Cultural Heritage in International Economic Law

Can cultural heritage be adequately protected vis-à-vis economic globalization? This book investigates whether and how international economic law governs cultural phenomena by mapping the relevant legal framework, discussing the relevant disputes concerning cultural elements adjudicated before international economic ‘courts’ (namely the World Trade Organization adjudicative bodies and investment treaty arbitral tribunals), and proposing legal methods to reconcile cultural and economic interests. It thus provides a comprehensive evaluation of possible solutions, including evolution of the law through treaty interpretation and reforms, to improve the balance between economic governance and cultural policy objectives.
Open Access
Download PDF

Prices from (excl. shipping):

Valentina Vadi, Ph.D. (2009) and M.Res. (2005), European University Institute, M.Jur. (2004), University of Oxford, is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Florence. She has published monographs, edited books, and authored many articles on cultural heritage.
List of Abbreviations
Table of Cases

 1 Aims and Objectives of the Book
 2 The Centrality of the Economics-and-Culture Debate in International Law
 3 The State of the Art
 4 Methodology
 5 Chapter Plan

PART 1: Cultural Heritage, Trade and Foreign Direct Investment: Defining and Connecting the Fields

1 Cultural Heritage in International Law
 1 Introduction
 2 Defining Cultural Heritage
  2.1 Culture
  2.2 Heritage
  2.3 Cultural Heritage
 3 The Various Categories of Heritage
  3.1 World Heritage
  3.2 Underwater Cultural Heritage
  3.3 Intangible Cultural Heritage
  3.4 Cultural Diversity
  3.5 Indigenous Cultural Heritage
 4 A Multipolar Cultural Heritage Law
  4.1 National v. International
  4.2 Public v. Private
  4.3 Mandatory v. Voluntary Approaches
 5 Cultural Governance as a Battlefield
  5.1 Tangible v. Intangible Heritage
  5.2 Toward a More Democratic and Bottom-up Heritage Governance
  5.3 Pragmatism v. Idealism
  5.4 Substantive Overreach and Procedural Underachievement?
  5.5 Heritagization – Heritage v. Humanity?
 6 Cultural Heritage as a Human Rights Issue
 7 Conclusions

2 International Economic Law
 1 Introduction
 2 Content, Aims and Objectives of International Economic Law
 3 The Sources of International Economic Law
 4 State Sovereignty and International Economic Law
 5 The Settlement of International Economic Disputes
  5.1 The Main Features of Investor–State Arbitration
  5.2 The Main Features of the WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism
  5.3 Converging Divergences
 6 The ‘Legitimacy Crisis’ of International Economic Law
 7 Final Remarks

3 Connecting the Fields
 1 Introduction
 2 The Linkage Issue
 3 Protectionist Cultural Policies v. Efficient Regulation?
 4 Global Cultural Governance by International Economic Courts?
 5 The Settlement of Heritage-Related International Economic Disputes
 6 Conclusions

PART 2: When Cultures Collide: Cultural Heritage, Trade and Foreign Direct Investment

  Introductory Note

4 Cultural Heritage in International Investment Law and Arbitration
 1 Introduction
 2 The Diaspora of Cultural Heritage-Related Disputes before Arbitral Tribunals
 3 The Notion of Investment
 4 Expropriation
  4.1 Direct Expropriation
  4.2 Indirect Expropriation
 5 Compensation Claims
 6 Fair and Equitable Treatment
  6.1 Legitimate Expectations
  6.2 International Law as a Source of Legitimate Expectations
  6.3 A New Tool to Enforce International Cultural Heritage Law?
 7 Full Protection and Security
 8 Non-Discrimination
  8.1 Direct Discrimination
  8.2 Indirect Discrimination
  8.3 Positive Measures
 9 Performance Requirements
 10 Critical Assessment
 11 Conclusions

5 Cultural Heritage in International Trade Law
 1 Introduction
 2 The Theory of Comparative Advantage
 3 Non-Discrimination
  3.1 Direct and Indirect Discrimination
  3.2 The Likeness Test
  3.3 Legitimate Distinctions?
 4 Quantitative Restrictions
 5 National Treasures of Artistic, Historic or Archaeological Value
  5.1 Aim, Scope and Content of Article XX( f )
  5.2 The 1970 UNESCO Convention
  5.3 The Linkage between Article XX( f ) and the 1970 UNESCO Convention
 6 Public Morals
  6.1 Defining Public Morals
  6.2 Case Studies
  6.3 Morality and Trade Revisited
 7 The Security Exception
 8 Intellectual Property
  8.1 Copyright and Culture
  8.2 Geographical Indications
  8.3 Traditional Knowledge
 9 Agriculture
 10 Conclusion

6 Converging Divergences in the Jurisprudence of Cultural Heritage-Related International Economic Disputes
 1 Introduction
 2 Converging Divergences between the Two Fields
 3 Converging Divergences in the Jurisprudence of Cultural Heritage-Related International Economic Disputes
 4 Distinguishing Cultural Protection from Cultural Protectionism
 5 Mainstreaming Cultural Heritage in International Economic Law
 6 Toward Good Cultural Governance?
 7 The Emergence of General Principles of Law Requiring the Protection of Cultural Heritage
 8 Conclusions

7 Challenges and Prospects
 1 Introduction
 2 De Lege Lata
  2.1 Negotiating Cultural Disputes
  2.2 Conflict and Reconciliation of Norms
  2.3 The Applicable Law
  2.4 Transnational Public Policy
  2.5 Treaty Interpretation
 3 De Lege Ferenda
  3.1 Cultural Exceptions
  3.2 Counterclaims
  3.3 Amici Curiae
  3.4 Authoritative Interpretations, Waivers and Amendments
  3.5 Institutional Cooperation
 4 Conclusions

This book is of relevance for a wide audience, including but not limited to: international law scholars and practitioners, state officials, and cultural heritage experts.
  • Collapse
  • Expand