Seeking Justice at the Court of the Khans of Khiva

(19th - early 20th Centuries)

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This book aims to shed light on the juridical field of the Khanate of Khiva at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The ‘Khanate of Khiva’ is the term employed in Western historiography to denote the political formation that was put in place by the Qonghrats. The latter was a dynasty of Uzbek origin that ruled roughly between the last quarter of the 18th century and 1920. It ruled over the region known as Khorezm (Ar. Khwārazm), one of the biggest oases of Central Asia, traversed by the Amu Darya and nestled within the territory of what is today Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan.
The main objective of this work is to show that prior to Sovietization the dispensation of justice in Khorezm depended mostly on a group of officials who represented the dynasty in power, but who lacked any specialised legal training.
It is important to reflect on this particular aspect of the legal system developed by the Muslim principality that we refer to as ‘the Khanate of Khiva,’ for conventional wisdom says that the practice of law in pre-modern Muslim societies was usually the business of the ʿulamāʾ, i.e., the scholars of Islam.
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Paolo Sartori, Ph.D. (2006), University of Rome ‘la Sapienza’ is Senior Fellow at the Austrian Academy of Sciences. He is the author of Visions of Justice: Sharīʿa and Cultural Change in Russian Central Asia (Brill, 2016) and is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient.
Ulfat Abdurasulov, Ph.D. (2009), History Institute, Tashkent, is Senior Fellow at the Austrian Academy of Sciences. A recipient of many grants, he published in many scientific journals such as Iranian Studies, Ab Imperio, Eurasian Studies, Islamic Law and Society, and Der Islam.
"Paolo Sartori und Ulfat Abdurasulov haben sich beide in den letzten Jahren intensiv um die Erkundung zentralasiatischer Archivmaterialien verdient gemacht. (...) Neben der vor allem in der Einleitung vorgetragenen Darstellung und Analyse dieses auf den Herrscher zentrierten Rechtswesens ist der Band auch eine beachtliche editorische Leistung. Die Autoren – und Herausgeber – haben aus dem sehr großen Corpus der im Staatsarchiv von Usbekistan in Taschkent aufbewahrten Urkunden ein Sample von 73 Stücken ausgesucht, die das analysierte Verfahren veranschaulichen und gleichzeitig die Analyse stützen. Die Urkunden werden mit einem zusammenfassenden und erläuternden Text eingeleitet, was nötig ist, weil Leser sonst die Eigenheiten des Falles erst aus der spezifischen Sprache herauslesen müssten. Die Übersetzungen folgen, diese halten sich eng genug an die Vorlage, sind aber keine Interlinearversionen. Oft werden zentrale Passagen auch in der Originalsprache, aber in Umschrift gegeben. Die gleichen Urkunden hat man dann auch in der Lesung und als Faksimile. (...) Eine hervorragende Leistung!" - Jürgen Paul. OLZ 116-4–5 (2021).
Contents
Preface and Acknowledgments
Note on Transcription and Nomenclature
Glossary

Introduction
 1 Crime and Punishment in an Uzbek Khanate
 2 The Historical Setting
 3 Who Were the Yasāvulbāshīs?
 4 ʿArż as a Form of Governance
 5 On Protocol
 6 Documents
 7 What Was the Cost of the ʿarż?

