Illustrations

In: Horace across the Media
Free access

Figures

2.1 Willem van Mieris after Francis van Bossuit, Venus and Cupid, drawn between 1677 and 1747. Black chalk on parchment, 40.8 × 25.9 cm. Present whereabouts unknown 17

2.2 Willem van Mieris, The neglected lute, c.1708. Oil on panel, 47.2 × 38.8 cm. London, Royal Collection 17

2.3 Willem van Mieris, The lute player, 1711. Oil on panel, 50 × 41 cm. London, Wallace Collection 17

2.4 Willem van Mieris, The market stall, c.1730. Oil on panel, 41.9 × 35.9 cm. Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum 17

3.1 Gerard van der Gucht, engraved frontispiece to the second edition of William King’s Art of Cookery. Public domain 39

3.2A Gerard van der Gucht (attr.), engraved frontispiece to the first edition of James Miller’s Harlequin-Horace (1731) 43

3.2B Gerard van der Gucht, engraved frontispiece to the 1735 edition of James Miller’s Harlequin-Horace. Public domain. Folger Shakespeare Library, CC BY-SA 4.0 44

3.3 Frontispiece to Bramston’s Art of Politicks (1729). Public Domain 50

3.4 James Thornhill, ceiling of the ‘Painted Hall’ of the Old Royal Naval College, Greenwich, finished in 1726 (detail). By Ravi tt22 – own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=78613020 52

3.5 William Hogarth, frontispiece to the second edition of James Miller’s ‘The Humours of Oxford’ (1730), etching and engraving, 1730, 17 × 10,3 cm (detail). Public domain 53

3.6 William Hogarth, The South Sea Scheme, engraving, 1721, 26,1 × 32,4 cm (detail). Public domain 55

3.7 Illumination in the Life of St. Edward the Confessor, Cambridge University Library MS Ee.3.59, fol. 7r. © Cambridge University Library, CC BY-NC 3.0 58

4.1A Michael Wolgemut/Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, Horace’s portrait from the first Latin edition of Hartmann Schedel, Liber chronicarum (Nuremberg, Koberger: 1493), fol. XCIIv. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek – Rar. 287; https://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/view/bsb00034024?page=258,259 78

4.1B Michael Wolgemut/Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, Empedocles. From: Hartmann Schedel, Buoch der Chroniken, German translation of the Liber chronicarum (Nuremberg, Koberger: 1493), fol. LXXIr https://www.e-rara.ch/bau_1/content/zoom/20856148 – public domain 78

4.1C Michael Wolgemut/Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, the prophet Tobias. From: Hartmann Schedel, Buoch der Chroniken, German transl. of the Liber chronicarum (Nuremberg, Koberger: 1493), fol. LIIIv. https://www.e-rara.ch/bau_1/content/zoom/20856148 – public domain 78

4.1D Author’s portrait in a 14th century Italian manuscript in the Q-initial of the incipit of the Satires 78

4.1E Michael Wolgemut/Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, Horace. From: Hartmann Schedel, Buoch der Chroniken, German translation of the Liber chronicarum (Nuremberg, Koberger: 1493), fol. XCIIv – https://www.e-rara.ch/bau_1/content/zoom/20856148 – public domain 80

4.1F Michael Wolgemut/Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, Homerus. From: Hartmann Schedel, Buoch der Chroniken, German translation of the Liber chronicarum (Nuremberg, Koberger: 1493), fol. XXXXIIIr – https://www.e-rara.ch/bau_1/content/zoom/20856148 – public domain 80

4.1G Michael Wolgemut/Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, Statius. From: Hartmann Schedel, Buoch der Chroniken, German translation of the Liber chronicarum (Nuremberg, Koberger: 1493), fol. CXr – https://www.e-rara.ch/bau_1/content/zoom/20856148 – public domain 80

4.1H Michael Wolgemut/Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, Poggio Bracciolini. From: Hartmann Schedel, Buoch der Chroniken, German translation of the Liber chronicarum (Nuremberg, Koberger: 1493), fol. CCXLIIr – https://www.e-rara.ch/bau_1/content/zoom/20856148 – public domain 80

4.1I Horace as university professor. Frontispiece of Johann Grüninger’s Horace (Strasbourg: 1498). © Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel <http://diglib.hab.de/inkunabeln/21-1-poet-2f-1/start.htm> 81

4.1J Attavante degli Attavanti, Author’s portrait of Horace with laurel wreath, ca. 1485. Csapodi – Csapodi-Gárdoni, Bibliotheca Corviniana 82

4.1K Jesus Christ by Masaccio, The Tribute Money, 1413–1425. Fresco in the Brancacci Chapel, Florence. Public domain 82

4.1L Author’s portrait of Horace as sacred poet (ad Ode I, 1, Vat. Lat. 3137) 83

4.1M Author’s portrait of Horace together with his commentators. Title page of Horatii Flacci lyrici poetae opera cum quattuor commentariis et figuris additis (Venice, Donnino Pinzi: 1505). Woodcut by Lucantonio degli Uberti. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek – 2 A.lat.b. 208#Beibd.1; https://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/view/bsb10140561?q=%28Horatii+Flacci%29&page=,1 84

4.1N Horace offers the second book of his Odes to Asinius Pollio. Woodcut illustration by Lucantonio degli Uberti to Odes II, 1, in ibidem, fol. 64v. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek – 2 A.lat.b. 208#Beibd.1; https://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/view/bsb10140561?q=%28Horatii+Flacci%29&page=,1 85

4.1O The author Horace coronated by Apollo and the Muse. Woodcut illustration by Lucantonio degli Uberti to Odes I, 1, in ibidem, fol. 2v. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek – 2 A.lat.b. 208#Beibd.1; https://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/view/bsb10140561?q=%28Horatii+Flacci%29&page=,1 86

4.1P Petrarch coronated poet laureate by Apollo. Author’s portrait to Petrarca, Canzoniere (Venice, Bernardino Stagnino: 1513), fol. 3v. 87

4.1Q Anonymous, Calliope with Horace’s author’s device ‘Ego Musarum sacerdos’. Plague in Delft’s blue, 39.5 × 28.5 cm, ca. 1750–1780. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam BK-NM-2959. http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.14373 – public domain 89

4.2A The coronation of Horace with the laurel wreath by Calliope. From: Grüninger’s Horace (Strasbourg: 1498), fol. 2r. Detail. © Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel <http://diglib.hab.de/inkunabeln/21-1-poet-2f-1/start.htm> 91

4.2B The coronation of Horace with the laurel wreath by Apollo. Frontispiece to Henricus Wetstenius’s edition of Horace, with the comments by John Bond (Amsterdam: [ca. 1700]) – public domain 92

4.2C Horace coronated with the laurel wreath by Minerva. Frontispiece to the edition of his Latin works (Utrecht, Franciscus Halma – Guglielmus van de Water: 1699). – Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek – A.lat.a. 320; https://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/view/bsb10241287?page=6,7 93

4.3A Contorniate with Horace’s portrait. Fake antique medallion made for the d’Este family. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b11343892n/f1.item# 95

4.3B Horace, “Orsini”-portrait, engraved by Theodor Galle, Illustrium imagines ex antiquis marmoribus, nomismatibus et gemmis expressae quae extant Romae, maior pars apud Fulvium Ursinum (Antwerp, officina Plantiniana: 1598), no. 73. – Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek – Res/4 Arch. 210 r#Beibd.1; https://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/view/bsb10873252?page=146,147 95

4.3C The Horse Balsamius with a groom: reverse of the type Horatius I, Alföldy no. 101. https://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb449741697 96

4.3D Contorniate with a clear image of the d’Este eagle. Public Domain 96

4.3E Fake Contorniate, obverse with Horace’s portrait, d’Este eagle erased (under the palm branch). Bibliothèque nationale de France 44974169. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b113438916/f1.item# 96

