residents], one should divide the site properly with cords and examine extraneous substances beneath the site (veśmani). (8)

[The officiant] should carefully prognosticate the extraneous thing [underground] by observing [a creature] step over a cord, seeing [an auspicious or inauspicious thing], announcing a [creature’s] name, or hearing [an auspicious or inauspicious sound]. If [a creature] steps over [a cord] or is seen, or if one [hears] a cry of [a creature] or announce a [creature’s] name, then [the officiant] should prognosticate the extraneous thing [related to] that creature according to the stepping over and other [omens]. (= KSP [0]) (9–10)

If a creature [intrudes into the site] stepping over [a cord], then [the officiant] should know that there is the body [of that creature, i.e. bones of that creature beneath the site]. He should prognosticate an extraneous substance beneath the site (vāstunaḥ) by the bad condition of the householder’s body. (11)

If an omen is seen, or if [a creature] cries out, or if [someone] announces a [creature’s] name, then [the officiant] should prognosticate an extraneous thing [related to] that [creature]. (= KSP [5]) (12)

If a cat [intrudes into the site] stepping over [a cord] while a cord is being cast, it should be understood that there is the bone of an ass beneath that spot of the site.33 (= KSP [3](1)) (18)

If a dog steps over a cord, [the officiant] should prognosticate the bone of a dog [beneath] the [spot of the site]. (= KSP [3](3)) (19ab)

If a mouse passes [over a cord], [the officiant] should prognosticate bones of goats and sheep [beneath the site].34 (= KSP [3](13)) (19cd)

If rams or sheep [step over a cord], there is the bone of a cow [beneath the site].35 (= KSP [3](4)) (20a)

If cows [step over a cord], [the officiant] should prognosticate bones of a horse [beneath the site]. (20b)

If a horse steps over [a cord], [the officiant] should prognosticate an extraneous thing related to a buffalo[, i.e. the bone of a buffalo beneath the ground].36 (= KSP [3](5)) (20cd)

If a buffalo steps over [a cord], there is the bone of a jackal [beneath the site]. (= KSP [3](8)) (21ab)

If a jackal steps over [a cord], [the officiant] should prognosticate the bone of a boar [beneath the site]. (21cd)

If a hog steps over [a cord], there is [the bone of] a tiger [beneath the site]. (= KSP [3](11)) (22a)

If a tiger [steps over a cord], there is [the bone of] an elephant [beneath the site]. (= KSP [3](12)) (22b)

If an elephant steps over [a cord], [there is the bone of] a camel [beneath the site].37 (= KSP [3](6)) (22c)

If an camel steps over [a cord], there is †aṅgārasa† [beneath the site]. (22d)

If a man steps over [a cord], there is a human bone [beneath the site]. (23a)

If an ass [intrudes into the site] stepping over [a cord], there is the bone of an ass [beneath the site]. (= KSP [3](2)) (23b)

In this way, [the officiant] should examine extraneous substances by [the omens] such as stepping over and seeing. (23cd)

If a cow [which has entered the site] urinates or drops dung, there are pieces of silver or gold [beneath the site, respectively].38 (= KSP [6](1)) (32ab)

If a cat urinates or drops dung, [the officiant] should prognosticate a piece of iron or an inauspicious thing (? aśam)39 [beneath the site,] respectively. (32cd)

If a bird sings sweetly in an auspicious direction, then [the officiant] should prognosticate a treasure there. (v. 34abc = KSP [5](4)) (34a–c)

If [someone] scratches his head, [the officiant] should remove an extraneous thing at a depth of the full height of a man (śirasi). On the other hand, it should be understood that the extraneous thing which is a bone exists [at a depth of] a half [of the height] of a man [underground].40 (= KSP [4](1)) (63c–64b)

If [someone] touches his mouth (or face), there must be [an extraneous thing] which is a piece of wood or hair (? śirobhavaḥ) [at a depth of] two cubits underground.41 (= KSP [4](4)) (64c–65b)

If [someone] touches his teeth, there is [an extraneous thing] which is a tooth (hanujam). [The officiant] should remove [it from a depth of] that measurement [= up to the teeth].42 (= KSP [4](5)) (65cd)

If [someone] touches a part of his body, [the officiant] should prognosticate an extraneous thing (arthaṃ … śalyam) [at a depth] up to the part. (66ab)

If [someone] touches his neck, they know that there is [an extraneous thing] which is an iron chain. It should be understood that that iron chain [exists at a depth of] three cubits [underground]. There is no doubt about it.43 (= KSP [4](7)) (66c–67b)

If [someone] scratches a part of his body, [the officiant] should prognosticate an extraneous thing related to the part (aṅgajam) at a depth up to the part (adhastāt tatpramāṇe). [The officiant] should remove the extraneous thing carefully. (67c–68b)

If [someone] scratches his shoulder (?), [the officiant] should prognosticate an extraneous thing related to the shoulder (?), which is at a depth up to the [shoulder (?)]. If he knows it correctly, he should remove it.44 (68c–69b)

If someone scratches his arm, there is armlet [at the depth] up to the arm.45 [That extraneous thing] exists [at a depth of] three and a half cubits [underground].46 There is no doubt about it. (= KSP [4](10)) (69c–70b)

If [someone] touches his [left?] hand, [the officiant] should prognosticate the leg of a couch [beneath the site]. If [someone] touches his finger (karajāṅguli°), [the officiant] should know [that the extraneous thing] is situated at a depth up to the knee.47 (= KSP [4](12)) (70c–71b)

Alternatively, if [someone] scratches his [right?] hand, it is understood that there is an extraneous thing, i.e. a skull or [a bowl] made of clay [at a depth] just up to the buttocks [underground]. The wise man [i.e. officiant] should remove it.48 (= KSP [4](11)) (71c–72b)

If [someone] scratches his breast, there is the bone of an animal (paśuśalyam) or hair (aṅgajam)49 [at a depth of] one and a half cubits underground.50 [The officiant] should remove that extraneous thing carefully. (= KSP [4](14)) (72c–73b)

If [someone] touches his heart, there is [an extraneous thing] related to it (tatmayam) at a depth up to the heart (hṛdaye … pramāṇena). (73cd)

If [someone] touches his back, there is [an extraneous thing] arising from the back[, i.e. a back-bone at the depth up to the back]. If [someone touches] his belly, [there is an extraneous thing related to the belly] at the depth up to the [belly]. (= KSP [4](15)) (74ab)

If [someone] touches his side, one should prognosticate that there is an extraneous thing arising from dust. The best knower of extraneous things [= the officiant] should remove that extraneous thing which exists [at a depth of] that measurement [= up to the side] [underground]. (= KSP [4](13)) (74c–75b)

