Index

Abbasids, Abbasid Caliphate 116, 249
ʿAbd al-Munʿim, Tāmir 218
ʿAbd al-Nāṣir, Jamāl 163–164, 164n13, 164n14, 166–165
ʿAbduh, Muḥammad 293n17, 300–301
Abū al-Anwār al-Sādāt, Muḥammad 276–285
Abū Bakr (first Caliph) 12, 35, 40, 300n39
Abū Tammām 32, 35, 37–38, 43
adab (literature) 21, 111, 111n8, 114, 116n26, 121n40, 129
Adab Ayyām al-ʿArab 31
ʿAdnān, Ṭāhā 230, 232
al-Afghānī, Jamāl al-Dīn 293n17
al-Aḥmadi, Aḥmad b. Aḥmad al-Samālījī al-Shāfiʿī 275
Aḥmadīyya (Sufi order) 273, 277
Akram, Ghulām Muḥammad Sirdār 295
al-ʿAlamī, Sīdī Qaddūr 57–58, 64
al-Albānī, Nāṣir al-Dīn 130, 132n20, 138
Aleppo 250
Algeria, Algiers 20, 73, 78, 288, 295
ʿAli Bey al-Kabīr 273
Allawites 307
Amīn, Qāsim 297, 297n32
Amīr al-ḥajj (pilgrimage commander) 251, 258
Amman 7, 74
al-Anṣārī, Zakariyyā 266–267, 285
al-ʿAqīq 35n11
The Arab-Israeli conflict 63n29
The Arab Poets’ Association 10
ʿĀrif, ʿAbd al-Salām 73
Aristotle 31
al-Arnāʾūṭ, Nāṣir al-Dīn 129
Asad (tribe) 12, 33–38, 35n11, 40, 42, 45
al-Ashmūnī, Muḥammad 291
ashrāf (the Prophet’s descendants) 264, 268–270, 283
ʿĀshūrāʾ 179, 182, 180–190
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal 247
Ayyām al-ʿArab 31
ʿAzab 250–257, 260
al-Azhar 164, 264–266, 270–274, 277–279, 289, 291, 293–294, 296, 300–301
ʿAzīza, Muḥammad 191–192
Babylon 142, 148, 156, 157n57
al-Badawī, al-Sayyid Aḥmad 273, 277
Baghdad 1, 6–9, 23, 72, 145, 149, 155–156, 158, 183, 318, 327–328
al-Bakrī, Muṣṭafā b. Kamāl al-Dīn 273
Ballas, Shimon 145
Banū Nabhān b. ʿAmr b. Aws 12, 32
Banū ʿUqayl 35n11
Basra 72–73
al-Battāwīn (Baghdad’s central Jewish neighborhood) 1, 7, 324
al-Bayṭār, ʿAbd al-Razzāq 293n17
Beirut 73, 85, 290, 293, 293n17, 295–297, 301–308
Bektāshiyya (Sufi order) 266
bidʿa (disapproved innovation) 275, 300
Bildiyyīn (Jewish converts to Islam in Morocco) 59, 60n10, 61n13, 66n38
al-Bustānī, Buṭrus 305
Būziyān, Fāṭima 229–230
Cairo 7, 16, 19, 73–74, 111–112, 121n37, 121n39, 131, 162–163, 167–168, 194, 196–198, 201, 204, 206–207, 217, 248, 250, 253–254, 257, 271, 273–277, 280, 282–283, 288–289, 291, 301
Qalʿat al-Jabal 111, 120
Sayyida Zēnab 199, 201, 213
The Cairo Genizah 197
Chodzko, Alexander 192
Christian, Christians 5, 7, 19, 102 115n22, 194, 202, 259, 273, 278, 280, 295–297, 299, 303, 305–310, 320–323
Copts 202–203, 283, 328
Dafterdār, defterdār (chief financial officer) 251, 255–256, 258, 261
Damascus 13–14, 50–51, 53, 73–74, 126, 127n2, 128–139, 163, 180, 182, 268, 270, 272–273, 290, 293n17, 295–297, 300, 301n47, 302, 306–310
The Damascus blood libel 323
Damurdāshī (chronicles) 247–250, 260
al-Damurdāshī, Aḥmad 265
Damurdāshiyya (Sufi order) 270
al-Dānā, Nadā 227–228
Darwīsh, Maḥmūd 45
Darwish, Salman 316
al-Dawsī, Ṭufayl b. ʿAmr 32
dhikr (Sufi ritual) 270–275, 292
Dhuhl 43–44