4.3F Horace, portrait. From: Andrè Thévet, Les Vrais pourtraits et vies des hommes illustres grecz, latins et payens, recueilliz de leurs tableaux, livres, médalles antiques et modernes (Widow of I. Kervet – Guillaume Chaudier: 1584). https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b86246591/f1331.item# 98

4.3G The contorniate portrait in J. Moretus’s Horatius. From: Horatius cum erudito Laevini Torrentii commentario, nunc primum in lucem edito […] (Antwerp, Officina Plantiniana: 1608), fol. **2v. Public domain 100

4.3H1 Horace’s portrait, ivory relief medallion, ca. 1775–1810. English, 12 × 8 cm 101

4.3H2 Horace’s portrait on an imaginary medallion, Frontispiece to the 1820 edition of the Latin Opera omnia. Private collection 101

4.3H3 Depiction of a pseudo-antique gem with Horace’s portrait, 1768. Etching, 7.8 × 6.6 cm. From: Worldlidge Thomas (etcher), A Select Collecion of Drawings from Curious Antique Gems, most of them in the Possession of the Nobility and Gentry of this Kingdom, etched after the Manner of Rembrandt, 2 vols. (London: 1768). Public domain 102

4.3H4 Ring with gem, Horace’s portrait in relief, ca. 1830 102

4.3I Depiction of a supposedly antique marble bust of Horace, ‘ouvrage Romain du premier rang’, another fake antiquity. Engraving by Andreas Ludwig Krüger from 1765. Public domain 103

4.3J1 Bust of Horace of the same type as Fig. 4.3I, garden of the Villa Borghese ca. 1770. Bibliotheca Hertziana: http://foto.biblhertz.it/bhim00010126 103

4.3J2 Bust of Horace of the same type as Figs. 4.3I and 4.3J1, in Knebworth Gardens. By Matt Brown; https://www.flickr.com/photos/londonmatt/28567141920/in/photolist-Kwo52E-nPPw4u-bmu5cv-bmu4mK-mgnnxm-bmu4TM-6QUtWh-dyH9z5-bmu4La-bmu4Ac-bmu56z-bmu4hr-6QUwg9-bmu4sP-amq5oz-5ipWLN-5B8fsy-6QQrfZ-6QQpQc-6QUvvu-c9Taxu-6Tqp37-ueEm7P-bmu4En-dvjpZv-aQjBJx-bmu51z-aBtoJ-bmu4dx-6TmnQz-Lm76ic-aQZbtr-bmu4wD-geHpU-aTUH3a-Tom94-osukKJ-6Tqpy5-JocWwS-aYTXyD-5MH1Aq-8w74dr-aQvK82-rxPbc-bM8Fo-nPPvMY-4yeMQq-9usTus-9usTGL-xrs21N 104

4.3J3 Herm with Horace in the garden of Chatsworth House, 18th century 105

4.3J4 James Hoskins and Samuel Oliver, Horace, basalt bust, 1775, 36.4 cm. Wedgwood and Bentley. © Bildarchiv Foto Marburg / Foto: Haag, Paul. https://www.bildindex.de/document/obj20300200?medium=fmbc31057_10 105

4.4A ‘HORATIUS POETA LYRICUS’ with the Muse Calliope. From: Johann Grüninger’s and Jakob Locher’s Horatius (Strasbourg: 1498), fol. 2r. https://tile.loc.gov/image-services/iiif/service:rbc:rbc0001:2017:2017rosen0188:0008/full/pct:100/0/default.jpg 106

4.4B Mathaeus Merian the Elder, Horace as counterpart of the lyrical poet Pindarus. Frontispiece to Horace’s Opera omnia, Basel 1615. Private collection 107

4.4C Author’s portrait of Horace. 17th-century Leipzig school edition with commentary by John Bond 107

4.4D Bernard Picart, author’s portrait of Horace. 1708. The lyricist Horace laureated by the Muse of lyrical poetry. Public domain 108

4.5A Claude Mellan, engraving after Nicolas Poussin, Horace as lyrical and satirical poet. Frontispiece of the 1642 Paris edition. Public domain. https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/search/objects?q=horatius&p=4&ps=12&st=Objects&ii=7#/RP-P-OB-71.204,43 110

4.5B Frontispiece to Richard Bentley’s Horace, 2nd edition (Amsterdam, officina Wetsteniana: 1713, also used in the other Wetsteniana editions 1728 and 1740). The frontispiece was designed by J. Goeree and engraved by Bernard. Public domain 111

4.5C Frontispiece to Daniel Heinsius’s edition of Horace together with his work De Satyra Horatiana (Leiden: 1629). Public domain 112

4.5D Frontispiece to the second part of Horace’s works, translated into French by M. de Marolles (Paris: 1652). Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek – 4 A.lat.a. 114 https://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/view/bsb10217060?q=horatius&page=8,9 113

4.5E Relief on Horace’s monument. Detail of the frontispiece to B. Huydecoper’s Dutch translation of the Satires: Hekeldichten en brieven (Amsterdam, Willem Barents: 1726), designed by Antonyna Houbraken. Public domain 114

4.6A Raphael, Parnassus. Vatican Palace, Stanze (1509–1510). Public domain 115

4.6B Marcantonio Raimondi, Horace and another poet in discussion, 1514–1517. Engraving after Raphael’s drawing of the first version of Parnassus. Detail. Public domain 116

4.6C Theodor de Bry (engraver) after Jean Jacques Boissard (designer, poet), Horace. From: Parnassus cum imaginibus Musarum deorumque praesidum Hippocrenes (Frankfurt a.M., Theodor de Bry: 1601), no. 23. Private collection 117

4.6D Theodor de Bry (engraver) after Jean Jacques Boissard (designer, poet), Pindarus. From: Parnassus cum imaginibus Musarum deorumque praesidum Hippocrenes (Frankfurt a.M., Theodor de Bry: 1601), no. 23. Private collection 118

4.6E Raphael, Homer and Virgil. From his Parnassus. Detail of 4.6A. Public domain 119

4.6F Paolo Fidanza, ‘Orazio Flacco Venusino’, portrait no. VI from Paolo Fidanza, Teste scelte di personaggi illustri in lettere e in armi cavate già dall’antico (Rome: 1757). Public domain. http://graficheincomune.comune.milano.it/GraficheInComune/scheda/Vol.+CC+197,+tav.+12 120

4.6G1 Matthaeus Merian the Elder, Horatius. Detail from the frontispiece to Chabot’s Horace (1615). Private collection 121

4.6G2 Detail of Raimondi’s engraving of Parnassus, 1514–1517. Public domain 121

4.6H Raphael, Parnassus. Group of poets in the foreground to the right side. Detail of 4.6A. Public domain 122

4.6I Marcantonio Raimondi, Apollo of Belvedere. Engraving of ca. 1520. Public domain 123

4.6J Self-portrait of Raphael in his School of Athens. Detail. Stanze della Segnatura, Vatican. Public domain 123

4.6K Master EFH, Parnassus Profaned. Engraving, made after 1520. Chicago, Arts Institute. https://www.artic.edu/artworks/226873/parnassus-profaned. Public domain 125

4.6L Nicolas Poussin, Parnassus, 1630s. Oil on canvas, 145 × 197 cm. Detail. Madrid, Prado. Public domain 126

4.7A Grüninger’s illustrated Horace. Title page (Strasbourg: 1498). © Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel <http://diglib.hab.de/inkunabeln/21-1-poet-2f-1/start.htm> 128

4.7B Grüninger’s Virgil, title page: Virgil and his Muse, at the moment of writing. Public domain 129

4.7C Woodcut illustration to Odes III, 4. From: Grüninger’s illustrated Horace (Strasbourg: 1498), fol. LII r. © Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel <http://diglib.hab.de/inkunabeln/21-1-poet-2f-1/start.htm> 131

