The Future of Ocean Governance and Capacity Development

Essays in Honor of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002)

The International Ocean Institute-Canada has produced this collection of over 80 insightful essays on the future of ocean governance and capacity development. The book honors the work of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002), preeminent ocean advocate and founder of the IOI.
More than 90 leading experts explore future challenges and opportunities for ocean governance and capacity development. Major themes include the law of the sea, ocean sciences, integrated coastal and ocean management, fisheries and aquaculture, communication and negotiations, maritime safety and security, ocean energy, and maritime transportation.
The essay collection is aimed at professionals, students and citizens alike – covering themes that parallel those in the annual Training Program of IOI-Canada. A leading member of the International Ocean Institute's network of centers and focal points worldwide, IOI-Canada was founded by Elisabeth Mann Borgese in 1979.
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IOI–Canada is a leading member of the International Ocean Institute’s network of centers and focal points operating worldwide. It has been based at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia since being founded by Elisabeth Mann Borgese in 1979.

Paul R. Boudreau, B.Sc (1977), M.Sc. (1989), is an ecologist and environmental manager (retired) who worked for 32 years with the Canadian federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans. A three-year posting to the Land-Ocean Interaction in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) was significant in his perception of the variety of human reliance on the world coasts. Ongoing interests include the adequate representation of public views in the often very technical processes of responsible coastal and ocean management. In 2012, he became a Senior Research Fellow with the International Ocean Institute-Canada.
Mary R. Brooks is Professor Emerita at Dalhousie University’s Rowe School of Business, Halifax, Canada. In 2016, she was appointed Chair of the Marine Board of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Her research focuses on competition policy in liner shipping, port strategic management and short sea shipping. In addition to providing advice to governments and industry, Dr. Brooks has published more than 25 books and technical reports, more than 25 book chapters, and more than 75 articles in peer-reviewed scholarly journals since joining Dalhousie University in 1979.
Michael J. A. Butler was educated at London University (UK), Memorial University and McGill University (Canada) with a focus on the marine sciences. His career in Atlantic Canada has included the roles of Fishery Oceanographer at the then Marine and Fishery Training Centre in Summerside; Coordinator of Training at the former Huntsman Marine Laboratory in St Andrews; Director of Research at the Council of Maritime Premiers' Maritime Resource Management Service in Amherst; and, in Halifax, Director of the Secretariat for the Atlantic Coastal Zone Information Steering Committee; President of the Oceans Institute of Canada; and, since 2005, Director of IOI-Canada.
Anthony Charles is a professor at Saint Mary’s University in Halifax, Canada. His research on fisheries, oceans and coasts focuses on integrated management, ecosystem-based management, community-based management, climate change, sustainability and resilience, and marine protected areas. He has authored and edited several major books, including Sustainable Fishery Systems, Governance of Marine Fisheries and Biodiversity Conservation, and Governing the Coastal Commons. He leads the Community Conservation Research Network, exploring linkages of environmental conservation and local economies. Dr. Charles is a Pew Fellow in Marine Conservation, a member of IUCN’s Fisheries Expert Group, and a longtime contributor to the International Ocean Institute.
Scott Coffen-Smout, B.Sc., DMA, M.Sc., is an oceans management biologist with Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Halifax, Canada. He studied biology and marine affairs at Dalhousie University and marine environmental science at Bangor University, Wales. He previously consulted in Somalia and Niue, South Pacific. Affiliations include: research associate at the Marine & Environmental Law Institute, Dalhousie University, co-editor of the Ocean Yearbook (Brill Nijhoff), alumnus of IOI-Canada’s training program, and senior research fellow at IOI-Canada. Areas of practice at DFO include marine spatial planning, spatial data and information management, sustainable fisheries certifications, oceans management, and area response planning.
David Griffiths is an independent researcher and former Canadian naval officer holding research fellowships with the International Ocean Institute–Canada, the Centre for the Study of Security and Development at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Canada, and Pakistan’s National Centre for Maritime Policy Research at Bahria University in Karachi. He also serves as Chair of the Board of Governors of the Atlantic School of Theology, Nova Scotia’s smallest university. He is a graduate of the Canadian Forces Command and Staff College and holds a Master’s degree in Marine Management.
Ian McAllister, long time economics professor at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, has served on two Royal Commissions and advised Canadian and overseas governments. He headed the Development Department of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in Geneva. Among books he has authored are: Projects for Relief and Development (1991), Sustaining Relief with Development: Strategic Issues for the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1993), Working with Neighbours: University Partnerships for International Development (1996), Through a Glass Darkly: From Disaster Relief to Modern Peacebuilding (2004). He is a member of the Board of Directors of the International Ocean Institute-Canada.
Moira L. McConnell is a Professor of Law Emerita and Honorary Fellow of the Marine & Environmental Law Institute at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Canada. Dr. McConnell's research interests are in the fields of public and private international law and domestic law. She has over 100 publications in a wide range of topics in these fields, including law of the sea, maritime law and policy, environmental law and governance systems. She is co-editor of the Ocean Yearbook, associate editor of the Yearbook of International Environmental Law, and member of the editorial board of the WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs.
Ian Porter. Stories about events and life in coastal communities in Atlantic Canada were a leading priority for Ian Porter as a radio and television reporter and producer with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Going to sea for a story had an enduring appeal. While at CBC in Halifax, Ian took part in the IOI interdisciplinary training programme. Later, as a lecturer with the School of Journalism at University of King’s College, Halifax, he returned to IOI as a presenter of the programme’s Media and Marine Management module. Ian also has worked as a volunteer journalism instructor for independent news media in southeast Asia.
Susan J. Rolston is sole proprietor of Seawinds Consulting Services, Hackett’s Cove, Nova Scotia, Canada. She is a Research Associate of the Marine & Environmental Law Institute, Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada. She holds a Master’s degree in Political Science (Dalhousie). Ms. Rolston’s areas of special expertise include marine policy and management, maritime security, the environment, and international affairs and development. She has held research and management positions with marine-related institutes and programs at Dalhousie University. Ms. Rolston has contributed to numerous marine publications as an author and in an editorial capacity.
Peter G. Wells is a marine environmental scientist (retired) and Adjunct Professor and Senior Research Fellow at Dalhousie University and the International Ocean Institute-Canada, Halifax, Canada. He has a B.Sc. (Biology, McGill, 1967), MSc (Zoology, Toronto, 1969) and Ph.D. (Zoology/Aquatic Toxicology, Guelph, 1976). He worked 34 years for Environment Canada, primarily in Halifax. He taught environmental toxicology at Dalhousie and served the UN as a marine pollution science advisor. Current interests are ecotoxicology, use and influence of marine environmental information, community action on coastal environmental issues, and mountain recreation. He is an AAAS Fellow amongst other honors and has authored/co-authored many publications, including editor of five books.
Dirk Werle, MSc. (McGill, 1984), is a managing partner with Ærde Environmental Research in Halifax, Canada since 1987. His professional career as a geographer focused on innovative applications of Earth observation satellites for mapping and managing natural resources and for monitoring marine and terrestrial environments. He has worked as an advisor for government and non-governmental organizations and chaired Canada’s National Remote Sensing Working Group for the Environment. He served as Officer and President of the Canadian Remote Sensing Society from 1999 to 2007. In 2010, he joined the Board of Directors of the International Ocean Institute-Canada.