Druze 95, 308, 323
Faraj, Bahjat 219
Farhūd (1941 riots against Jews in Iraq) 5, 5n11, 7, 7n19, 315, 318, 325–328, 330
Fattal, Salim 316, 327
Fatwā (legal opinion) 59, 104, 267–268, 275, 301
Fayṣal I (king of Iraq) 5, 317–318, 328
Fez 59n7, 63n27
al-Find al-Zimmānī (aka Shahl b. Shaybān) 43–44
Firdawsī 180
fitna (civil strife) 271–272
Frenk Aḥmad / Ifranj Aḥmad 248, 250–252, 252n13, 253, 253n14 255, 256n18, 257, 258n19, 261
fuqahāʾ (jurisconsults) 266
al-Futuwwa (Iraqi paramilitary youth movement) 323, 323n35
Ghānim, Fatḥī 162
ghazal (love poetry) 237
Ghāzī (king of Iraq) 32, 318
al-Ghīṭānī, Jamāl 161–176, 218
Goorji, Ovadia 326
Grover, Fritz 318
Ḥabībī, Emile 163
al-Ḥallāq, Muḥammad b. Yūsuf 248–251, 255, 257–261
al-Hamadhānī, Badīʿ al-Zamān 114
Ḥanafī (legal school) 248
al-Ḥarīrī, al-Qāsim b. ʿAlī 114
Hārūn al-Rashīd 116n26
Hasan Paşa (Ottoman Admiral) 280–281
al-Ḥifnī (al-Ḥifnāwī), Muḥammad b. Salīm 273–274
Hijaz 33n6, 126n1, 133, 270
al-Hijrisī, Muḥammad Khalīl 293n17
The Holy land 14, 126, 128, 128n7, 129–130, 130n15, 131, 133–135, 139
ḥulūl (Sufi doctrine) 267, 273
Ḥusayn (grandson of Prophet Muḥammad) 14, 179–185, 188–192, 269, 277–278, 281–282, 285
al-Ḥusaynī, Ḥājj Amīn 318
Hüsrev Paşa (Ottoman viceroy of Egypt) 283
Ibn ʿAbd al-Ghanī, Aḥmad Shalabī 247, 249–251, 255, 257–260, 265
Ibn Abī al-Surūr, Muḥammad al-Bakrī al-Ṣiddīqī 268–269
Ibn Abī Ṭālib, Ḥasan b. ʿAlī 133, 268
Ibn ʿArabī, Muḥyī al-Dīn 166, 166n22, 175, 267–268, 271–272, 274, 285
Ibn ʿAsākir 132
Ibn Falīta 110, 110n4, 110n5, 111, 119n34
Ibn al-Fāriḍ, ʿUmar 267, 274
Ibn Ḥabīb, Muḥammad 50, 130n15, 134–135, 135n32, 136, 138–139
Ibn al-Ḥakam, Unayf 12, 32–33, 35–41, 44
Ibn Ḥātim, ʿAdī 40
Ibn Iyās, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad 164, 265, 268
Ibn Mawlāhum, Muḥammad 112, 112n13
Ibn Maymūn, Muḥammad b. al-Mubārak 32, 36n12
Ibn al-Murajjā, al-Musharraf 126n1, 127, 137n39
Ibn Rifāʿa, al-Ḥārith 35n11
Ibn Taghrī Birdī, Abū al-Maḥāsin Yūsuf 249
Ibn Ṭūlūn, Shams al-Dīn 13, 51–52, 52n9, 53, 268
Ibn ʿUthmān, Muḥammad 111
Ibn Yaḥyā, Abū Mikhnaf Lūṭ 184
Ibrāhīm (Ibrâhîm) Bey Abū Shanab (Mamluk emir) 252–253, 256, 256n18, 257–258, 258n19, 259, 280–281
Idrīs, ʿAbd al-Nūr 236–237
Idrīs, Yūsuf 162
Idrīsiyya (Sufi order) 293n17
ijāza (license to teach and transmit religious knowledge) 291
ijmāʿ (legal binding consensus) 300
ijtihād (legal reasoning) 300
al-Ilbīrī, Abū Isḥāq 58
ʿIllaysh, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān 293n17
ʿIllaysh, Muḥammad 291
iltizām (tax farm) 251, 280, 284–285
al-Inbābī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad 291
Internet 15, 195n3, 198, 206, 224–240, 242
Iraq 2–4, 4n8, 5–7, 10, 14, 23, 69, 73, 78–81, 133, 142–143, 143n5, 143n7, 144, 146–147, 147n20, 148–149, 149n24, 150–152, 155–158, 179, 189–190, 295, 316–321, 323, 325–326, 328–330