4.7D Woodcut illustration to Odes I, 21. From: Grüninger’s illustrated Horace (Strasbourg: 1498), fol. XVIII v. © Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel <http://diglib.hab.de/inkunabeln/21-1-poet-2f-1/start.htm> 132

4.7E Augustus as Roman Emperor in a 15th-century coach (right); poets in the robe of humanists singing the song of victory from music notes. From: Grüninger’s illustrated Horace (Strasbourg: 1498), fol. LXII r. © Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel <http://diglib.hab.de/inkunabeln/21-1-poet-2f-1/start.htm> 133

4.8A Horace with laurel wreath as ‘Musarum sacerdos’ directing the chorus of ‘virgins and boys’. Woodcut illustration by Lucantonio degli Uberti to Ode III, 1. From: Horatii Flacci lyrici poetae opera cum quattuor commentariis et figuris additis (Venice, Donnino Pinzi: 1505), fol. 90r 134

4.8B Horace reading Homer in front of his country house. Woodcut illustration by Lucantonio degli Uberti to Satires II, 1. From: Horatii Flacci lyrici poetae opera cum quattuor commentariis et figuris additis (Venice, Donnino Pinzi: 1505), fol. 212r 135

4.8C Farm and farm workers around 1500. Woodcut illustration by Lucantonio degli Uberti to Epistels II, 15. From: Horatii Flacci lyrici poetae opera cum quattuor commentariis et figuris additis (Venice, Donnino Pinzi: 1505), fol. 82r 136

4.8D Lydia’s lovers waiting in a queue in front of her door. Woodcut illustration by the monogrammist F to Ode I, 25. From: Horatii Flacci lyrici poetae opera cum quattuor commentariis et figuris additis (Venice, Donnino Pinzi: 1505), fol. 47r 136

4.8E A banker or moneylender from 15th-century Venice or Florence. Woodcut illustration by the monogrammist F to Ode II, 2. From: Horatii Flacci lyrici poetae opera cum quattuor commentariis et figuris additis (Venice, Donnino Pinzi: 1505), fol. 64v 137

4.8F A condottiere and his mercenaries in front of an Italian town of around 1500. Woodcut illustration by the monogrammist F to Ode IV, 7. From: Horatii Flacci lyrici poetae opera cum quattuor commentariis et figuris additis (Venice, Donnino Pinzi: 1505), fol. 156r 137

4.9A1 John Pine’s Horace, Roman coins with the name ‘Lamia’, the addressee of Horace’s Ode III, 17, Aelius Lamia. Public domain 138

4.9A2 John Pine’s Horace, Roman wine jugs. Illustration to Odes I, 36. Public domain 138

4.9B John Pine’s Horace, Roman bull sacrifice. Illustration to Odes I, 36. Public domain 139

4.9C John Pine’s Horace, dolphins and Nereides, Illustration to Odes III, 28. Public domain 139

4.9D John Pine’s Horace, Apollo of Belvedere. Illustration to Odes I, 31 Ad Apollinem (p. 56). Public domain 140

4.9E John Pine’s Horace, Mercury by Giambologna. Illustration to Odes I, 10 Ad Mercurium. Public domain 141

4.9F John Pine’s Horace. First illustration to Epistles I, 16. Public domain 142

4.9G John Pine’s Horace. Second illustration to Epistles I, 16. Public domain 143

4.9H John Pine’s Horace. Illustration to the Epistles I, 10. Public domain 144

4.9I Albert Christoph Dies, Cascata von Tivoli mit dem Ponte di San Rocco, 1795. Etching 39.9 × 30.7 cm. From: Frauenholtz – Mechau – Dies – Reinhart, Mahlerischradirte Prospecte von Italien, 1795. Public domain 144

4.9J John Pine’s Horace, Horace’s Country Estate. The Garden. Illustration to Epistles I, 10. Public domain 145

4.9K Gardens of the Villa d’Este, Tivoli. Engraving by Étienne Dupérac, detail. Wikimedia commons 145

4.9L Étienne Dupérac (inventor), Exedra in the Garden of the Villa d’Este, Fontain of Sibylla Albunea or Tiburtina (Fontana d’Ovato). Engraving by Antonio Lafreri, 1575. From: Dupérac (ed. and sculp.), Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae (Rome, Lafreri: 1575). Public domain 146

4.10A Monogrammist HR, Horace’s villa in the Valley of Licenza, 1762. Etching, 27.9 × 46.7 cm. National Gallery of Art of Scotland. Wikimedia commons 148

4.10B Signature and Italian inscriptions. Details of 4.10A 148

4.10C Detail of 4.10A 149

4.10D Horace’s villa, 1762. Detail of 4.10A 150

4.11 Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Ruine della Villa d’Orazio, 1769. Engraving, 38 × 25 cm. From: Piranesi, Diverse Maniere D’Adornare I Cammini ed ogni altra parte degli edifizi desunte dall’architettura Egizia, Etrusca, e Greca con un Ragionamento Apologetico in difesa dell’Architettura Egizia, e Toscana [...] (Rome, Generoso Salomoni: 1769) [p. 4]. Public domain 151

4.12A Title page of Jakob Philipp Hackert, Carte generale de la partie de la Sabine où etoit située la Maison de Campagne d’Horace, suivie de dix Vues des sites de cette Campagne et de ses Environs, nommés dans les Œuvres d’Horace (Rome: [1784]?). Private collection 154

4.12B Jakob Philipp Hackert, view of Mandela, 1780. Watercolour. From: “Zehn Aussichten”, no. 4. Goethe-Museum, Düsseldorf 156

4.12C Jakob Philipp Hackert, Carte generale de la partie de la Sabine où etoit située la Maison de Campagne d’Horace, suivie de dix Vues des sites de cette Campagne et de ses Environs, nommés dans les Œuvres d’Horace (Rome: [1784]?), engraving no. 4. Private collection 156

4.12D Jakob Philipp Hackert, Carte generale de la partie de la Sabine où etoit située la Maison de Campagne d’Horace, suivie de dix Vues des sites de cette Campagne et de ses Environs, nommés dans les Œuvres d’Horace (Rome: [1784]?), engraving no. 7. Private collection 157

4.12E Jakob Philipp Hackert, Carte generale de la partie de la Sabine où etoit située la Maison de Campagne d’Horace, suivie de dix Vues des sites de cette Campagne et de ses Environs, nommés dans les Œuvres d’Horace (Rome: [1784]?), engraving no. 10. Private collection 157

4.13A Albert Christoph Dies, Pan’s “Concerto campestre”. Oil on canvas, 83 × 111 cm. Whereabouts unknown 159

4.13B Detail from 4.13A 160

4.13C Fake contorniate, obverse with Horace’s portrait, with the d’Este eagle erased (under the palm branch). Bibliothèque nationale de France 44974169. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b113438916/f1.item# 160

4.13D Detail from 4.13A 162

4.13E Albert Christoph Dies, Bucolic scene with one of the waterfalls in Tivoli, 1792. From: Collection de vues pittoresques de l’Italie, dessinées d’après nature, et gravées à l’eau forte à Rome, par trois peintres allemands, A.-C. Dies, Charles Reinhart, Jaques Méchau (Rome: 1796). Detail. Public domain 163

4.13F Jakob Wilhelm Mechau, Bucolic scene with the ‘Fontana Blandusia’ at Licenza, 1794. From: Collection de vues pittoresques de l’Italie, dessinées d’après nature, et gravées à l’eau forte à Rome, par trois peintres allemands, A.-C. Dies, Charles Reinhart, Jaques Méchau (Rome: 1796), plate 49. Public domain 164

