Jesus and Other Men

Ideal Masculinities in the Synoptic Gospels


Now available in Open Access thanks to the support of the University of Helsinki. In Jesus and Other Men, Susanna Asikainen explores the masculinities of Jesus and other male characters as well as the ideal femininities in the Synoptic Gospels. She studies the masculinity of Jesus vis-à-vis his opponents, disciples, and women. She also considers the impact of Jesus’ emotions and suffering on his masculinity. Arguing that there were several competing ideals of masculinity, she sets out to trace what strategies the early Christian masculinities used in relation to the hegemonic masculinities of the ancient Greco-Roman world. She shows that the Gospel of Luke is close to the ancient Greco-Roman ideal of self-controlled masculinity while the Gospels of Mark and Matthew portray Jesus and the disciples as examples of voluntarily marginalized masculinity.
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Susanna Asikainen, Th.D. (2016), University of Helsinki, is a postdoctoral researcher at that university. Her current research focuses on gender and sexualities in the ancient Greek, early Christian, and early Jewish texts.

1 Introduction
 Of Masculinities and Men
 A Reassessment of Connell’s Theory
 Theorizing Marginalized Masculinities
 Outline of the Study

2 Masculinities in the Ancient Greco-Roman World
 Biological Sex in the Ancient Greco-Roman World
 Ancient Greco-Roman Gender Stereotypes
 Who is a Real, Hegemonically Masculine Man?
 Ideal Characteristics of Masculine Men
 Effeminacy and Lack of Self-Control
 Marginalized Masculinities in the Ancient Greco-Roman World

3 Jesus and His Opponents
 The Authority of Jesus
 The Opponents as Negative Examples of Unmasculine Behavior
 Jesus’ Disputes with His Opponents
 Challenges to the Masculinity of Jesus

4 Jesus and His Male Followers
 The Portrayal of the Disciples in the Synoptic Gospels
 Peter in the Synoptic Gospels
 Jesus’ Teaching on Ideal Behavior in the Sermon on the Mount
 Jesus and Family in the Synoptic Gospels
 Service and Slavery as the Ideal Masculinity
 Children as Examples for the Disciples
 Matthew, Eunuchs, and Subordinated Masculinities

5 Jesus and Women
 Ideal Women in the Ancient Greco-Roman World
 The Women Followers of Jesus
 The Syrophoenician or Canaanite Woman
 The Women Jesus Heals: The Hemorrhaging Woman
 The Anointing Woman
 The Ideal Woman in Luke
 Feminine Jesus

6 Jesus and Emotions
 Emotions in Greco-Roman Antiquity
 The Emotions of Jesus in the Synoptic Gospels
 The Tears of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke
 The Incident at the Temple
 The Emotions of the Other Characters

7 Jesus and Suffering
 Death and Suffering in the Ancient Greco-Roman World
 Jesus’ Teaching on Suffering
 Jesus in Gethsemane
 The Arrest of Jesus
 The Jewish and the Roman Trials: The Silence of Jesus
 The Mocking and Scourging of Jesus
 The Crucifixion and Death of Jesus

8 Conclusions

 Primary Sources
 Secondary Literature
Anyone interested in masculinities and gender in the New Testament and in the ancient Greco-Roman world
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