If [someone] touches his buttocks, there is [an extraneous thing] arising from the buttocks[, i.e. coccyx?] or an iron nail at a depth of two cubits [underground]. [The officiant] should remove that extraneous thing from there. (= KSP [4](16)) (75c–76b)

If [someone] scratches his thigh, there is an extraneous thing related to the thigh or piece of wood at a depth of one and a half cubits. [The officiant] should remove it carefully. (76c–77b)

If [someone] is seen to scratch his knee, there is an extraneous thing, i.e. a stump (sthāṇujam) or a knee bone (jānujam) at a depth of one cubit. [The officiant] should remove it.51 (77c–78b)

If [someone] touches his shank, [the officiant] should prognosticate a bone of the shank [at a depth of] eleven digits underground in that place. There is no doubt about this. (= KSP [4](18)) (78c–79b)

If [someone] scratches his foot, [the officiant] should prognosticate an extraneous thing related to an elephant[, i.e. a born of an elephant (kauñjaraṃ)].52 He should remove the extraneous thing, i.e. a thorn [at a depth of] twelve digits [underground]. (= KSP [4](20)) (79c–80b)

If [someone] scratches his big toe, [the officiant] should prognosticate an extraneous thing, i.e. a piece of chalk. Alternatively, he should prognosticate a piece of iron mixed with various calxes of brass there. (80c–81b)

If [someone] scratches his toe, [the officiant] should prognosticate a foot of a horse [beneath the site].53 It exists at a depth of one and a half vitastis. There is no doubt regarding this. (81c–82b)

If [someone] scratches his little toe, [the officiant] should prognosticate a piece of bell-metal [beneath] the spot. That [extraneous thing] exists [at a depth of] eight digits [underground]. There is no doubt about it. (= KSP [4](21)) (82c–83b)

If [someone] scratches his sole, [the officiant] should prognosticate an animal’s hide as the extraneous thing. There is the extraneous thing at a depth of eight digits. (83c–84b)

These are the rules for the removal of extraneous substances.

5 Concluding Remarks

Whereas Śaivism produced Pratiṣṭhātantras, scriptures which specialise in temple construction and installation, Buddhism did not produce a scripture in this domain.54 The author of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā was aware that there is no scriptural authority at least with regard to the nimittokti section. Thus he states that one should consider various omens based on the half stanza from Dīpaṅkarabhadra’s Guhyasamājamaṇḍalavidhi. He also employs the word liṅga as a synonym of nimitta and uses this word not only for an auspicious or inauspicious sign or omen, but also as a term from logic (inferential sign). His intention is probably to state that the word nimitta in the half stanza quoted from the Guhyasamājamaṇḍalavidhi should be understood as a liṅga and, therefore, things caused by those liṅgas are correctly inferred (anumīyate) based on the liṅgaliṅgisaṃbandha. However, this might not necessarily mean that Kuladatta thinks his teachings are non-Buddhist. For in ritual manuals it is important that Buddhist mantra-visualisation systems are employed.55 In the case of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, the mantra-visualisation systems of the Yogatantra and the “higher” tantras are employed, and in this sense the rituals prescribed function as Buddhist. This syncretism of different classes of scriptures is common to both Śaivism and Tantric Buddhism.

The nimittokti and other sections (e.g. bhūmiparīkṣā) in which close textual parallels to Śaiva Pratiṣṭhātantras and Paddhatis are found have little to do with Śaiva and Buddhist doctrines and those sections have close parallels to jyotiḥśāstras and śilpaśāstras.56 One might suppose that this is evidence of the fact that both Śaivism and Buddhism used this kind of literature as common sources and established their own respective ritual systems. This is probably not the case. Although the non-sectarian parallels are common to the Śaiva Pratiṣṭhātantras or Paddhatis and the Buddhist ritual manuals, and these two religions employ different mantra-visualisation systems, the structures or styles of the rituals prescribed are similar to each other. For example, while the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā teaches that in the preparation of water jugs the officiant should make the assistants recite Mahāyāna sūtras, the Somaśambhupaddhati prescribes a preparation ritual for consecration of the Śivaliṅga in which mantras of the four Vedas are recited in the four directions (Tanemura 2004, 235, note 50). Considering the parallels on the scriptural level mentioned above, the parallel repertoire of rituals prescribed in Śaiva ritual texts and the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, and the similarities of structures or styles of the rituals, it is not implausible that one religion, probably Buddhism, followed examples of the other. It is, of course, important to consider various parallels of the kinds presented in this paper in greater detail in order to understand the relationship between Śaivism and Tantric Buddhism.

Appendix: A Provisional Edition and Translation of the Bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhi of the Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya

After I had finished writing a draft of this article, I found a small section of Jagaddarpaṇa’s Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya which teaches about extraneous things beneath the site for a maṇḍala or monastery, and the omens for those extraneous things. Here I present a preliminary edition and provisional translation of the relevant section. This is written in verse, and the metre is śārdūlavikrīḍitā. Most probably the material is silently quoted from the work of a predecessor; the section colophon of Ms. K states that the Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya is a compilation of various teachings (for this colophon, see the apparatus of this preliminary edition).

sūtraṃ tatra nipātayet suvidhinā tullīkṛte bhūtale

pañcajñānamayaṃ viśuddhavalitaṃ1 nirgranthi2 nābhyūrdhvagam |

sthairyadhyānasamanvito varagurur nāsāgramadhye3 ’kṣiṇī4

ghaṇṭāmaṅgalagītaśaṅkhapaṭhanaiḥ5 saṃstūya6 vaṃśasvanaiḥ ||1||


arghaṃ ratnasuvarṇagandhakusumaiḥ saṃdāpayed dāyakaḥ9 |

naimittaṃ1 ca nirūpayed gurumṛtiḥ10 sūtrasya saṃcchedane

nūnaṃ jambuka11gṛdhrakaṅkaruditair12 mṛtyur13 bhavet svāminaḥ ||2||

2c gurumṛtiḥ … saṃcchedane] = KSP [1] 2d = KSP [2]

yajjātīyaviśeṣasattva14janitaiḥ sūtraṃ samullaṅghyate

tajjātīyakam asthi tatra niyataṃ sūtrādhare vāstuni |

dātuḥ15 pārśvagato16 hi sūtravitate yannāma saṃkīrtayet

tannāmānugasattvakīkasamalaṃ dātṛsthabhūkhaṇḍale ||3||

3ab = KSP [3] 3cd = KSP [5]

svāṅgaṃ vā spṛśati drutaṃ vidhivaśāt tanmānam ākhanya17 tac

chalyānāṃ18 bahudhā19 nimittam uditaṃ20 samkṣepamātraṃ tv21 iha |

gaur āgatya tadā purīṣam asṛjat22 tanmānahema sthitaṃ

yadvā bālakumārikā ca visṛjet23 tanmānarūpyaṃ24 bhavet25 ||4||

4a = KSP [4] 4c = KSP [6](1) 4d = KSP [6](2)