4.13G Dies, Pan’s “Concerto campestre”. Detail from 4.13A 165

4.13H Luigi Sabatelli, Horace, his Muse and two female figures at the Source of the Licenza at the Mons Lucretilis, 1840. From: Raccolta di no. 10 vedute rappresentanti la villa d’Orazio, o la sua abitazione di campagna ed i siti circonvicini, con una carta topografica della stessa grandezza che indica con numeri romani i punti, dai quali il pittore F. Hackert le ha espresse [...] D’invenzione e disegno di L. Sabatelli. Incise a bulino da Francesco Morel, probably made by Sabatelli in the 1780s or early 1790s, here in an imprint Rome, Agapito Franzetti: 1840, plate 9. Public domain 165

4.13I Luigi Sabatelli (designer and engraver), Horace and Tyndaris in front of the ‘vallis reducta’, probably made by Sabatelli in the 1780s or early 1790s. Engraving to Raccolta di no. 10 vedute rappresentanti la villa d’Orazio, o la sua abitazione di campagna ed i siti circonvicini [...] (Rome, Agapito Franzetti: 1840), plate 8. Public domain 166

4.14A Angelika Kauffmann, Sleeping Horace and the miracle of the doves. Engraving by Francesco Bartolozzi, 1798, 37.7 × 40.5. Berlin, Kupferstich-Kabinett (https://skd-online-collection.skd.museum/Details/Index/1000092) 168

4.14B Angelika Kauffmann (inv. et sculps.) – Giuseppe Zucchi (sculps.), Angel venerating the Child and bringing flowers, engraving, 1776. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O760685/the-holy-family-with-an-engraving-angelica-kauffmann/ 169

4.14C John Pine’s Horace. Portrait of Horace as an old, bald and bearded man on a pedestal. The relief of the pedestal shows the miracle of the sleeping child with the doves. Illustration to Epistles I, 4 171

4.14D E. Burney – P. Cooper, The miracle of the sleeping child Horace with the doves. Detail of a frontispiece with an imaginary monument of Horace. Private collection 171

4.14E Angelika Kauffmann, Sleeping Horace and the miracle of the doves, 1800, engraving by Antonio Zecchin 172

4.15A Angelika Kauffmann, The child Horace with the miracle of the doves, ca. 1782. Tondo, 65 cm, oil on canvas 176

4.15B Angelika Kauffmann, The personification of poetry embraces Painting (self-portrait with the Muse of lyrical poetry), 1782. Tondo, oil on canvas, 61 cm. Collection of Lord Iveagh Bequest (London). Public domain 176

4.16A Jakob Philipp Hackert (died 1807), painting of Horace, Ode III, 4: Horace protected by Calliope’s doves; present title: Waldlandschaft mit dem schlafenden, von Tauben behüteten Knaben Horaz. Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle. Creative Commons. <https://www.kunsthalle-karlsruhe.de/kunstwerke/Jakob-Philipp-Hackert/Waldlandschaft-mit-dem-schlafenden-von-Tauben-beh%C3%BCteten-Knaben-Horaz/A2C3D12F4DB4D67153FABCB529CD5B22/#=> 179

4.16B Franz Ludwig Catel, Fons Blandusiae. Illustration to Horace, Satires I, 5. Engraving from: Frommel Carl Ludwig, Dreissig Bilder zu Horazens Werken. Gestaltet unter Anleitung von C.L. Frommel nach Zeichnungen von Catel (Karlsruhe: ca. 1830), plate 6. Public domain 180

4.16C Detail from 4.16A 180

4.16D Detail from 4.16A 181

4.16E Jakob Philipp Hackert, Mons Lucretilis from his printseries. Private collection 181

4.17A Angelika Kaufmann, Portrait of Lady Elizabeth Foster, later Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, 1784/5. Oil on canvas. Public domain 183

4.17B Franz Keisermann, Ariccia, etching. From: Q. Horatii Flacci Satyrarum libri I Satyra V (Rome, Mariano Augusto De Romanis: 1816), plate 3. Hamburger Kunsthalle, Inv. no.: kb-2015-864g-5 (Ill. XIX. Varii 1816-2) 186

4.17C Franz Ludwig Catel, Ariccia, after a drawing from 1816. Illustration to Horace, Satire I, 5. Engraving from: Frommel Carl Ludwig, Dreissig Bilder zu Horazens Werken. Gestaltet unter Anleitung von C.L. Frommel nach Zeichnungen von Catel (Karlsruhe: ca. 1830), plate 12. Public domain 187

4.17D Pierre-Auguste Chauvin, vista from Benevento with the mountains of the Taburno Camposauro massif. From: Q. Horatii Flacci Satyrarum libri I Satyra V (Rome, Mariano A. De Romanis: 1816), pl. 12. Hamburger Kunsthalle, Inv. no.: kb-2015-864g-14 (Ill. XIX. Varii 1816-2) 188

4.17E Franz Ludwig Catel, Beneventum, after a drawing from 1816. Illustration to Horace, Satire I, 5. Engraving from: Frommel Carl Ludwig, Dreissig Bilder zu Horazens Werken. Gestaltet unter Anleitung von C.L. Frommel nach Zeichnungen von Catel (Karlsruhe: ca. 1830), plate 17. Public domain 189

4.17F Montevarchio (Caudium) 189

4.17G Jean Claude Richard de Saint-Non, Vue de la Vallée des Fourches Caudines, 1780. From: idem, Voyage pittoresque ou description des Royaumes de Naples et de Sicile (Pictoresque voyage or description of the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily), vol. I (Paris: 1780), plate 122. Public domain 190

4.17H Letterio Sobon, Shore at Sinuessa. From: Q. Horatii Flacci Satyrarum libri I Satyra V (Rome, Mariano Augusto De Romanis: 1816), pl. 10. Hamburger Kunsthalle, Inv. no.: kb-2015-864g-12 (Ill. XIX. Varii 1816-2) 191

4.17I Simone Pomardi, Brindisium. From: Q. Horatii Flacci Satyrarum libri I Satyra V (Rome, Mariano Augusto De Romanis: 1816), pl. 17. Hamburger Kunsthalle, Inv. no.: kb-2015-864g-19 (Ill. XIX. Varii 1816-2) 191

4.17J Simone Pomardi, Brindisium. From: Q. Horatii Flacci Satyrarum libri I Satyra V (Rome, Mariano Augusto De Romanis: 1816), pl. 17. Hamburger Kunsthalle, Inv. no.: kb-2015-864g-18 (Ill. XIX. Varii 1816-2) 192

4.17K Jean Claude Richard de Saint-Non, view of Bari. From: idem-Non, Voyage pittoresque ou description des Royaumes de Naples et de Sicile (Pictoresque voyage or description of the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily), vol. III (Paris: 1783). Public domain 193

4.18A Carlo Lambruzzi (designer), grave chamber. From: Idem, Via Appia illustrata ab urbe Roma ad Capuam [1794], plate 8, detail. Public domain (https://casanatense.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/stampe/id/2871/) 195

4.18B Carlo Lambruzzi (designer), A building filled with antiquities, as it was in 1591. From: Idem, Via Appia illustrata ab urbe Roma ad Capuam [1794], plate 10. Public domain 196

4.19A Franz Ludwig Catel, Horace on the boat trip by night, 1818, aquatint. From: Orazio Flacco, Satira V. Traduzione Italiana con rami allusivi (Parma, Bodoni: 1818), plate 2. Public domain 198

4.19B Franz Ludwig Catel, Loving couples having a drinking party by moonlight in the Bay of Naples. Oil on canvas. Chatworths House 199

4.19C Johann Riepenhausen, portrait of Horace after the Contorniate medallion. Printed i.a. in the Roman edition of 1816 and the Parma edition of 1818. Public domain 201

4.19D Franz Ludwig Catel (inventor), Symposium organized by Cocceius. From: Q. Horatii Flacci Satyrarum libri I Satyra V (Rome, Mariano Augusto De Romanis: 1816). Public domain 201