Documents

1 Rescripts
 Document 1 28 Ẕī al-ḥijja 1328 / 30 December 1912. A Rescript by the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Inheritance
 Document 2 9 Shavvāl 1328 /13 October 1913 A Rescript by the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over the Payment of Dowry
 Document 3 13 Shavvāl 1328 /17 October 1913. A Rescript by the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Landownership
 Document 4 23 Ẕī al-ḥijja 1328 / December 25 1910. A Rescript by the yasāvulbāshī about a Marital Dispute
 Document 5 17 Ẕī al-ḥījja 1328 / 19 December 1910. A Rescript by the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Debts  Document 6 7 Shavvāl 1328 / 11 October 1910. A Rescript by the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over an Ancestral Undivided Property
 Document 7 17 Shavvāl 1328 / 21 October 1910. A Rescript by the yasāvulbāshī Instructing an Attendant to Investigate the Circumstances of a Dispute
 Document 8 13 Ẕī al-qaʿda 1336 / 20 August 1918. A Rescript by the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over a Contested Inheritance
 Document 9 7 Rabīʿ al-s̱ānī 1336 / 19 January 1918. A Rescript by the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Landownership  Document 10 24 Rabīʿ al-avval 1335 / 7 January 1917. A Rescript by the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Landownership
 Document 11 17 Shaʿbān 1328 / 26 May 1918. A Rescript by the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Murder

2 Reports
 Document 12 8 Shavvāl [?]. A Report by qāżīs to the yasāvulbāshī about a Marital Dispute
 Document 13 4 Rabīʾ al-s̱ānī 1335 /27 January 1917. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Custody
 Document 14 24 Ṣafar 1334 / 30 December 1915. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over a Dowry
 Document 15 Jumādī al-s̱ānī 1336 / March 1918. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Robbery
 Document 16 Rabiʿ al-avval 1335 / December 1916. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Domestic Violence
 Document 17 27 Rajab [1330] / 12 July [1912]. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Water Rights
 Document 18 22 Jumādī al-avval 1335/ 15 March 1917. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about Maintenance Works of the Irrigation System
 Document 19 1328 / 1910. A Report by qāżīs to the yasāvulbāshī on Land Assessment Works
 Document 20 19 Ẕī al-ḥijja 1334 / 16 October 1916. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Marital Dispute
 Document 21 27 Ramażān 1336 / 6 July 1918. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Debts
 Document 22 16 Rabīʿ al-s̱ānī 1335 / 8 February 1917. A Report by Provincial Governor and the qāżīs to the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Landownership
 Document 23 27 Shaʿbān 1336 / 08 June 1918. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about the Death of a Man Involved in an Altercation
 Document 24 Jumadī al-s̱ānī 1336 / March–April 1918. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about Malfeasance
 Document 25 7 Muḥarram 1336 / 23 October 1917. A Report to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Murder
 Document 26 19 Jumādī al-s̱ānī 1332 / 14 May 1330. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Landownership
 Document 27 1335 / 1916-1917. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Robbery
 Document 28 8 Muḥarram 1335 / 3 November 1916. A Report by qāżīs to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Extortion
 Document 29 9 Shaʿbān 1334 / 10 June 1916. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Losses Caused by Yomut Turkmens
 Document 30 28 Ramażān 1336 / 7 July 1918. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about Malfeasance
 Document 31 10 Rabīʿ al-s̱ānī 1332 / 7 March 1914. A Report to the yasāvulbāshī about the Extinguishment of a Debt
 Document 32 15 Shavvāl 1328 / 9 October 1910. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about the Extinguishment of Debt
 Document 33 9 Rabīʿ al-avval 1335 / 2 November 1917. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about the Extinguishment of Debt
 Document 34 n.d. A Report of qāżīs to the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Landownership
 Document 35 8 Ramażān 1336 / 17 June 1918. A Report by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about Rights on a Thoroughfare
 Document 36 Jumādī al-avval 1336 / February–March 1918. A Report by a Group of Officials to the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Taxes in Favor of Yomut Turkmens