The excellent master [= officiant] in steady meditation, gazing upon the centre of the tip of his nose, should cast the cord on the surface of the site which has been levelled following the rules exactly. [The cord,] into which [the five threads of the five colours] are twined, has as its nature the five wisdoms and is purified. [It] does not have a knot, and is placed in the centre [of the site before casting]. (1a–c)

Having praised [the cord] with the sounds of a bell, auspicious song, conch shell, and bamboo flute, the donor should offer guest water [to the cord] together with jewels, gold, and fragrant flowers, which are blooming and beautiful, and mixed with the juice extracted from the sprouts of the airandhrīkara. (1d–2b)

[The officiant] should examine omens. If a cord is cut, the death of a master [will take place]. (= KSP [1]) If the cries of a jackal, a vulture and a heron [are heard], then the death of a lord [will] definitely [take place]. (= KSP [2]) (2cd)

If a cord is stepped over by a specific kind of creature, then there must be a bone of that creature beneath the site (vāstuni) on which the cord is being cast (sūtrādhāre). (= KSP [3]) (3ab)

If [some other man] who stands beside the donor announces a [creature’s] name while a cord is being cast, then there is an impure substance, i.e. a bone of the creature of the name beneath the site on which the donor is standing. (= KSP [5]) (3cd)

If [someone] touches [a particular part of] his body and [the site] is quickly dug to a depth up to that [particular part of the body] according to the rules, then there is the [extraneous thing corresponding to the omen]. (= KSP [4]) (4a)

[With regard to bodily sensations,] various omens of extraneous things [beneath the site] are taught. In this [short section], however, [the explanation is] just abridged. (4b)

If a cow comes and drops dung, then there is the same amount of gold as the [dung beneath the site]. (= KSP [6](1)) Alternatively, if a young girl [comes and] urinates, then there must be the same amount of silver as [the urine beneath the site]. (= KSP [6](2)) (4cd)

viśuddhavalitaṃ] Kpc N1 N2 (The relevant word in Ms. K is corrected at least three times: viX → vidha → visuvalitaṃ → visuddhavalitaṃ)

nirgranthi] N1; nigranthi K; nitranthi N2

nāsāgramadhye] K N1; nāśāgramadhya N2

’kṣiṇī] conj.; ’kṣaṇo K; kṣaṇo N1 N2

° paṭhanaiḥ] N1 N2; °pradhvanaiḥ K

saṃstūya] em.(←Tib. bstod pas); santūryya K; santūrya N1 N2

airandhrīkara°] N1 N2; airandhrikara° K

° praphullojjvalair] N1 N2; °prasphullojjvalair K

dāyakaḥ] em.; dāyakaṃ K N1 N2

gurumṛtiḥ] N2; gurumṛti K

jambuka°] N2; jambūka° K

° ruditair] K; °rudite N2

mṛtyur] K; mṛtyu N2

° sattva°] N2; °satya°

dātuḥ] Kpc N2; pādātuḥ Kac

pārśvagato] K N2pc; śvagato N2ac

ākhanya] N2; ākhana K

chalyānāṃ] K; chalyānāṃ m N2

bahudhā] Kpc N2; bahuvidhā Kac

nimittam uditaṃ] K; nimittavyditaṃ or nimittamaditaṃ N2

tv] N2; n.e. K

asṛjat] N2; asṛjan K

visṛjet] K; visṛjat N2

tanmānarūpyaṃ] N2; tanmānarūpa K

bhavet] N2; bhave K

naimittaṃ] The folios which contain the text from nimittam to the end of this chapter are missing from Ms. N1.

maṇḍūkadhvaninā1 gṛhe jalabhayaṃ dhūmena cittākulaṃ2

rogārtāṅga3vihīna4kuṣṭhavivaśa5strīdarśaṇe6 rogabhāk |

jīvaṃjīvamayūrakokilaśukāś cakrāṅka7haṃsarṣabhās8

teṣāṃ kaṇṭharutaṃ śubhodayakaraṃ saṃpatkaraṃ darśaṇam ||5||

5a maṇḍūkadhvaninā … jalabhayaṃ ] = KSP [6](3) 5a dhūmena cittākulaṃ ] = KSP [6](7) 5b = KSP [6](8) 5cd = KSP [6](4)

siṃhāmbhodhararājakuñjararavair9 dhānyārthalābhodayaṃ

bālakrīḍanaśaṅkhamaṅgala1dhvanau10 dravyāgamas tadgṛhe |


matsyakṣīradadhīndra14madyadahanajvālāphalānāṃ jayam ||6||

6a = KSP [6](5) 6b = KSP [6](6)

dhānya15dravyasutādivṛddhir atulā niṣpanna16kāryaṃ tadā

bhikṣubrāhmaṇadhīdhanottamajanaiḥ saṃdarśaṇe dharmabhāk |

prārambhe bhuvi17 sūtrapātanavidhau devādisaṃsthāpane

śreyoliṅgam18 idaṃ hitodayakaraṃ saṃvīkṣya19 kuryāt tadā ||7||

6c–7a = KSP [6](9) 7b = KSP [6](10)

śilpācārya20vicāracārucaturais21 tyaktvāśubhaṃ sarvathā

yena22 sthānanivāsi23sarvajanatā24rājñāṃ ca dātur25 yathā |

kalyāṇāya śubhodayāya nitarām ādau vicāryaiva tat26

sattārāgrahayogavāsaraśubhe kāryāṃ samārabhyatām ||8||

iti bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhiḥ27.