4.19E Horace having a dinner in his living room in Rome. Frontispiece to Baltazar Huydecoper’s Dutch translation of Horace’s Satires etc. (Amsterdam: 1737). Public domain 202

4.20A Frommel – Catel, Dreissig Bilder zu Horazens Werken, tab. 3. Public domain 205

4.20B Franz Ludwig Catel, Fons Blandusiae. Illustration to Horace, Satire I, 5. Engraving from: Frommel Carl Ludwig, Dreissig Bilder zu Horazens Werken. Gestaltet unter Anleitung von C.L. Frommel nach Zeichnungen von Catel (Karlsruhe: ca. 1830), plate 6. Public domain 206

4.20C Franz Ludwig Catel, Grave monument along the Via Appia. Illustration to Horace, Satire I, 5. Engraving from: Frommel Carl Ludwig, Dreissig Bilder zu Horazens Werken. Gestaltet unter Anleitung von C.L. Frommel nach Zeichnungen von Catel (Karlsruhe: ca. 1830), plate 11. Public domain 207

5.1A Vaenius, engraving to emblem 44, “Curae inevitabiles” (1607, p. 95). Public domain 225

5.1B Roman prow with three teeth (rostrum tridens) of bronze (aes) of a navis aerata, the most important piece of equipment of a strong ship able to ram others. By Finoskov – own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=84956637 226

5.1C Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to emblem 61 (p. 129) 227

5.2A Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to emblem 64 (p. 135) 230

5.2B Attributed to Jacob Matham, after Hendrik Goltzius, personification of Avaritia, from the series The Seven Vices (1587). https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Avarice_-_Jacob_Matham.jpg 231

5.2C The greedy rich man (Avarus). Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to image to emblem 62 (p. 131) 233

5.2D Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to emblem 49 (p. 105) 234

5.3A Achille Bocchi, Symbolicae Quaestiones (Bologna: 1555) symb. II, 33 235

5.3B Sambucus, emblem “Virtutem Honor sequitur” (Antwerp, Christopher Plantin: 1564), p. 223. Public domain 237

5.3C The goddess Virtus. Silver denarius of Trajan, issued 114–117. https://www.forumancientcoins.com/moonmoth/coins/trajan_014.html 237

5.3D The deities Honos and Virtus. Honos as a young man, bare to his waist, holding a sceptre in his right hand and a cornucopiae in his left, facing Virtus, helmeted, holding a parazonium in his right hand and a spear in his left, resting with her right foot on a boar’s head. After Roman coin, 1st cen. AD. Public domain (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plutarch%27s_Lives_(Clough)-Honos_et_Virtus_SC._coin.png) 237

5.3E Johannes Wierix after Chrispijn van den Broeck (died 1591), Hercules at the crossroads, standing between the personifications of Labor and Voluptas, engraving, second half of the 16th century. Public domain 239

5.4 Pieter Perret after Otto Vaenius, Minerva protects the Young Man (Siphyllis). Engraving, 32.2 × 22.1 cm. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. Public domain. 241

5.5A Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to emblem 46, “Culmen honoris lubricum” (p. 99) 244

5.5B Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to emblem 89 (p. 185) 246

5.5C Dionysius Lebeus Batillius, Emblemata no. 8 (Frankfurt a.M., Theodor de Bry: 1596). Public domain 248

5.5D Boissard Jean Jacques, Les Emblems Latins (Metz, Abraham Faber: 1588). Public domain 250

5.5E Coat of arms of the Calvinist poet Paulus Melissus (Schede) with his impresa “Manet immutabile fatum”. Nuremberg, Stadtbibliothek, Cod. Phil. 2861.8°. Public domain 251

5.6A Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to emblem 73, “Victrix malorum patientia” (p. 153) 254

5.6B Laurens van Haecht Goidtsenhoven, Parvus mundus, emblem 33, “Patientia Socratis”. Public domain 256

5.6C Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to emblem 80 (p. 167) 258

5.6D Image to Alciato, Emblematum liber, emblem 23 (Leiden, Franciscus Raphelengius: 1591) 259

5.6E1 Mirroring image of emblem 75, “A Musis tranquillitas” 264

5.6E2 Mirroring image of emblem 80, as on the painting (5.6E3) 264

5.6E3 Painting of emblem 80. Private collection. Whereabouts unknown 264

5.6F Anonymous Dutch artist, 17th century, Socrates and Xanthippe. Engraving, 9.0 × 12.5 cm. Museum Boijmans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam 266

5.6G Reyer van Blommendael, Xanthippe pouring water on Socrates, 1660s. Oil on canvas, 210 × 198 cm. Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg. Wikimedia commons 268

5.6H Medical doctor rendered as the philosopher Socrates, with Xanthippe pouring a pisspot on his head. Dutch School, 17th century, oil on canvas. The Fisher Collection at the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, PA. Wikimedia commons 269

5.7A Azulejo image no. 16 (= emblem 89) 271

5.7B Francisco Pacheco, The penitence of St. Jerome in the Desert, 1621–1622. Oil on canvas. Museo Goya, Ibercaya. Wikimedia commons 272

5.7C After Guercino, St. Paul the Hermit fed by the raven, 17th century. Oil on canvas. Dyton Art Institute. Wikimedia commons 273

5.7D Camerarius, Symbolorum et emblematum […] centuria secunda, II, 92 “Aeque tandem”. http://diglib.hab.de/drucke/18-6-eth/start.htm 274

5.7E Vaenius’s Emblemata Horatiana, emblem 89, the death of Aeschylus: detail of the 7th panel of the Dallas folding screen with a set of Emblemata Horatiana, viceroyalty of New Spain, ca. 1740–1760. Oil on canvas, pine, gilding, 150.5 × 34 cm (screen in total 340 cm). Dallas Museum of Art, gift of the Stanley and Linda Marcus Foundation, 1993.74.A-B. Image courtesy Dallas Museum of Art 276

5.7F Francisco Gallardo, trompe-l’œil with Vaenius’s Emblema Horatianum 89, “Tute, si recte vixeris”, 1720. Alamy Stock Photo, object number J8XPR7 277

5.8A Liberalitas, from: Philip Galle, Prosopographia (Antwerp: ca. 1600), no. 22. Private collection 281

5.8B Liberalità, from: Cesare Ripa, Iconologia (Rome, Lepido Facii: 1603), s.v. Private collection 281

5.8C Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to emblem 6 (p. 19) 283

5.8D Liberalitas Augusti, issued under Claudius Gothicus. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CLAUDIUS_II_GOTHICUS-RIC_V_57-804260.jpg 284

5.8E Prodigalità. Cesare Ripa, Iconologia (Rome, Lepido Facio: 1603), s.v. Public domain 284

5.8F Image to Vaenius, Emblemata amatoria no. 42 286

5.9 Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to emblem 7 (p. 21) 288

5.10A Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to Image to emblem 5 (p. 17) 292

5.10B Hendrik Goltzius (inventor), engraving ascribed to Jacob Matham, Superbia from the series of The Seven Vices, by the same artists, 1587. Wikimedia commons 293

5.10C Hendrik Goltzius (inventor), engraving ascribed to Jacob Matham, Luxuria/Libido from the series of The Seven Vices, by the same artists, 1587 293

5.10D Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to emblem 22 (p. 51) 295

5.11 Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to emblem 8 (p. 23) 298

5.12A Azulejo image no. 3 (= Vaenius, emblem 6) 301

5.12B Cesare Ripa, personification of Prudenza, with a mirror. Private collection 301

5.12C1 Brazilian cavia. Detail of Azulejo image no. 3 (= Vaenius, emblem 6) 302

5.12C2 Brazilian cavia 302

5.12D Wenceslaus Hollar, “In medio consistit virtus” (Emblemata nova, no. 6). By Petra Karstedt (= PetraK; www.Tiermotive.de) – selbst fotografiert von Petra Karstedt mit einer Canon EOS 300D, CC BY-SA 2.0 de, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1273672 302

