State and Revolution in Finland


Now available in Open Access thanks to the support of the University of Helsinki. By analysing the experience of Finland, Risto Alapuro shows how upheavals in powerful countries shape the internal politics of smaller countries. This linkage, a highly topical subject in the twenty-first century world, is concretely studied by putting the abortive Finnish revolution of 1917-18 into a long historical and a broad comparative perspective. In the former respect the revolution appears as a tragic culmination in the unfolding of a small European state. In the latter respect it appears as one of those crises that new states experienced when they emerged from the turmoils of the First World War.

This second edition inlcudes a new Postscript.
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Risto Alapuro, Ph.D. in Sociology, University of Helsinki (1973), is (retired) Professor of Sociology at the University of Helsinki. He co-edited recent publications Political Theory and Community-Building in Post-Soviet Russia (Routledge, 2011) and Nordic Associations in a European Perspective (Nomos, 2010).
“Alapuro offers an adept, lucid, and original analysis of class struggle and political change in small countries. His analysis is rich with implications for the contemporary world. Theoretically alert without resort to pomp or jargon, his book provides a remarkable synthesis of recent efforts to understand the connections between domestic politics and the international system."
- Charles Tilly, New School for Social Research

From the reviews of the first edition:

“I very strongly recommend this fine book to all comparative social scientists interested in European political development, revolutions, state building, or nationalism.”
- John D. Stephens, American Journal of Sociology

“The merit of Alapuro’s book lies (…) in his use of familiar material to produce an explanatory model that can both give a coherent explanation of the pattern of Finland’s development and be used to generate generalizations, on a comparative basis, about the politics of small nation states.”
- Anthony F. Upton, The American Historical Review

“Alapuro demonstrates so beautifully the rich context which sets Finnish political development apart from the other small countries and for that the reader should be truly grateful.”
- Francis G. Castles, Acta Sociologica

“[T]he book has a richness [?, lödighet] that will be difficult for others to achieve.” [“boken har en lödighet som det kommer att bli svårt för andra att nå upp till”].
- David Kirby, Historisk Tidskrift för Finland

”Alapuro presents a richly documented and analytically sophisticated case study of a unique nation-state, Western in its class structure but similar to Eastern European states in terms of its dependency.”
- Peter Kivisto, Contemporary Sociology

“It is a marvelous book.”
- Jorunn Bjórgum, Journal of Social History
Acknowledgements Maps, Tables and Figures
1 The Formation of a Small Polity  1 The Problem  2 A Comparative Perspective  3 What Is to Be Explained  4 Plan of the Book

Part 1 State-Making and the Class Structure

2 Dominant Groups and State-Making  1 The Early Nineteenth Century  2 Economic Integration  3 The Late Nineteenth Century
3 The Agrarian Class Structure and Industrial Workers  1 The Industrial and Agricultural Revolutions in Finland  2 Freeholding Peasants and Agrarian Workers  3 The Link Between Industrial and Agrarian Workers  4 Crofters
4 Territorial Integration  1 Finnish Regions up to 1809  2 Reorientation from Stockholm to St. Petersburg  3 Territorial Integration in the Late Nineteenth Century  4 Core-Periphery Interaction – the County of Viipuri and Eastern Finland  5 South-Western Finland as a Core Region  6 Declining Ostrobothnia  7 Division of Labour and State Penetration in Northern Finland  8 Summary

Part 2 National Integration and Class Integration

5 Finnish Nationalism  1 The Dual Nature of Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Europe  2 Finland in a European Perspective  3 The Consolidation of a National Culture  4 Conclusion
6 Before the Revolution: Organisation, Mobilisation, and the Role of Russia  1 Early Mass Organisation  2 The Finno-Russian Conflict  3 The General Strike of 1905, Parliamentary Reform, and the Rise of Agrarian Socialism
7 Regional Consolidation of Party Support  1 Regions as Loci of Party Systems  2 The South-Western Core Region  3 The County of Viipuri  4 Ostrobothnia  5 Eastern Finland  6 Northern Finland  7 Conclusions

Part 3 The Abortive Revolution

8 On Preconditions for Revolutionary Situations
9 The Abortive Revolution of 1917–1918  1 Socialists within the Polity  2 The Rise of Multiple Sovereignty  3 The Revolutionary Situation  4 The Aftermath  5 The Social and Regional Basis for the Revolution  6 On the Character of the Finnish Revolution  7 Breakdown of Society or Contest for State Power?
10 State and Nation after the Failed Revolution  1 The Failed Revolution and the Nation  2 The Persistence of the Volcanic Model of the Finnish Revolution  3 On the State, the Nation, and Class Balance  4 The Lapua Movement, 1930–2  5 The Mass Movement and the Dominant Classes in Finnish Fascism

Part 4 The Finnish State and Revolution in a European Perspective

11 Eastern European Revolutionary Movements  1 National Movements in the Baltic Provinces  2 Revolution in the Baltic Provinces, 1905 and 1917–18  3 Challenges in East-Central Europe  4 Fascism in Eastern Europe
12 The Formation of Finland in Europe  1 Economic Consolidation  2 The Formation of State and Nation  3 Political Organisation and Mobilisation before 1917  4 Revolutionary Situations in Small European Polities  5 State and Revolution in Finland
Postscript to the Second Edition  1 A Personal Note  2 A Recapitulation  3 The Reception of the Comparative Perspective  4 Structures and Actors  5 The Associational Tradition in the Political Process  6 Causes and Scripts
References Index
Institutes and academic libraries whose specialties include modern European political history, notably (1) the Nordic countries and (2) Eastern Europe.
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