Israel 1–3, 3n4, 6, 9–10, 14, 16, 23, 54, 64, 91, 142–157, 157n57, 158–159, 162, 165–167, 315–317, 327–330
Isrāʾīliyyāt (“Israelite” fabricated ḥadīths) 129, 132
Istanbul 16, 247–248, 266, 269, 279–280, 283, 288, 293n17, 300, 302, 309
ʿIvāż Bey 259, 261n29
al-Jabartī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān 3, 15–16, 18, 21–23, 251, 253–254, 258–261, 261n27, 264–267, 269–270, 272–276, 276n23, 277–285
Jād, Nihād 217
jāhiliyya (the pre-Islamic period) 41
al-Jāḥiẓ, ʿAmr b. Baḥr 110n3, 114, 119n34
al-Jazʾāirī, ʿAbd al-Qādir 293n17
Jericho 49n1, 50–51, 53, 128, 128n7, 128n9, 129, 130n15
Jerusalem (Bayt al-Maqdis) 7, 9, 50–51, 57, 62, 62n18, 63, 126, 126n1, 127, 127n3, , 128, 128n7, 128n9, 129–130, 130n15, 132, 132n22, 133, 134n29, 135, 135n33, 136, 136n37, 137, 137n39, 138, 138n39, 139, 139n42, 155, 158
Jews 2, 5, 5n11, 6–7, 10, 12, 23, 53, 58–59, 59n7, 60, 60n10, 61, 61n15, 62, 62n21, 63, 63n27, 64, 64n30, 66n39, 142–143, 143n5, 144–146, 148–150, 156–158, 194, 280, 307–308, 315, 317–330
Ashkenazi 14, 62n20, 329
Baghdadi Jews 144, 148
Iraqi/Babylonian Jews 1, 3, 4n8, 5n11, 6–7, 7n18, 8, 10, 16, 22–23, 142–143, 143n5, 144, 146, 149, 315–319, 323–325, 329–330
Mizrahi/Sephardi 3, 3n5, 9, 14, 20, 149
Jordan 51, 63, 128n7, 130n15, 133, 136
Joseph ha-Nagid Ibn Naghrela 58
Kaʿba 128n9, 301
Kadizadeli (anti-Sufi movement established in Istanbul) 270–272
Karbala 14, 179, 182–183, 190
Kāshānī, Muḥtasham 185
Kāshifī, Ḥusayn Vāʿiẓ 184
al-Kātib, ʿAlī b. Naṣr 110
al-Kātib, ʿAlī b. ʿUmar al-Qazwīnī 110n6
al-Khafājī, Muḥammad ʿAlī 191–192
khalwa (place of seclusion) 276, 284
al-Khalwatī, Karīm al-Din 270, 271n13
Khalwatiyya (Sufi order) 266, 270, 271n13, 272–274, 285
khānqāh (Sufi lodge) 274
al-Kharrāṭ, Idwār 162
khayāl al-ẓill (shadow theater and puppets) 2–3
al-Khayālī, Muḥammad b. Mawlāhum 112, 112n13
Khayrbāy 250
al-Khusrī, Muḥammad 291
Kīwān, Suhayl 233–234
Kufa 179, 192
al-Kurdī, ʿAbdallāh 295
Lebanon 53, 73, 145–147, 189
Libya 73
madhhab (legal rite, school) 276, 300
Maghāzī (the expeditions and raids organized by the Prophet) 32
Maḥfūẓ, Najīb 161–163
Makram, ʿUmar 270, 283
al-Malāʾika, Nāzik 19
Mamluks 271, 274, 279, 280n27, 282–283
Manṣūr, Anīs 321–323
maqātil (Arabic genre of literature) 184
al-Maqdisī, Shihāb al-Dīn 128n9, 137
majlis (Persian plays) 180, 182–183
al-Maqrīzī, Taqī al-Dīn Aḥmad b. ʿAlī 118n31, 165, 249
Marj Dābiq 250
mawlid(s), (saint’s day commemoration) 264, 273–275, 282
mawlid al-Ḥusayn 269, 277–279
mawlid al-nabī 269, 282
Mayyāra, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad 59
Medina (Yathrib) 12, 33–34, 35, 40, 126, 126n1, 129, 132, 137–138, 191, 254, 284
Mecca 33n6, 50n4, 62n18, 126, 126n1, 129, 132, 137–138, 284, 293n17, 300–301