5.13 Azulejo 3 (emblem 5). Wikimedia commons. Von Wellington Da Costa Gomez – Eigenes Werk, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=95390393 304

5.14A Azulejo 4 representing Vaenius’s emblem 8 305

5.14B Hendrik Goltzius, Personification of Sloth (Segnities) (1587). Public domain 306

5.15A Vaenius, Emblemata Horatiana (1607). Engraving to emblem 33 (p. 73) 309

5.15B Pamphlet The Watchmans Warning-peece. Or, Parliament souldiers prediction, 1642 National Library of Scotland, United Kingdom (1646). https://www.europeana.eu/de/item/91/_Resource_144784157 311

5.15C Engraving to Thomas Hobbes, Philosophical Rudiments (1651), part III, on “Religion” 312

5.15D Wenceslas Hollar, Charles I. on horseback inspecting his troops, 1644. Engraving, 20 × 26 cm. Public domain 312

5.15E Anonymous, Charles I as Saint, late 17th century. Oil on canvas, 83.8 × 73.7 cm. National Portrait Gallery, London. Public domain 313

5.16A Element 6 of folding screen (biombo) with a set of Emblemata Horatiana, viceroyalty of New Spain, ca. 1740–1760. Oil on canvas, pine, gilding, 150.5 × 34 cm (screen in total 340 cm). Dallas Museum of Art, gift of the Stanley and Linda Marcus Foundation, 1993.74.A-B. Image courtesy Dallas Museum of Art 315

5.16B Folding screen (biombo) with a set of Emblemata Horatiana, Viceroyalty of New Spain, ca. 1740–1760. Oil on canvas, pine, gilding, 150.5 × 340 cm. Dallas Museum of Art, gift of the Stanley and Linda Marcus Foundation, 1993.74.A-B. Image courtesy Dallas Museum of Art 316

5.16C Element 1 of folding screen (biombo) with a set of Emblemata Horatiana, Viceroyalty of New Spain, ca. 1740–1760. Oil on canvas, pine, gilding, 150.5 × 34 cm (screen in total 340 cm). Dallas Museum of Art, gift of the Stanley and Linda Marcus Foundation, 1993.74.A-B. Image courtesy Dallas Museum of Art 318

5.16D Element 3 (from left to right) of folding screen (biombo) with a set of Emblemata Horatiana, Viceroyalty of New Spain, ca. 1740–1760. Oil on canvas, pine, gilding, 150.5 × 34 cm (screen in total 340 cm). Dallas Museum of Art, gift of the Stanley and Linda Marcus Foundation, 1993.74.A-B. Image courtesy Dallas Museum of Art 319

5.16E Element 4 (from left to right) of folding screen (biombo) with a set of Emblemata Horatiana, Viceroyalty of New Spain, ca. 1740–1760. Oil on canvas, pine, gilding, 150.5 × 34 cm (screen in total 340 cm). Dallas Museum of Art, gift of the Stanley and Linda Marcus Foundation, 1993.74.A-B. Image courtesy Dallas Museum of Art 321

5.17A Soumaya screen, elements 1–5 322

5.17B Soumaya screen, elements 6–10 323

6.1 Conrad Celtis and Petrus Tritonius, Melopoiae sive harmoniae tetracenticae (Augsburg, Oeglin: 1507), Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Rar. 291, [A]2v–3r 342

6.2 Conrad Celtis and Petrus Tritonius, Melopoiae sive harmoniae tetracenticae (Augsburg, Oeglin: 1507), Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Rar. 291, [A]1v–2r 344

6.3 Conrad Celtis, Ars versificandi (Leipzig: [Martin Landsberg], [c.1494–1496]), Budapest, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Könyvtár, Inc. 565, A4v 350

6.4 Conrad Celtis, Ars versificandi (Leipzig, [Martin Landsberg]: [c.1494–1496]), Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Library, Incun.1494.C4, A1r 357

6.5 Conrad Celtis, Ars versificandi (Leipzig, [Martin Landsberg]: [c.1494–1496]), Münster, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek, COLL. ERH. 395, A5r 359

6.6 Conrad Celtis, Ars versificandi (Leipzig, [Martin Landsberg]: [c.1494–1496]), Budapest, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Könyvtár, Inc. 565, A1v 360

6.7 Laurentius Corvinus, Carminum structura ([Leipzig], Landsberg: [c.1496–1499]), Zwickau, Ratsschulbibliothek, Sign. 7.5.16, unfoliated appendix (‘Ad Coruinum’), [α1v–2r] 373

6.8 Franciscus Niger, Grammatica (Basel, Jacob Wolf von Pforzheim: 1499 [ISTC in00229000]), Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, 4 Inc.c.a. 1671, 86v–87r 376

Ex. 1 Petrus Tritonius, ‘Iam satis terris’, from Melopoiae sive harmoniae tetracenticae (Augsburg, Oeglin: 1507) 336

Ex. 2 Fol. [α2v]. Two melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Delphice laurigera’ (dactylic hexameter). The two melodies presented here are proposed composites. The first half of the first melody (with text incipit only) is transmitted only in the Zwickau copy, while the melody for the second half is transmitted only in the Uppsala copy, where it is fully texted. In the Uppsala copy, the second half of this melody is written on a four-line staff; the clef has been lost to page wear, but was probably on the fourth line. It is possible that these two halves do not fit together to form a single melody. Both halves of the second melody are transmitted in the Uppsala copy (without underlay), while the Zwickau copy has only the first half (with complete text, but with ‘capillos’ instead of ‘corona’). The heading ‘Or thus’ (‘Vel sic’) is found in the Zwickau copy only; the instruction ‘For the alternate verses’ (‘Alterius versus’) is found only in the Uppsala copy. The foot division of the ‘Vel sic’ verse in the Zwickau copy is faulty 383

Ex. 3 Fol. [α3v]. Two melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Delia quid nostrae’ (elegiac couplet). Neither melody is supplied with a clef 383

Ex. 4 Fol. [α3v]. Two melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Bacche frondosis’ (Sapphic strophe). The first melody is transmitted in the Zwickau copy, the second in the Uppsala and Jena copies (added at the end in the Jena copy). Neither melody is supplied with a clef 384

Ex. 5 Fol. [α4r]. Six melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Inter Sarmaticos Gloria principes’ (Asclepiadic). The first reflects an analysis of the metre as spondee–choriambic–Pyrrhic; the second melody reflects the analysis spondee–dactyl–hemiepes–dactyl–dactyl. The first two melodies are found in the Zwickau copy. The third to the sixth melodies are found in the Prague copy. The melodies in the Prague copy lack underlay or foot divisions. They have all lost their first note to page trimming. The first two melodies in the Prague copy are written in pale red ink, and the second two are written in black ink, but all were apparently written by the same hand 384

Ex. 6 Fol. [α4r]. Three melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Cornua Phrixei’ (Dactylicus bucolicus). The first form of the melody is transmitted in the Zwickau copy. The second melody, a variant of the first, is transmitted in the Uppsala and Jena copies. The third is transmitted in the Chicago copy 385

Ex. 7 Fol. [α4v]. Five melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Inter Sarmaticos mihi sodales’ (Phalaecean). The first is transmitted in the Zwickau and Chicago copies. It is also transmitted in the Leipzig copy, which indicates that Wöstefeld communicated it to his students. The second, third and fourth are transmitted (without underlay) in the Prague copy; there the final note in each case was lost when the page was trimmed. The fifth melody is transmitted in the Uppsala and Jena copies 385