3 Notifications
 Document 37 8 Ramażān 1334 / 8 July 1916. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Assault and Robbery
 Document 38 25 Ẕī al-qaʿda 1334 / 22 September 1916. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Robbery
 Document 39 25 Ẕī al-qaʿda 1334 / 22 September 1916. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Animal Theft
 Document 40 15 Jumādī al-s̱ānī 13[?] / [?]. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Armed Robbery
 Document 41 5 Rajab 1336 / 16 April 1918. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Robbery and Assault
 Document 42 n.d. A Notification by qāżīs to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Domestic Violence
 Document 43 Shaʿbān 1335 / May–June 1917. A Notification by a Provincial Governor and qāżīs to the yasāvulbāshī about a Man’s Death
 Document 44 18 Shaʿbān 1334 / 19 June 1916. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Bride-Kidnapping
 Document 45 26 Jumādī al-avval 1336 / 09 March 1918. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Bride-Kidnapping
 Document 46 7 Jumādī al-s̱ānī 1336 /19 March 1918. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Robbery and Homicide
 Document 47 17 Rabīʿ al-s̱ānī 1335 / 9 February 1917. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Assault
 Document 48 22 Rabīʿ al-s̱ānī 1335 /14 February 1917. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Animal Theft
 Document 49 22 Rabīʿ al-avval 1335 / 15 January 1917. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Double Homicide
 Document 50 18 Rajab 1336 / 29 April 1918. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about Multiple Cases of Robbery and Homicide
 Document 51 Dhī al-s̱ānī 1335 / September–October 1917. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Robbery
 Document 52 5 Shaʿbān 1336 / 15 May 1918. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over Rights of Inheritance
 Document 53 12 Ẕī al-qaʿda 1336 / 19 August 1918. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Animal Theft
 Document 54 15 Jumādī al-avval 1335 / 8 March 1915. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Homicide
 Document 55 5 Jumādīʾ al-avval 1329 / 3 March 1911. A Notification to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Homicide
 Document 56 25 Ṣafar 1335 / 20 December 1916. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Robbery
 Document 57 2 Jumādī al-avval 1335 / 24 February 1917. A Notification by Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Robbery
 Document 58 27 Rajab 1339 / 5 April 1921. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Case of Robbery
 Document 59 1334 / 1915–1916. A petition to the yasāvulbāshī regarding a Case of Robbery and Assault
 Document 60 1335 / 1916–1917. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about a Dispute over an Unpaid Debt
 Document 61 14 Ẕī al-qaʿda 1337 / 10 August 1919. A Letter by the Turkmen Yomut Leader Junayd Khān to the yasāvulbāshī about the Appointment of a New qāżī to Solve Conflicts among the Ata Turkmens
 Document 62 8 Ramażān 1332 / 30 July 1914. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about the Intention of the Disputing Parties to Solve the Dispute before the khan
 Document 63 24 Rabīʿ al-s̱ānī 1332 / 21 March 1914. A Notification by a Provincial Governor to the yasāvulbāshī about the intention of the disputing parties to solve the Dispute before the khan

4 Qāżīs’ Reports
 Document 64 n.d. A Report by a qāżī-raʾis about the Intention of the Disputing Parties to Solve the Dispute before the khan
 Document 65 7 Shaʿbān 1267 / 6 June 1851. A Report by a qāżī-raʾis to Authorities in Khiva about the Outcome of a Conflict at a Local Bazaar
 Document 66 n.d. A Report by a qāżī to the Royal Court about a Dispute over Land Ownership
 Document 67 n.d. A Report by a qāżī to the Royal Court about an Unspecified Dispute
 Document 68 n.d. A Report by a qāżī to the Royal Court about a Conflict over an Unpaid Fee and an Ensuing Case of Assault
 Document 69 n.d. A Report by a qāżī to the Royal Court about a Case of Homicide
 Document 70 n.d. A Report a qāżīs to the Royal Court about a Case of Homicide
 Document 71 n.d. A Report by a qāżī to the Royal Court about a Case of Homicide
 Document 72 n.d. A Report by a qāżī to the Royal Court about a Case of Homicide
 Document 73 n.d. A Report by a qāżī to the Royal Court about a Case of Homicide

 Facsimiles
Bibliography
Index of Places
Index of Proper Names
All interested in the history of Islamic Central Asia and Islamic law
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