Meḥmed IV (Ottoman Sultan) 250
Mevleviyya (Sufi order) 266
Michael, Sami 145, 145
Morad, Ezra 328
Morocco 13, 57, 59, 63n26, 64n30
Moscow 73–74
Moses (the Prophet) 13, 49, 49n1, 50–54, 54n16, 54n17, 126n1, 128, 128n9, 129–130, 230
Muʿallim, ʿIzzat Sāsūn 318
Muʿallem, Meir 316
Mubarāk, ʿAlī Pasha 165
Muḥammad (the Prophet) 12–13, 33–35, 35n11, 40, 54, 54n18, 55, 62n18, 64n30, 128n9, 130, 135, 137, 179, 184, 188, 254, 264, 269, 296
Muḥammad ʿAlī (ruler of Egypt) 264, 270, 283–284, 299
al-Munajjid, Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn 127, 129, 138
Murâd Bey (Mamluk emir) 180
al-Murādī, Muḥammad Khalīl 265
murūʾa (the sum of the physical and moral qualities of a man) 31, 111
Musaylima 40
Muṣṭafā III (Ottoman Sultan) 260
Nablus 50–51, 134–135, 135n32, 136, 136n37, 139, 293
al-Nābulusī, ʿAbd al-Ghanī 129, 269–271, 285
al-Nadīm, ʿAbdallāh 300
Nahḍa (Arab renaissance) 2, 2n1, 5, 289, 289n4, 291
nahḍa adabiyya (cultural revival) 303
Naʿīmā, Muṣṭafā 261
Nakba (1948 Palestinian catastrophe) 6, 45
Naqīb al-ashrāf (chief of the Prophet’s descendants) 269–270, 274, 283
Naqqāsh, Samīr 14, 142, 144–149, 151–153, 154n48, 155, 157n57, 158–159
Naṣr Allāh, ʿAyda 235
Nijm, Aḥmad Fuʾād 220
Nostradamus 96–101, 104–105
Nuzirists 308
Orwell, George 163–165
Ottomans 22, 163, 175, 268, 280, 280n27, 282–283
Palestine 50–51, 53, 126, 127n2, 128n7, 128n9, 130n15, 131–134, 134n29, 136, 136n35, 139, 156–157, 320–321
Qāḍī (judge) 248
Qāḍī ʿaskar (chief judge) 248
Qāḍī al-quḍāt (chief judge) 248
Qānṣawh al-Ghawrī (Mamluk Sultan) 250
Qāsim, ʿAbd al-Karīm 73
al-Qāsim, Samīḥ 13, 91–105
al-Qāsimī , Jamāl al-Dīn 300
al-Qāyātī, Aḥmad 291–292, 301
al-Qāyātī, Muḥammad 289–293, 295–298, 298n34, 299–302, 304, 307, 309–310
Qāyātiyya (Sufi order) 291–292
Qāyitbāy (Mamluk Sultan) 267
al-Qazdaghlī, Muṣṭafā Katkhudā 252, 252n13, 257, 258n19
Qazzaz, David 316, 327
Qazzaz, Nissim 319, 326–327
al-Qinālī, Musṭafā 265
Quḍāʿa (tribe) 35
al-Rabʿī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad 127, 129, 132
Rabīʿa (tribe) 43
al-Rāḍī, ʿAbd al-Majīd 76
Rāshid, Ḥusayn 232
al-Ramlī, Lenīn 216
ribāṭ (Sufi center) 276, 284
Riḍā, Rashīd 300
ridda wars (series of military campaigns launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes, 632–632) 40
Riyadh 226
Sāda (the Prophet’s descendants) 264
ṣadaqa (alms-giving) 34
al-Sādāt, Anwar 166
al-Ṣaftī, Khalīfa 291
ṣaḥāba (the Prophet’s companions) 35, 300, 300n39
Sāmī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān 290, 290n8, 291, 302–310
Sanājla, Muḥammad 232, 238, 240–241
al-Ṣāniʿ, Rajāʾ 226
al-Sayyāb, Badr Shākir 19, 78, 80
Sefrou (Morocco) 13, 57, 59n7, 63n27
Selim I (Ottoman Sultan) 249–250, 268, 272
Shādhiliyya (Sufi order) 269