Ex. 8 Fol. [α4v]. Three melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Apro saga ferocior’ (glyconic). The first and second are transmitted in the Zwickau and Jena copies. The first and third are transmitted in the Uppsala copy. The first melody reflects an analysis of the metre as spondee–choriamb–Pyrrhic/iamb; the second and third reflects an analysis as spondee–dactyl–dactyl/cretic 386

Ex. 9 Fol. [α4v]. Two melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Alter sacri cupidus nummi’ (Pindaric anapaestic). The first melody is transmitted in the Zwickau and Uppsala copies; in the Uppsala copy it is written in cantus fractus notation. It is also transmitted in the Leipzig copy, which indicates that Wöstefeld communicated it to his students. The second melody is transmitted in the Zwickau and Jena copies 386

Ex. 10 Fol. [α5r]. Two melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Quam felix fuerat’ (Choriambic). The first is transmitted in the Zwickau and Chicago copies. The second is transmitted in the Uppsala copy 386

Ex. 11 Fol. [α5r]. Three melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Carior inter omnes’ (Bacchius–epitritus). The first melody is transmitted in the Zwickau copy, the second in the Chicago copy. The third melody, a defective version of the first, is transmitted in the Uppsala copy. Here the student seems not to have realised that the first verse, ‘Carior inter omnes’, missing in the edition, was to be supplied by the reader, and he consequently gave an incorrect reading of the Bacchius; he also incorrectly gave a semibreve instead of a breve on the third syllable of ‘Fusili’ 387

Ex. 12 Fol. [α5v]. Three alternative melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Carmano pigrior Lentule asello’ (Dactylic hypercatalectic). The first melody is transmitted in the Zwickau copy, the second in the Chicago copy, the third in the Uppsala and Jena copies. The third melody is also transmitted in the Leipzig copy, which indicates that Wöstefeld communicated it to his students 387

Ex. 13 Fol. [α5v]. Two melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘O Griphe’ (Alcaic–Pindaric–iambic dimeter). The second Alcaic and its associated text have been supplied here from the printed text of Corvinus’ treatise to reflect the correct structure of the strophe. The first melody is transmitted in the Zwickau and Chicago copies. The second melody is transmitted in the Uppsala and Jena copies 388

Ex. 14 Fol. [α5v]. Three melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Iuppiter e specula’ (Parthenicus). The first is transmitted in the Zwickau and Chicago copies. The second is transmitted in the Jena copy. The second and third melodies are transmitted in the Uppsala copy, where the third is marked ‘Another one’ (‘Alia’), and underlaid with the second verse of the poem. The second melody is also transmitted in the Leipzig copy, which indicates that Wöstefeld communicated it to his students 388

Ex. 15 Fol. [α6r]. Two melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Num tibi Stygis sorores’ (Alcmanic trochaic–Pherecratean). The first melody is transmitted in the Zwickau and Chicago copies. The second melody is transmitted in the Uppsala and Jena copies. The second melody is also transmitted in the Leipzig copy, which indicates that Wöstefeld communicated it to his students 389

Ex. 16 Fol. [α6r]. Two melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Iam soror intonsi’ (Faliscan dactylic). The first melody is transmitted in the Zwickau and Chicago copies, the second in the Uppsala and Jena copies. The second melody is also transmitted in the Leipzig copy, which indicates that Wöstefeld communicated it to his students 389

Ex. 17 Fol. [α6r]. Three melodies for Laurentius Corvinus, ‘Utinam me turbo’ (Anapaestic Anacreontic catalectic). The first melody is transmitted in the Zwickau and Chicago copies, the second in the Uppsala and Jena copies, and the third in the Prague copy. In the third melody, the first breve must be resolved into two semibreves to fit the text. The first and second melodies are also transmitted in the Leipzig copy, which indicates that Wöstefeld communicated them to his students 389

Ex. 18 Four melodies for poems by Persius and Boethius transmitted by Arnold Wöstefeld in his copy of Laurentius Corvinus, Carminum structura ([Leipzig], Landsberg: [c.1496–1499]) (Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek, Gr.lat.rec.103-b), fols. E5v–6r: 1) ‘Nec fonte labra prolui caballino’ (Persius, Prologus 1) (iambic trimeter acatalectic); 2) ‘Summumque credit gloriam’ (Boethius, Cons. II, met. 7.2) (Archilochian iambic dimeter); 3) ‘Quisquis volet perennem’ (Boethius, Cons. II, metr. 4.1) (iambic dimeter catalectic); 4) ‘Omne hominum genus in terris’ (Boethius, Cons. III, metr. 6.1) (dactylic tetrameter). Georg Schiltel also copied the first two melodies in the unfoliated appendix added to his copy of Corvinus, Carminum structura (Zwickau, Ratsschulbibliothek Zwickau, Sign. 7.5.16), fol. [α6v–7r] 390

Ex. 19 Melodies for poems by Horace recorded by Georg Schiltel in the unfoliated manuscript appendix to his copy of Laurentius Corvinus, Carminum structura ([Leipzig]: Landsberg, [c.1496–1499]), Zwickau, Ratsschulbibliothek Zwickau, Sign. 7.5.16, fols. [α6v–7r]: 1) ‘Non ebur neque aureum’ (Od. II.18) (Hipponactean); 2) ‘Miserarum est neque amori’ (Od. III.12) (‘Sotadicum trimetrum’, the disorderly presentation of the verses reflects that in the source); 3) ‘Arboribusque comae’ (Od. IV.7.2) (penthimerus dactylicus); ‘Scribere versiculos’ (Epod. 11.2) (dactylic pentameter–iambic dimeter); 4) ‘Nivesque deducunt Iovem’ (Epod. 13.2) (iambic dimeter–dactylic pentameter) 391

Ex. 20 Melodies for elegiac couplets recorded by an unknown annotator in Laurentius Corvinus, Carminum structura ([Leipzig]: Landsberg, [c.1496–1496]), Chicago, Newberry Library, miniature Inc. 2948.5, E6v: 1) Ovid, ‘Hortor et ut pariter’ (Remedium 441–442); 2) untexted; 3) Ovid, ‘Tempora labuntur’ (Fasti VI.771–772); 4) Ovid, ‘Disce meo exemplo’ (Heroides XVII.97–98) 392

Ex. 21 Melody for poem by Laurentius Corvinus (?), ‘Difficilem cur Flora foves’ (Alcaic dactyl), recorded by an unknown annotator in Laurentius Corvinus, Carminum structura ([Leipzig]: Landsberg, [c.1496–1496]), Chicago, Newberry Library, miniature Inc. 2948.5, E5v 392

7.1 Georg Neumark, Loblied der Wissenschaft und Tugend: ‘So schwingt man sich’ (from: Fortgepflanzter Musicalisch-Poetischer Lustwald, 1657) 412

7.2 Constantin Christian Dedekind, ‘So schwingt man sich’ (from: Aelbianische Musenlust, 1657) 414

8.1 Francesco Negri, Brevis grammatica (Venice, Theodor von Würzburg: 1480): ‘O decus Phoebi’ 425

8.2 Michele Pesenti, ‘Integer vitae’, in Frottole libro primo (Venice, Ottaviano Petrucci: 1504) fol. 44: superius and bass parts 425

8.3 Francesco Negri, Brevis grammatica (Basle, Jakob Wolff: 1499): ‘O decus Phoebi’ 426

8.4 Orazio Vecchi, Selva di varia ricreatione (Venice, Angelo Gardano: 1590), quinto part, p. 42 427

8.5 Francesco Negri, Brevis grammatica (Basle, Jakob Wolff: 1499): ‘Odi prophanum vulgus’, alcaic strophe 428

8.6 Franchinus Gaffurius, De harmonia musicorum instrumentorum (Milan, Gottardo Pontano: 1518), fol. 89v: ‘Musices septemque modos planetae’ 430