Contributors (98) are: Sheau Ye Aai, Nayha Acharya, Frida M. Armas-Pfirter, Adnan Awad, Kumiko Azetsu-Scott, François Bailet, Megan Bailey, Betsy Baker, Bruce Batstone, Awni Behnam, Susan Belford, James Boxall, Paul R. Boudreau, Sean Brillant, Mary R. Brooks, Michael J. A. Butler, Michael Byers, Galo Carrera, Anthony Charles, Ratana Chuenpagdee, John A. Cigliano, Scott Coffen-Smout, Graham A. Daborn, John Dalziel, Jackie Dawson, Michael Depledge, Mark Dickey-Collas, Lucia Fanning, Brian Flemming, Mélanie Fournier, David Freestone, Susanna Fuller, David Griffiths, Philippe Gautier, Arthur J. Hanson, Lawrence P. Hildebrand, Rob Huebert, Svein Jentoft, Paul Kennedy, Alan Knight, David Krieger, Daniel E. Lane, Peter W. Leder, Esaroma Ledua, Don Liu, Bertrum A. MacDonald, Elizabeth A. MacDonald, Constance MacIntosh, Peter MacLellan, Eduardo Marone, Luis Marone, Ian McAllister, Moira L. McConnell, Anna Metaxas, Tirza Meyer, Peter Noble, Andreas Østhagen, Ken Paul, Peter Payoyo, Ron Pelot, Evelyn Pinkerton, Ian Porter, Murielle Provost, Robert Rangeley, Anna M. Redden, Jake Rice, Peter J. Ricketts, David Roberts, Susan J. Rolston, Adam Rostis, Gabriela Sabau, Karen N. Scott, Sherry Scully, Kathryn Schleit, Kenneth Sherman, Deirdre Shurland, Mark Sloan, Paul Snelgrove, Suzuette S. Soomai, Doris Soto, Judith Swan, Prue Taylor, Harry Thurston, J. Luis Valdés, Alexandra Vance, David L. VanderZwaag, Joeli Veitayaki, Haley Viehman, Igor Vio, Wendy Watson-Wright, Lindy Weilgart, Peter G. Wells, Dirk Werle, Maxine C. Westhead, Fred Whoriskey, Hugh Williamson, Boris Worm, and Carlos Wurman.
Betsy Baker
Brian Flemming
Editors’ Preface and Acknowledgments
About the International Ocean Institute
Editors’ Biographical Notes