If a frog croaks, there is danger of water in the [donor’s?] house. (= KSP [6](3)) If smoke [is seen], there is distraction of mind. (= KSP [6](7)) If a person suffering from a disease (rogārtāṅga°), a person of a lower [class], a person suffering from leprosy, a deranged person (°vivaśa°), and a woman are seen, then it causes disease (rogabhāk). (= KSP [6](8)) (5ab)

Songs (kaṇṭharutam) of a jīvaṃjīvaka bird, peacock, kokila bird, parrot, cakrāṅka, haṃsa, and a bull bring auspiciousness. If [these creatures] are seen, it brings prosperity. (= KSP [6](4)) (5cd)

The roar of a lion, the sound of thunder, and the roar of a royal elephant bring the gain of grain and property. (= KSP [6](5)) (6a)

If the voices of children playing, the sound of a conch-shell, or an auspicious [song are heard], it brings wealth to the [donor’s] house. (= KSP [6](6)) (6b)

If a parasol, lotus, banner, muraja drum, flagpole, ornament, a woman of the court, fish, milk, the best curd, wine, blazing fire, and fruits [are seen], then there are victory, extraordinary increase of grain, property, [the number of] sons, and other [merits], and the completion of duties. (= KSP [6](9)) (6c–7a)

If a bhikṣu, brāhmaṇa, wise man (°dhī°), or a wealthy man (°dhanottamajana-) is seen, it brings virtue. (= KSP [6](10)) (7b)

In the consecration of [images of] deities and other [sacred objects], [the officiant] should examine the [above-mentioned] omens which bring merits [to the donor] in the commencement of the rite of the casting of cords, and then perform [the casting of cords]. (7cd)

The officiant with special knowledge of architecture1 who is skilled in the examination [of omens] should abandon inauspicious[, extraneous] things by all means. By doing this (yena), fortune and auspiciousness will certainly be brought to the donor, the king, and all people who live in the region. [Therefore, the officiant] should first examine the [omens], and then undertake the rite [to follow] when the combination of fixed stars and planets, and the day are auspicious. (8)

These are the rules for extraneous things beneath the site and the omens [observed] in the rite of casting of cords.

maṇḍūkadhvaninā] N2; maṇḍakadhvaninā K

cittākulaṃ] em.; cintākulaṃ K; citākulaṃ N2

rogārtāṅga°] K; rogārttaṅga° N2

° vihīna°] N2; °vihina°

° vivaśa°] em.; °vivaśaḥ K; °vivagaḥ N2

° strīdarśaṇe] N2; °strīdarśaṇa K

cakrāṅka°] K; cakrāṃṅka° N2

° rṣabhās] N2; °gaṇāḥ K

° ravair] em.; °ravai K N2

° dhvanau] N2; °dhvanair K

chatrāmbhoja°] Kpc; cchatrāmbhojakha° Kac; chatrāmbhojakhama N2

° muraja°] K; °jera° N2

° dhvajālaṅkāra°] K; °dhvajaghaṭālaṅkāra° N2

° dadhīndra°] N2; °dadhisu° K

dhānya°] K; dhānyārtha° N2

niṣpanna°] K; niṣpan° N2

bhuvi] N2; guru K

śreyoliṅgam] K; śriyoliṅgam N2

saṃvīkṣya] N2; saṃvidya K

śilpācārya°] em.; śiṣyācāryya° K; śilppācārya° N2

° caturais] K; catures N2

yena] N2; ye K

sthānanivāsi°] N2; sthānavāsināṃ K

° sarvajanatā°] N2; sarvvajanānāṃ Kac; sarvvajanatānāṃ Kpc

ca dātur] N2; pradābhūr K

tat] K; tata N2

iti bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhiḥ] em. based upon N2; nānāmatāt samākṛṣya maṇḍalācāryadarppaṇaviracite kriyāsamuccaye bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhiḥ ṣaṣṭamapaṭalaḥ K; iti bhūśalyasūtrapātananimitavidhi N2

° maṅgala°] la of maṅgala must be short (dhv does not make the vowel heavy).

muraja] la of muraja must be short (dhv does not make the vowel heavy).

I have not seen the word śilpācārya elsewhere. If this is not a corruption, it probably refers to a particular class of officiant which is equivalent to the sthāpaka, the Śaiva officiant who specialises in the installation of images and consecration of temples.



before correction


a diagnostic conjecture


a correction




an emendation




National Archives, Kathmandu


not existent


Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project


after correction


an illegible akṣara


an akṣara lost due to damage to the manuscript.


suspected but undiagnosed corruption


Sanderson proposes that what kept Śaivism alive, and enabled it to exert its influence, was ritual for others, as the professional activity of officiants who operated outside the narrow confines of self-cultivation (Sanderson 2010, 12).

Generally speaking, rituals for others, i.e. rituals performed for the benefit of donors, were formed through modification of rituals for personal salvation. In the case of Tantric Buddhism, the pratiṣṭhā ritual is a modification of the utpattikrama practice. See the following three quotations: Ratnākaraśānti’s Bhramahara: tasyānandina āsyena dvihoḥkāravidarbhitam | jvalad bījadvayaṃ rāgāt padmāntaḥ praviśad dravet || tato vajrī mahārāgād vilīya saha vidyayā | śaraccandradravanibhāṃ tiṣṭhen maṇḍalatāṃ gataḥ || athotthānāya taṃ devyaḥ sthitvā koṇāsanenduṣu | codayeyuś catasṛbhiś catasro vajragītibhiḥ || (Isaacson 2002, 162, lines 9–15); Vajrāvalī (abhiṣeka section): tais tathāgataiḥ prajñāsamāpannair mahārāgeṇa dravībhūya vairocanadvāreṇāntarniviśya vajramārgeṇa nirgatya taddravair devīpadme mukhena praveśitaṃ śiṣyaṃ jhaṭiti śūnyatānantaraṃ hūṃvajrajātasaprajñākṣobhyarūpiṇaṃ jñānasattvābhinnam abhiṣicya punar bhujamukhādimūrtibhiḥ *padmān (corr.; padmāt EM) niḥsṛtya gaganam āpūrya sthitair locanādividyāsahitaiś chatradhvajapatākāvastravāditragītanṛtyapuṣpakuṅkumādivṛṣṭibhiḥ karakiśalayāvarjitabodhicittāmṛtapūrṇasitakalaśais taṃ śiṣyaṃ *padmān (corr.; padmāt EM) niḥsṛtam abhiṣicyamānaṃ … (EM § 24.2, vol. 2, p. 341, lines 6–11); Vajrāvalī (pratiṣṭhā section): taiś ca tathāgataiḥ prajñāsamāpannair mahārāgeṇa dravībhūya svasya vairocanadvāreṇa praviśya vajramārgeṇa nirgatya taddravair devīpadme mukhena praveśitaṃ pratimādikam abhiṣicya punar bhujamukhādimūrtibhiḥ *padmān (corr.; padmāt EM) niḥsṛtya bahir ambaram āpūrya sthitair locanādividyāsahitaiś cchatrapatākānṛtyagītavāditrakusumakuṅkumādivṛṣṭiparikaritakarakiśalayāvarjitabodhicittāmṛtapūrṇasitakalaśais tat pratimādikaṃ padmād bahir niḥsṛtam abhiṣicyamānaṃ … (EM § 17.3, vol. 2, p. 416, line 17–p. 417, line 2). The first passage quoted from the Bhramahara teaches how the practitioner should generate himself as Hevajra in the First Union (ādiyoga). The practitioner, who has the form of the seed syllables, should enter the womb of Nairātmyā, Hevajra’s consort, through Hevajra’s mouth, become liquid (i.e. the state of śūnyatā), be emitted outside the womb, and have the form of Hevajra. The second passage quoted from Vajrāvalī teaches how the master should visualise the initiand in the udakābhiṣeka. The master should visualise that the initiand is made to enter the womb of the goddess, becomes liquid (śūnyatā), and is emitted outside the womb. This is a modification of the meditation in the utpattikrama practice. The third passage quoted from Vajrāvalī teaches how the officiant should visualise the deity of the image in the udakābhiṣeka of the pratiṣṭhā. The same method as the second passage is applied here. For the relationship between the utpattikrama practice and the pratiṣṭhā in Tantric Buddhism, see Tanemura 2004, 85–90.