Shāfiʿī (legal school) 267, 274, 276, 291
al-Shāfiʿī, Muḥammad b. Idrīs 132n22, 277, 281
al-Shām (Greater Syria) 53, 131, 290
Shammash, Gidʿon 320–321, 327
Shammash, Violette, 316
al-Shanfarā 93–95
al-Shaʿrānī, ʿAbd al-Wahhāb 266–269, 272, 275, 285
sharīʿa (Islamic law) 266
al-Sharqāwī, ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥijāzī al-Shāfiʿī al-Azharī 274, 282
al-Sharqāwī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān 191
Shaul, Anwar 316
Shaykh al-Azhar (rector of al-Azhar) 273–274
Shaykh mashāyikh al-ṭuruq al-ṣūfiyya (supreme shaykh of the Sufi orders) 270
Shiʿis, Shiʿism 12, 179–180, 184, 189, 191–192, 300n39, 308
Shimr 182, 185
al-shiʿr al-ḥurr (free verse) 2, 19
al-Shirbīnī, Yūsuf b. Muḥammad 117n30, 195n3
Sufi, Sufis 13, 16, 165–166, 175–176, 264, 266–278, 282–285, 288–289, 292–293, 293n17, 301
Sufi literature 163
Sufism 16, 264, 266–267, 269–273, 285, 291, 300–301, 301n47
Süleyman the Magnificent, Kanuni Süleyman (Ottoman Sultan) 266–268, 272, 280n28
Sunna 58
Sunnis 191–192, 308
Syria 13–14, 16, 51, 53, 73, 126, 126n1, 127n2, 128n7, 130n15, 131, 133–134, 136, 139, 250, 267–268, 270, 288–290, 293–294, 298, 301–303, 306, 310
al-Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr 40n18, 249
al-Ṭahṭāwī, Rifāʿa Rāfiʿ 299
al-Tamartāshī, Ṣāliḥ b. Aḥmad 129, 131–132, 136, 139
takiyya (Sufi center) 268, 274
taqlīd (adherence to a school of law) 300
taʾrīkh (history, historiography) 15
ṭarīqa, ṭarīqas (order in Sufi terminology) 269–270, 272, 274–275
Ṭasm, Ṭasam (tribe) 39n16, 41n21
Tawfīq (Khedive of Egypt) 165, 290
Ṭayyiʾ (tribe) 12, 32–33, 33n6, 34–42, 45
taʿziya (Shiʿi mourning rituals in Iran) 14, 179–186, 188–192, 192n12
Tanzimat (Ottoman reforms) 309, 309n76
Tel Aviv 153, 155
al-Tīfāshī, Aḥmad b. Yūsuf 110–111, 119n34
ʿulamaʾ 16, 264, 266–268, 270–273, 275–276, 283, 288, 290–293, 293n17, 294, 298, 301, 310
al-ʿUlaymī, Mujīr al-Dīn al-Ḥanbalī 53
ʿUmar (second Caliph) 62n19, 308n39
al-ʿUmarī, Muqbil Aḥmad 238
Umayyads, Umayyad Caliphate 126, 180
The ʿUrābī revolt 1881–1882 (in Egypt) 289, 290n6, 291–292, 293n17, 294n19, 295, 299, 309
ʿUthmān (fourth Caliph) 300n39
al-Yaʿlāwī, Muḥammad 31
Yaron, Avner-Yaacov 328
Yazīd (Umayyad Caliph) 179–180, 182, 185, 191
al-Yāzijī, Nāṣīf 305
Yemen 33n6, 73–75, 110n4, 132, 138n39
Yūsuf (Prophet) 99
Yūsuf, Saʿdī 13, 69, 72–86, 88
waḥdat al-wujūd (the unity of existence) 267
al-Zabīdī, Murtaḍā 121n39, 265, 279
Zaghlūl, Saʿd 328
al-Zahrāwī, ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd 300
zakāt (alms) 34–35, 40
zāwiya (Sufi lodge) 266, 274, 278–280, 284
Zayd al-Khayl 34, 40
Zion, Zionism, Zionist movement 9–10, 142–143, 148, 157, 327
ziyāra (pilgrimage to venerated tombs) 49, 50n4
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