8.7 Jacques Arcadelt, ‘Integer vitae’ (tenor part), in Sixiesme livre de chansons (Paris, Le Roy et Ballard: 1559). © gallica.bnf.fr/Bibliothèque nationale de France 433

8.8 An angel holding a lira da braccio. Giovanni Bellini, San Zaccaria Altarpiece, 1505 (oil on canvas) (detail). San Zaccaria, Castello, Venice. Cameraphoto Arte Venezia / Bridgeman Images 435

8.9 Anonymous, ‘Integer ⟨vitae⟩’ (c.1570), Uppsala, Universitetsbiblioteket, Vokalmusik i handskrift 76b, fol. 110v 438

8.10 Anonymous, ‘Rectius vives, Lycini’ (c.1570), Uppsala, Universitetsbiblioteket, Vokalmusik i handskrift 76c, fol. 60bis: transcription of the soprano and bass parts 440

9.1 The first edition of the Satires by Honorius, c.1492/1496. The title. Honorius Cubitensis Johannes, Horatii Flacci satyrici poete sermonum Liber primus (Leipzig, Martin Landsberg: ca. 1492/1496), fol. A1a. Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. Public domain 449

9.2 The first edition of the Epistles by Honorius, 1498. A detail of the accompanying poem by Johannes Honorius. Honorius Cubitensis Johannes, Quinti Horatii Flacci Epistolarum Liber Primus (Leipzig, Martin Landsberg: 1498), fol. A1b. Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. Public domain 451

9.3 The first edition of the Satires by Honorius, c.1492/1496. The beginning of the first satire. Honorius Cubitensis Johannes, Horatii Flacci satyrici poete sermonum Liber primus (Leipzig, Martin Landsberg: c.1492/1496), fol. A3a. Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. Public domain 453

9.4 Handwritten notes in the British Library copy of the Odes, edited by Honorius c.1492. Honorius Cubitensis Johannes, Quinti Horatii Flacci liber carminum primus (Leipzig, Martin Landsberg: c.1492), IA. 11867, the recto side of the unnumbered blank folio preceding the title page. London, The British Library. Image © The British Library 458

9.5 Handwritten notes in the British Library copy of the Odes, edited by Honorius c.1492. Honorius Cubitensis Johannes, Quinti Horatii Flacci liber carminum primus (Leipzig, Martin Landsberg: c.1492), IA. 11867, the verso side of the unnumbered blank folio preceding the title page. London, The British Library. Image © The British Library 460

9.6 A handwritten poem entitled “Ad auditores Carmen Joannis Cubitensis” recorded in the British Library copy of the Odes (published c.1492). Honorius Cubitensis Johannes, Quinti Horatii Flacci liber carminum primus (Leipzig, Martin Landsberg: c.1492), IA. 11867, the recto side of the unnumbered blank folio following the last page of first book of the Odes. London, The British Library. Image © The British Library 461

9.7 The first edition of the Epistles by Honorius, 1498. The beginning of the second epistle with the paragraph sign and the title in the upper margin. Honorius Cubitensis Johannes, Quinti Horatii Flacci Epistolarum Liber Primus (Leipzig, Martin Landsberg: 1498), fol. A4a. Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. Public domain 467

9.8 The second edition of the Odes by Honorius, 1498. The beginning of the first ode, segmented with paragraph signs and provided with the stanza specification and a marginal title. Honorius Cubitensis Johannes, Quinti Horatii Flacci liber carminum primus (Leipzig, Martin Landsberg: 1498), fol. A6b. Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. Public domain 469

9.9 A handwritten poem entitled “Ad scholares Horatianos magistri Joannis Cubitensis carmen” recorded in the British Library copy of the Epodes (published in 1492). Honorius Cubitensis Johannes, Quinti Horatii Flacci epodos (Leipzig, Martin Landsberg: 1492), IA. 11871, the recto side of the unnumbered blank folio preceding the title page. London, The British Library. Image © The British Library 474

10.1 Monument to John Wilson (died 1798), south aisle, St Peter’s Church, Heversham [photograph: L. Houghton] 482

10.2 Monument to Richard “Beau” Nash (died 1761), south aisle, Bath Abbey [photograph: L. Houghton] 484

10.3 The execution of Anne Askew, from Foxe John, Actes and Monuments of these latter and perillous days […] (London, John Day: 1563) 1130 [photograph: L. Houghton, with thanks to David Morrison and Worcester Cathedral Library] 488

10.4 Monument to Bishop James Gardiner (died 1705), retrochoir, Lincoln Cathedral [photograph: L. Houghton] 495

10.5 Monument to Philip Carteret (died 1711), north aisle, Westminster Abbey [photograph: L. Houghton, by kind permission of Westminster Abbey Press Office] 503

13.1 Portrait of James Alban Gibbes, frontispiece of Carminum pars lyrica (Rome, Fabio de Falco: 1668). Engraving by Albert Clouwet after Salvator Rosa 583

13.2 Portrait of Athanasius Kircher, frontispiece of Mundus subterraneus in XII libros digestus (Amsterdam, Johannes Janssonius – Elizeus Weyerstraten: 1664–1665). Engraving by Cornelis Bloemaert 584

13.3 Gian Lorenzo Bernini, bust of Pope Urban VIII (1633). Marble. Rome, Gallerie Nazionali d’Arte Antica, Palazzo Barberini, Inv. Nr. 2521. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons 587

13.4 Giovanni Battista Gaulli (or his workshop), portrait of Pope Alexander VII (ca. 1667). Oil on canvas. Baltimore, The Walters Art Museum, Inv. Nr. 37.598. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons 588

13.5 Title page of Fabio Chigi, Musae iuveniles (Cologne, Iodocus Kalcovius [in reality: Amsterdam, Johannes Blaeu]: 1645) 590

13.6 Portrait of Ferdinand von Fürstenberg. Engraving by Gerard Edelinck after Jean Michelin (between 1652 and 1707). Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Inv. Nr. RP-P-BI-7506. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons 591

13.7 Andrea Sacchi, portrait of Cardinal Francesco Barberini (shortly after 1633). Oil on canvas. Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Inv. Nr. WRM Dep.334. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons 592

13.8 Giovanni Maria Morandi (attributed to), portrait of Cardinal Sforza Pallavicino (1663). Oil on canvas. Vatican City, British Embassy to the Holy See (UK, Government Art Collection), Inv. Nr. 23. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons 593

13.9 Title page of the Septem illustrium virorum poemata (Antwerp, Balthasar II Moretus: 1662) 595

13.10 Fabio Chigi, Musae iuveniles (Antwerp, Balthasar II Moretus: 1654) 294 598

13.11 Athanasius Kircher, Ars magna lucis et umbrae (Rome, Hermann Scheus – Lodovico Grignani: 1645), fol. ††††† 3 v 601

14.1 Starting lines of Sagittarius’ Horatius Christianus in: Funcke, Aurora aestiva, p. 245 (drawn from the copy in Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, A.lat.a. 2608 c) 638

Table

6.1 Sample poems for quantitative metres as given in the Ordo metrorum and by Conrad Celtis, Ars versificandi 349

6.2 Sample words of two, three and four syllables in different metrical feet by Donatus, Celtis, Mancinelli and the annotators of four copies of the second edition of Conrad Celtis, Ars versificandi (Leipzig, [Martin Landsberg]: [c.1494–1496]) 354

6.3 Marginal annotation from Conrad Celtis, Ars versificandi (Leipzig, [Martin Landsberg]: [c.1494–1496]), Münster, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek, COLL. ERH. 395, a 4r, compared with one of its sources, William Wheatley, Commentary on Boethius, De consolatione philosophiae 356

8.1 French possessors of Gaffurius’ treatises in the sixteenth century 432

8.2 French settings of Horatian odes for voice and lute, c.1570 437

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Horace across the Media

Textual, Visual and Musical Receptions of Horace from the 15th to the 18th Century

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