For the parallel repertoire of rituals between Śaivism and Tantric Buddhism, see Sanderson 2009, 124–127. To add some more information about the manuals of the Tantric Buddhist funeral rite (given on p. 126, note 294), after the publication of Sanderson 2009, I published a critical edition of and notes on Śūnyasamādhivajra’s Mṛtasugatiniyojana (Tanemura 2013a), an annotated Japanese translation of the same text (Tanemura 2013b), and a preliminary edition and annotated Japanese translation of the Antasthitikarmoddeśa of Padmaśrīmitra’s Maṇḍalopāyikā (Tanemura 2012). The visualisation taught in verses 12–13 of the Mṛtasugatiniyojana is a modification of the mṛtasaṃjīvana practice elaborated in commentaries on the Guhyasamājatantra, which are classified as works of Jñānapāda school in the Tibetan canon. The utkrānti (intentional death of a yogin) is applied to the visualisations taught in verses 14–16.


Sanderson proposes that the fundamental reason for Śaivism’s success was “that it greatly increased its appeal to royal patrons by extending and adapting its repertoire to contain a body of rituals and theory that legitimated, empowered, or promoted key elements of the social, political and economic process that characterizes the early medieval period (Sanderson 2009, 253).” With regard to the second element, the proliferation of land-owing temples, “[t]he Śaivas of the Mantramārga provided specialized officiants and rituals to establish these Śivas [= Liṅgas], developing in the course of time a secondary body of scriptural authorities, the Pratiṣṭhātantras, devoted exclusively to this domain, setting out the rituals of installation (pratiṣṭhā) and defining the norms for the form of the Liṅga, the iconography of ancillary images, and the architectural design of the various temple types” (Sanderson 2009, 274; the word in square brackets is supplied by the present author). The characteristics of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā are very close to those of the Pratiṣṭhātantras mentioned above. With regard to the contents of the whole Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, see Tanemura 2004, 12–42.


For this non-Saiddhāntika view on the Saiddhāntika religion, see, e.g., Sanderson 2007, 231. On the public character of the Saiddhāntika religion, see, e.g., Sanderson 2007, 238–239 and Sanderson 2014, 13.


For instance, the Sūtaka(-melāpaka) (commonly known as “Caryāmelāpakapradīpa,” which is not attested in Sanskrit primary sources) calls the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha the “root tantra.” See Sūtakamelāpaka (chapter 3 Vāgviveka): vajragurur āha—sādhu sādhu mahāsattva śrītattvasaṃgrahādau mūlatantre cottaratantre ca vāyutattvaṃ na vispaṣṭenoktam, saṃdhyāyabhāṣitatvāt (EW p. 375, lines 13–15); vajragurur āha—sādhu sādhu mahāsattva mantratattvaṃ nāma tattvasaṃgrahādau mūlatantre cottaratantre ca kevalaṃ mantramātram udīritaṃ mantroddhāro na pradarśitaḥ (EW p. 378, lines 13–15). That the system of the Yogatantra is the Vajrayāna’s fundamental authority might also be implied by the following verse of the Saṃvarodayatantra (21.2): sāmānyayogatantrānāṃ rahasyaṃ na vipañcitam | siddhīnāṃ paramā siddhir vratnānāṃ paramaṃ vratam || (ET p. 134).

That the system of the Vajradhātumaṇḍala taught in the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha is employed for rituals in the public domain is inferred from the fact that the fundamental system of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā is the Vajradhātumaṇḍala (See the citation from the Kalaśādhivāsanā section of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā below).

The verses quoted below from Padmaśrīmitra’s Maṇḍalopāyikā suggest that the rituals prescribed in his manual, which are performed in public, are based on the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha. See Padmaśrīmitra’s Maṇḍalopāyikā 2.39–41: ādāv arghavidhiḥ proktaḥ dvitīye bhūparigrahaḥ | tṛtīyaṃ *ṭippa(em.; tippa- Ms.)sūtraṃ tu jñānasūtraṃ caturthakam ||2.39|| pañcamo rajasāṃ pātaḥ ṣaṣṭhaṃ kalaśādhivāsanam | saptamaḥ kalaśanyāso maṇḍalasādhanam aṣṭamam ||2.40|| pratiṣṭhā navamī caiva daśamī homakriyā matā | ekādaśī visṛṣṭiḥ syād ity uktaṃ tattvasaṃgrahe ||2.41|| (2r7–8). The eleven rituals from the arghavidhi to the visṛṣṭi mentioned in the above-quoted verses are rituals related to the pratiṣṭhā (cf. the structure of the rituals prescribed in the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, for which see Tanemura 2004, Introduction). The phrase “taught in the (Sarvatathāgata-)Tattvasaṃgraha” does not necessarily mean that the scripture prescribes the eleven rituals listed in the verses, probably only that the mantra-visualisation system employed in those rituals is that of the Vajradhātumaṇḍala taught in the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha. (Cf. Kimiaki Tanaka’s understanding of the words from ādau to visṛṣṭiḥ syāt as being directly quoted by Padmaśrīmitra from the scripture; see Tanaka 2010, 562.) For instance, the samaya which the officiant causes the deity of the images to listen to is “oṃ hūṃ trāḥ hrīḥ aḥ,” the syllables of the Five Buddhas of the Vajradhātumaṇḍala (9r9).


See Tanemura 2004, Introduction § 1.5.


After the publication of Tanemura 2004, I was able to access the following two manuscripts of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā. N2: Kaiser Library Access No. 109; N3: NGMPP E365/12 (private collection). I report on the readings of these manuscripts when I quote the texts from Tanemura 2004. With regard to N2, the first forty-five leaves, of which the material is paper, are a later addition to the original palm-leaf manuscript. The leaves before folio 35 of the original palm-leaf manuscript have been lost. The original manuscript was copied in samvat 336. According to Petech, the date of copying is verified for Thursday, February 11th, 1216 (Petech 1984, 81). With regard to N2, I report only on the readings of the original palm-leaf manuscript.