Introduction: The Future of Ocean Governance and Capacity Development

The Editors

Part 1: Perspectives on Ocean Governance

Editor: Michael J.A. Butler
Elisabeth Mann Borgese’s Invisible Hand in Ocean Governance: Past, Present, and Future
Awni Behnam
Fragmented Governance of Our One Global Ocean
Wendy Watson-Wright and J. Luis Valdés
Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Ocean Governance
Ratana Chuenpagdee
Meaningful Partnerships in Meaningful Ocean Governance
Anthony Charles
Ethical Dimensions of Ocean Governance
Eduardo Marone and Luis Marone
Participatory Ocean Governance in Practice
Daniel E. Lane
First Nations, Ocean Governance and Indigenous Knowledge Systems
Ken Paul
Non-Governmental Organization Roles in Shaping Future Ocean Governance and Management
Alexandra Vance and Robert Rangeley
The Ocean and China’s Drive for an Ecological Civilization
Arthur J. Hanson

Part 2: Capacity Development for Responsible Ocean Governance

Editors: Dirk Werle, Scott Coffen-Smout and Michael J.A. Butler
The Capacity Development Imperative: Elisabeth Mann Borgese’s Legacy
François Bailet
IOI-Canada’s Ocean Governance Training Program
Michael J.A. Butler
Alumni Reflections on the ioi Training Program
Igor Vio
Educating the Ocean Leaders of Today for the Ocean of Tomorrow
Lawrence P. Hildebrand
Alumni Reflections on the ioi Training Program
Amy Aai Sheau Ye
Simulation and Scenario-based Learning
Mélanie Fournier and David Griffiths
Strategic ioi Initiatives for Developing Capacity in Ocean Governance
Peter W. Leder and Daniel E. Lane

Part 3: Law of the Sea and Principled Ocean Governance

Editor: Moira L. McConnell
Edging Towards Principled Ocean Governance: Law of the Sea and Beyond
David L. VanderZwaag
The Deep Seafloor as a Battleground for Justice?
Tirza Meyer
Article 82 of unclos : A Clear Outcome of the ‘Package Deal’ Approach of the Convention Negotiation
Frida M. Armas-Pfirter
The Common Heritage of Mankind: Expanding the Oceanic Circle
Prue Taylor
Marine Biodiversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction
David Freestone
The Evolution of Scientific and Technical Methodologies in the Delimitation of Maritime Spaces
Galo Carrera
Settling Maritime Boundaries: Why Some Countries Find it Easy, and Others Do Not
Michael Byers and Andreas Østhagen
Legal Aspects of Climate Change
Karen N. Scott
Elisabeth Mann Borgese, unclos , and the Arctic: The Power of Normative Thinking and Her Legacy
Rob Huebert
The itlos Experience in Dispute Resolution
Philippe Gautier

Part 4: Ocean Sciences

Editor: Peter G. Wells
Health of the Ocean
Peter G. Wells
Oceans, Health, and Well-being
Michael H. Depledge
The Changing Ocean and the Impact of Technology: The Role of the Ocean Tracking Network, It’s Personal
Frederick Whoriskey
Ocean Remote Sensing from Space: A Tale of Three Commons
Dirk Werle
Large Marine Ecosystems: Their Status and Role in Ocean Governance
Kenneth Sherman
Ocean Acidification in Canadian Waters
Kumiko Azetsu-Scott
Ecological Change in the Oceans and the Role of Fisheries
Boris Worm
Caring for the Coasts
Paul Snelgrove and Anna Metaxas
Caring for the Deep Sea
Anna Metaxas and Paul V.R. Snelgrove
The Role of Citizen Science in Ocean Governance
John A. Cigliano