Mss. N2 and N3 read as follows. N2: yasyācāryyasya vajradhātau nāmādhimokṣaḥ tasya sveṣṭadevatādhi*mokṣeṇa(N2pc; mokṣauṇa N2ac) bhūśodhanapratiṣṭhāparyyanteṣu sarvve kriyākaraṇam aviruddhaḥ || (30v1–2); N3: yasyācāryasya vajradhātau nādhimokṣaḥ tasya sveṣṭadevatādhimokṣeṇa bhūśodhanapratiṣṭhāparyanteṣu sarvvakriyākaraṇam aviruddhaṃ || (24v1–2).


The edition is based on the following witnesses (for sigla, see the bibliography): N 37v6, N2 39v5, N3 44v1–2, C1 33r5, C2 51v5, C3 43r5, T1 43v4, T2 40v2–3, T3 37v5.


Mss. N2 and N3 read as follows. N2: prekṣakajanāṃś ca tāṃvūlādibhiḥ saṃtoṣya śreyase bhojanam valiś ca deyaḥ (150v3); N3: prekṣakajanāś ca tāmvūlādibhiḥ santoṣya śreyase bhojanaṃ valiś ca deyaḥ (174r3–4).


N 41v1, N2 43v4–5, N3 49r1–2, K 45r1–2, O 38v5–6, C1 36v2–3, C2 56r3–4, C3 47v2–3, T1 47v4–5, T2 44v1–6, T3 41v4–5.


For the reading of Ms. N2 see footnote 28 in this paper.


N folio missing, N3 folio missing, O folio missing, K 1v2–3, C1 1v2–3, C2 1v3, C3 1v3–4, T1 1v3, T2 1v3, T3 1v2–3.


This kind of “unfaithful copy” is found in various places of Ms. C. See Tanemura 2004, 102.


I do not conclude that the prescriptions of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā are merely ideal. Rather, as I have already pointed out, the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā is practical in its character (Tanemura 2004, 104–111). For instance, the measurements of a monastery by calculation based on the prescriptions of the vāstunāga are very close to those of the plans of Cha Bahi and I Baha Bahi in the Kathmandu valley. See Tanemura 2002, 572, note 29. For the plans of Cha Bahi and I Baha Bahi, see the plates attached to Watanabe et al. 2009.


The readings of N3 are presented in the footnotes at the end of each section.


Guhyasamājamaṇḍalavidhi v. 229ab (Ms. 12r2, ES 134). The numeration follows that of the Sarnath edition (ES).


For §[0] N3 reads as follows: animittair asiddhiḥ syāt sūtraccheda guroḥ kṣaya iti vacanāt nimittāny upalakṣayet || liṅgāni sūtracchedanarodanasūtrasamullaṅghanagātrasparśananāmasaṅkīrttanādīni || (33v1–2).


For §[1] Ms. N3 reads as follows: tatra sūtracchedanenācāryasya maraṇaṃ | (33v2).


For §[2] Ms. N3 reads as follows: śvaśṛgālagṛdhrakaṅkarunair yajamānasya maraṇam āhuḥ | (33v2).


For §[3] Ms. N3 reads as follows: mārjjāreṇa sūtralaṃghane tadasthi rāsasya vā || garddareṇa laṃghane tadasthi || kujjureṇa laṃghane tadasthi || ajāvibhyāṃ laṃghane tayor asthi vā || aśvenāśvāsthi || hastinā hastyasthi || uṣṭrāsthi vā | aśvatareṇa tadasthi mahiṣeṇa śṛgālāsthi || mṛgeṇa mṛgāsthi || rekṣeṇa ṛkṣāsthi | varāheṇa vyāghrāsthi || vyāghreṇa gajāsthi || mūṣakeṇa mūṣakāsthi | sarppeṇa sarppāsthi || kacchapena kacchapāsthi || (33v2–5).


Though the Devyāmata does not have a parallel to this teaching, Piṅgalāmata has a close parallel: bhruvoḥ saṃsparśanād bhadre kācaśalyaṃ trihastakam (68r3). See Tanemura 2004, 150.


Though the Devyāmata does not have a parallel to this teaching, the Piṅgalāmata has a close parallel: īśa*sthe (conj. Sanderson; sthaś Ms.) cakṣuḥsaṃsparśāt tanmānān mauktikaṃ bhavet (68r1). See Tanemura 2004, 150.


Though the Devyāmata does not have a parallel to this teaching, the Piṅgalāmata has a close parallel: śruti*sthe (conj. Sanderson; sthaḥ Ms.) śrutisaṃsparśāt pravālaṃ vātha kāñcanam | rajataṃ ca śubhā hy ete karṇamātrāt samuddharet | (68r1). See Tanemura 2004, 150.


Though the Devyāmata does not have a parallel to this teaching, tthe Piṅgalāmata has a close parallel: kakṣau kakṣākṛtiṃ vindyāt kṛṣṇalohaṃ karatrayāt (68r3). See Tanemura 2004, 151.


Though the Devyāmata does not have a parallel to this teaching, the Piṅgalāmata has a close parallel: śiśne tu vikṛtiṃ yāte trilohaṃ tatra jāyate | trikarādhaḥ samuddhāryam iti śāstrasya niścayaḥ | (68r3–4). See Tanemura 2004, 152.


Though the Devyāmata does not have a parallel to this teaching, the Piṅgalāmata has a close parallel: gulphasthe gulphasaṃsparśād dhayapādaṃ vinirdiśet | daśāṣṭāṅgulamānena tatra *khātvā (em. Sanderson; khaṭvā Ms.) samuddharet | (67v4) See Tanemura 2004, 153.


For §[4] N3 reads as follows: śiraḥkaṇḍūyanaṃ yady ācāryaśilpiyajamānatanniyogijanānām madhye kaścit karoti || tadā ekapauruṣād adhaḥ śalyam asti || bhrūsparśe suvarṇṇaṃ hastatrayāt kācam vā || netrasparśe netraparyāntādhastān muktā || mukhasparśe keśaṃ kāṣṭham vā *trikādhare (N3ac; trikarādhare N3pc) || dantasparśāt tribhir hastair dantam anumīyet || karṇṇakaṇḍūyane karṇṇāntādhastād rūpyaṃ || suvarṇṇaṃ vidrumam vā bhavet || galasparśena tataḥ pramāṇādhaḥ kaṇṭhikā || lohaśṛṅkhalā vā aṅśākaṃkālam vā trikarādhare || aśasparśe tatpramāṇādhare tadābharaṇaṃ || kakṣasparśe kakṣāntādho lohaṃ || dakṣiṇakarasparśe kaṭimātrādhaḥ pṛṣṭhakapālaṃ mṛnmayakapālam vā | vāmahastasparśe jānumātrādhaḥ khaṭvāpādaḥ || pārśvakaṇḍūyane navārddhamātrādho dhūlī || uraḥsparśe kaṭimātrādhaḥ paṇḍuḥ kīkaśaṃ || pṛXṣṭhasparśe pṛṣṭhāsti tatpramāṇādhaḥ || kaṭisparśe dvikarādhaḥ pradeśe lohakaṇṭhakaṃ || liṅgasparśena hastapramāṇādhare trilohaśalyaṃ || jaṃghāsparśe tada*X(N3ac; tyo N3pc)kādaśāṅgulādhare gulphasparśe ’ṣṭādaśāṅgulādhare ’śvakuraḥ || pādasparśāXt dvādaśāṅgulre ’dhare śālmalī kaṇṭhako vā || pādakaniṣṭhāṅgulīsparśe ’ṣṭāṅgulādhare kāṃśyaṃ | pārṣṇisparśe dvādaśāṅgulādhare ’bhrakaṃ || (33v5–34v1).


For §[5] N3 reads as follows: sūtrapātanasamaye yajamānasya pārśve sthitvā kenacid anye[na pu]ruṣeṇayasya prāṇino nāma sa[kīttyata tada]sthi tatrā[stī]ti niścayaḥ || (34v1).


For §[6] Ms. N3 reads as follows: akasmād gaur āgatya yadi viṣṭhām utsṛjati tadadho vaśyaṃ tatpramāṇaṅ kanakam astīti niścīyate | yady akasmād āgatya [pu?]rīṣam utsṛjati vālakumārikā tadā tadadho ’vaśyaṃ tatpramāṇa rūpyam bhavet || bhekarutena jalabhayaṃ || sukasīrikāhaṃsakokilamayūjīvaṃjīvakacakravākavṛṣabhāṇāṃ hṛdyopakūjanaṃ kalyāṇāya bhavati || siṃhagajameghamanojñasvano dhanadhānyārthalābhodayāya bhavati || śaṅkhamaṅgalagītikāvālakrīḍaner arthāptiḥ || dhūmadarśane cittapīḍā || hīnadīnavyādhiparipīḍitajanadarśane rogaḥ || dhvajacchatrapatākāsadyamāṃsaghaṇṭālaṅkārāmbhojadadhīndravahnijvālāphalamīnayugarājāṅganādīnāṃ sandarśane śubham bhavati || vidvadbrāhmaṇabhikṣusādhujanānāṃ sandarśane dharmmaḥ syāt || (34v1–5).


The preliminary edition of the Devyāmata is based upon the two manuscripts listed below under References. There is another incomplete palm-leaf manuscript of the same scripture (NAK 5–446/vi. śaivatantra 105, catalogued under the title Niśvāsākhyamahātantra = NGMPP A41/13), which does not, unfortunately, contain the text of the relevant chapter.


The second outcome, deadly pain, is not mentioned in the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā.


Although the Devyāmata does not mention the bone of a cat as an extraneous thing, it should also be prognosticated if we consider v. 10 of the Devyāmata above.


The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā mentions the bone of a mouse, which is not mentioned in the Devyāmata, as the extraneous thing in the case that a mouse passes over a cord. If we consider v. 10 of the Devyāmata above, the bone of mouse should also be prognosticated in this case.


The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā mentions bones of rams and sheep, which are not mentioned in the Devyāmata as extraneous things. Probably, in this case too, the rule of v. 10 above should be applied.


If the rule of v. 10 is applied, the bone of a horse should also be prognosticated in this case. The bone of a buffalo is not mentioned in the corresponding part of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā.


The Devyāmata does not mention the bone of an elephant, which is mentioned in the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā. Probably, in this case too, the rule of v. 10 should be applied.


The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā does not mention the former omen, i.e. the urination of a cow.


There might be a corruption here. It is expected that the extraneous thing is a certain kind of metal in this case.


The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā teaches only that there is an extraneous thing at a depth of the full height of a man in this case.


The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā teaches that the depth is three cubits in this case.


The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā teaches that the depth is three cubits in this case.


The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā additionally mentions a necklace and skeleton of a cat as extraneous things in the case that someone touches his neck.


I am not sure what sphaṇa or sphaṇaka means. The preceding verse refers to the neck and the following the arm, so this word probably means shoulder.


If we refer to the parallel in the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, the extraneous thing to be prognosticated is an ornament related to the arm.


The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā teaches that the depth is the measurement up to the neck.


The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā limits the first condition to the left hand, but does not mention the second condition, i.e. touching a finger.


The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā limits the condition to the right hand. The relevant part of the Devyāmata does not have a word corresponding to †pṛṣṭḥakapālam† in the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, i.e. the Devyāmata does not give a clue to solve the textual problem in the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā.


The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā does not mention this second extraneous thing.


The Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā teaches that the depth is the measurement up to the buttocks in this case.


I have not translated the corruption, nādhitopaskarasvāpi.


An extraneous thing prescribed in the corresponding part of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā is a piece of silk-cotton wood (śālmalī).


A foot of a horse (aśvapādaṃ) is supported by Ms. B and Ms. A reads aṣṭapādaṃ (a spider). Since the omen is scratching the toe, an extraneous thing related to the foot might be better.


The Śaivas of Mantramārga produced a secondary body of scriptural authorities, the Pratiṣṭhātantras, devoted exclusively to the domain of construction of royal temples. They also asserted the principle that the Śaiva sthāpaka, the specialist who performs the rituals related to temple construction and installation, is competent not only for the Śaiva domain but also for all the levels that Śaivas ranked below this (Sanderson 2009, 274–275). Cf. Devyāmata: pāṣaṇḍidarśanaṃ neṣṭaṅ gṛhiṇām asukhāvahaṃ (Ms. A 91v1); Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, nimittokti: vidvadbrāhmaṇabhikṣusādhujanānāṃ saṃdarśane dharmaḥ syāt (Tanemura 2004, 155).


The sūtrapātanavidhi, in which the nimittokti section is included, is based on the mantra-visualisation system of the Vajradhātumaṇḍala taught in the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha. See Tanemura 2004, 139–155, 237–250.


For example, descriptions similar to those of the nimittokti of the Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā are found in the Bṛhatsaṃihtā 53.105–110 (EB vol. 1, pp. 489–491). See also Tanemura 2004, 245–250.


Genesis and Development of Tantrism is also published by Sankibo Press, Tokyo, under the Japanese Title Tantora no Keisei to Tenkai.