Part 5: Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management

Editor: Scott Coffen-Smout
The Promise of Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management: Questioning the Past, Rethinking the Future
Lucia M. Fanning
Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning: Balancing the Ecosystem Approach and the Sustainable Blue Economy
Scott Coffen-Smout
Information Matters: Global Perspectives about Communication at the Science-Policy Interface
Suzuette S. Soomai and Bertrum H. MacDonald
Geospatial Data Infrastructures and Ocean Governance
James Boxall
Marine Protected Areas: Ensuring Effective Conservation while Pursuing Global Targets
Maxine C. Westhead
Is Canada Protecting Its Marine Species at Risk?
Sean Brillant
Keeping the Noise Down: Approaches to the Mitigation and Regulation of Human-Caused Ocean Noise
Lindy Weilgart
Ecological Economics and the Ocean
Gabriela Sabau
Sustainable Tourism and the Ocean: The Long View
Deirdre P. Shurland
Ocean and Climate Change Action: Opportunities for Economic and Environmental Sustainability
Peter J. Ricketts

Part 6: Fisheries and Aquaculture

Editor: Anthony Charles
Scientific Basis for Fishery Policy and Management
Jake Rice
Legitimacy and Effectiveness through Fisheries Co-Management
Evelyn Pinkerton
Turning Aspiration to Action: Challenges of Making the Ecosystem Approach Operational in Fisheries
Mark Dickey-Collas
What is the Role of the Market in Contemporary Fisheries Governance?
Megan Bailey
Small-Scale Fisheries: Too Important to Fail
Ratana Chuenpagdee and Svein Jentoft
iuu Fishing and Measures to Improve Enforcement and Compliance
Judith Swan
The Future of Managing Fisheries and the Global Commons through Regional Fisheries Management Organizations: Steps toward Global Stewardship
Susanna D. Fuller and Kathryn E. Schleit
Balancing Sustainable Tuna Resource Management and Economic Development: Small Island Developing States Perspectives
Esaroma Ledua and Joeli Veitayaki
Sustainable Aquaculture: Protecting Our Oceans and Feeding the World
David Roberts
Offshore Aquaculture: A Needed New Frontier for Farmed Fish at Sea
Doris Soto and Carlos Wurman

Part 7: Ocean Energy

Editor: Scott Coffen-Smout
Marine Renewable Energy in Canada: A Century of Consideration and Challenges
Graham R. Daborn, Haley Viehman and Anna M. Redden
Environmental Culture and Mitigation Criteria for Offshore Oil and Gas Activities
Elizabeth A. MacDonald
Oil and Gas: Exploration and Risk
Bruce Batstone and Susan Belford

Part 8: Maritime Safety and Security

Editor: David Griffiths
Security Dimensions of Ocean Governance
David Griffiths
Intelligence Gathering and Espionage in the Exclusive Economic Zone: Peaceful or Not?
Hugh Williamson
Marine Piracy: A Continuing Challenge
Mark Sloan
Refugees at Sea
Constance MacIntosh
One Hundred Years of Certitude? Disaster Response and Recovery since the Halifax Explosion
Adam Rostis
Women, Communities, Resilience: What’s Not to Understand?
Murielle Provost
In Search of Relief with Development
Ian McAllister

Part 9: Maritime Transportation

Editor: Mary R. Brooks
National Shipping Policies and International Ocean Governance
Mary R. Brooks
Growth in the Shipping Industry: Future Projections and Impacts
Peter Noble
Port State Control: An Important Concept in the Safety of Life at Sea, the Protection of the Marine Environment, and of Goods in Transit
Alan Knight
Seafarers’ Human Rights: Compliance and Enforcement
Peter B. Payoyo
Maritime Emergency Preparedness and Management
John Dalziel and Ronald Pelot
The Pacing of Progress as the Secret to Success for the International Ballast Water Management Regime
Adnan Awad
Arctic Shipping: Future Prospects and Ocean Governance
Jackie Dawson
Autonomous Vessel Technology, Safety, and Ocean Impacts
Donald Liu

Part 10: Communication and Negotiation

Editors: Paul R. Boudreau and Ian Porter
Sing to Me of the Oceans, Muse: The Poetry of the Sea
Harry Thurston
Journalistic Challenges in Speaking for the Ocean: A Personal Acquaintance with Elisabeth Mann Borgese
Paul Kennedy
Oceans Day: A Personal Reminiscence of Its Initiation
Peter MacLellan
Cetaceans in the Media: A Right Whale of a Story
Ian Porter
Social Media and Twenty-First Century Public Engagement
Paul R. Boudreau
The Marine People Partnership: Building a Workforce for Our Ocean Industries through Ocean Literacy
Sherry Scully
Towards Ocean Peace: Resolving Disputes Cooperatively and Empathetically through Negotiations
Nayha Acharya

Synthesis: Looking Ahead: Ocean Governance Challenges in the Twenty-First Century

The Editors

The essays cover a broad range of ocean governance and capacity development issues and explore future benefits and challenges. This essential collection is aimed at professionals, students and citizens alike.
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