Primary Sources and Sigla

  • Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya by Jagaddarpaṇa or Darpaṇācārya

  • (K) Manuscript preserved in the Kyoto University Library, No. 7.

  • (N1) Manuscript preserved in Kaiser Library, Kathmandu, Access No. 110.

  • (N2) Manuscript preserved in NAK, No. 4–123/vi. bauddhatantra 16; NGMPP B31/5.

  • Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā by Kuladatta

  • See Tanemura 2004.

  • For sigla N K O C1 C2 C3 T1 T2 T3, see Tanemura 2004, 103–103.

  • (N2) Manuscript preserved in Kaiser Library, Kathmandu, Access No. 109.

  • (N3) NGMPP E365/12. According to the card catalogue, N3 is a private manuscript of B.H. Bajracharya. The short title given in the card catalogue is Pañjikā.

  • Guhyasamājamaṇḍalavidhi by Dīpaṅkarabhadra

  • (Ms.) Niedersächsishe Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek, Göttingen, Cod. Ms. Sanscr. 257, folios 6v4–16v.

  • (ES) “Śrīguhyasamājamaṇḍalavidhiḥ.” Dhīḥ: Journal of Rare Buddhist Texts Research Unit 42 (2006): 109–154.

  • Devyāmata

  • (A) NAK 1–279 vi. śaivatantra 104; NGMPP A41/15–42/1 (catalogue title: Niśvāsākhyamahātantra).

  • (B) NAK 1–1003; NGMPP B27/6 (catalogue title: Pratiṣṭhātantra).

  • Piṅgalāmata

  • NAK 3–376; NGMPP A42/2.

  • Bṛhatsaṃhitā by Varāhamihira

  • (EB) M. Ramakrishna Bhat, ed. Varāhamihira’s Bṛhatsaṃhitā. 2 vols. Reprint, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1997 [1981].

  • Bhramaharanāma Hevajrasādhana (Bhramahara) by Ratnākaraśānti

  • See Isaacson 2002.

  • Maṇḍalopāyikā by Padmaśrīmitra

  • Ms. preserved in the Tokyo University Library, No. 280 (New Number).

  • Vajrāvalī by Abhayākaragupta

  • (EM) Masahide Mori, ed. Vajrāvalī of Abhayākaragupta: Edition of Sanskrit and Tibetan Versions. 2 vols. Buddhica Britannica Series Continua XI. Tring: Institute of Buddhist Studies, 2009.

  • (A) NAK 3–402 vi. bauddhatantra 76 = NGMPP A48/3.

  • (B) NAK 5–84 vi. bauddhatantra 78 = NGMPP B31/14.

  • Somaśambhupaddhati

  • For the pratiṣṭhā section see Brunner-Lachaux 1998.

Secondary Sources

  • Brunner-Lachaux, Hélène. 1998. Somaśaṃbhupaddhati: Rituels dans la tradition sivaïte selon Somaśambhu, quatrième partie, rituels optionnels: pratiṣṭhā. Publications du département d’ indologie 25.4. Pondichéry: Institut Français de Pondichéry/École française d’ Extrême-Orient.

  • Isaacson, Harunaga. 2002. “Ratnākaraśānti’s Bhramaharanāma Hevajrasādhana: Critical Edition (Studies in Ratnākaraśānti’s tantric works III).” Kokusai Bukkyōgaku Daigakuin Daigaku Kiyō [Journal of the International College for Advanced Buddhist Studies] 5: 80–55.

  • Petech, Luciano. 1984. Medieval History of Nepal (c. 750–1480). 2nd edition. Serie Orietale Roma, no. 54. Roma: Istitute per il Medio e Estremo Oriente.

  • Sanderson, Alexis. 2007. “The Śaiva Exegesis of Kashmir” In Mélanges tantriques à la mémoire d’ Hélène Brunner/Tantric Studies in Memory of Hélène Brunner, edited by Dominic Goodall and André Padoux, 231–442, 551–582 (bibliography). Collection Indologie, no. 106. Pondicherry: Institut Français d’ Indologie/École française d’ Extrême-Orient.

  • Sanderson, Alexis. 2009. “The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominace of Śaivism During the Early Medieval Period.” In Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, 41–349. Institute of Oriental Culture Special Series, no. 23. Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo.57

  • Sanderson, Alexis. 2010. “Ritual for Oneself and Ritual for Others.” In Ritual Dynamics and the Science of Ritual Volume II. Body, Performance, Agency, and Experience, edited by Axel Michaels, et al., 9–20. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

  • Sanderson, Alexis. 2014. “The Śaiva Literature.” Journal of Indological Studies (New title for Studies in the History of Indian Thought) 24 and 25 (2012–2013): 1–113.

  • Tanaka, Kimiaki. 2010. Indo ni okeru Mandara no Seiritsu to Hatten [Genesis and Development of the Maṇḍala in India]. Tokyo: Shunjūsha.

  • Tanemura, Ryugen. 2004. Kuladatta’s Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā: A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation of Selected Sections. Groningen Oriental Studies, no. 19. Groningen: Egbert Forsten.

  • Tanemura, Ryugen. 2012. “Padmaśrīmitra Saku Maṇḍalopāyikā no Antasthitikarmoddeśa: Preliminary Edition oyobi Shiyaku” [*Antasthitikarmoddeśa of Padmaśrīmitra’s Maṇḍalopāyikā: A Preliminary Edition and Annotated Japanese Translation]. Gendai Mikkyō 23: 103–121.

  • Tanemura, Ryugen. 2013a. “Śūnyasamādhivajra Chosaku no Sōgi Manyuaru Mṛtasugatiniyojana: Sansukurittogo Kōtei Tekisuto oyobi Chū” [Śūnyasamādhivajra’s Mṛtasugatiniyojana: A Critical Edition and Notes]. Tōyō Bunka Kenkyūjo Kiyō [The Memoirs of Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia] 163: 136–110.

  • Tanemura, Ryugen. 2013b. “Śūnyasamādhivajra Chosaku no Sōgi Manyuaru Mṛtasugatiniyojana: Shiyaku oyobi Chū” [Śūnyasamādhivajra’s Mṛtasugatiniyojana: An Annotated Japanese Translation]. Acta Tibetica et Buddhica 6: 21–60.

  • Watanabe, Katsuhiko et al. 1998. Nepāru no Bukkyō Sōin: I Baha Bahi Shūfuku Hōkokusho [The Buddhist Monasteries of Nepal: a Report on the I Baha Bahi Restoration Project]. Tokyo: Chūō Kōron Bijutsu Shuppan.

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Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Essays in Honour of Alexis G.J.S. Sanderson

Series:  Gonda Indological Studies, Volume: 22


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