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Index

Page references in bold type indicate a more in-depth treatment of the subject.

1619 Project (New York Times) 418n1
ABCFM (American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions) 429n41, 445
Abraham (enslaved African, “Sambo” before baptism) 57, 204205, 206, 337338, 338n25, 340, 342343, 347, 349, 386 Samuel, Johannes
Abrams, Harriet 304
Academy Street (Salem) 275
acculturation
Cherokee 442
to choir system 175
enslaved Africans 203
Moravians/Moravian Church 10, 23, 175, 196, 197, 219, 251, 322, 343, 401 Americanization
Acta Fratrum (Moravian Act, 1749) 55, 70, 71, 74, 75, 79, 103, 145146, 224, 274, 425
Actor Network Theory 310n8
Adam and Eve 24
Adams, John 228, 234, 234n75
Adams and Liberty (patriotic song) 293
Adams, Samuel 410
Ad Hoc Committee for St. Philips Moravian Church 363, 363n145
Africa 204
Christian origins 9293
Islam 57, 204, 372
slave exporting states 9496
African Americans 205208, 359361, 434n59, 439
African American neighborhoods 352n106, 358ill., 360, 361n134, 362, 363n143
education/schools 359, 359ill., 406
racial segregation in worship 255, 324 Afro-Caribbeans ; Black congregations/congregants ; Black people/communities ; enslaved people
African Church (Salem) St. Philips Moravian Church
African drumming 114, 115, 351n104
African identity, de-Africanization/cultural purification 22, 91, 102109, 110111, 112, 115, 116, 117
Africanism 94, 351n104
African religion/rituals/spirituality 25, 351n104
reconciliation with Christianity/baptism 116, 379, 381 ancestral reverence/spirituality
Africans
definition/term 91 Afro-Caribbeans ; Black congregation/congregants ; Black people/communities ; enslaved people
Africa, Philip 185
Afro-Caribbeans 5, 10n28, 335n16
baptism of 27, 112113, 115116, 379, 380382
de-Africanization/cultural purification of 2223, 91, 102109, 110111, 112, 115, 116, 117
definition/term 91
European music education to 115, 116, 287288
Pentecostal movement and 116
religious traditions 95
ancestral reverence/spirituality 109113
as link to joint African past 107
rhythmic celebrations 113117
superstition 101, 110, 111
in Single Sisters’ Choirs 183184 African Americans ; Antigua ; Black congregation/congregants ; Black people/communities ; enslaved people ; Tobago
Agape meals/lovefeasts 37, 41, 44, 54, 67, 72, 116, 236, 242, 338, 357, 364, 414
agricultural labor/skills 200, 341, 349350, 374, 377, 427, 436 plantations
agricultural sector, attractiveness of 25, 198199
Akan (kingdom, West Africa) 95
Alamance/Alamance Creek (North Carolina) 141, 383
Alder Street (Happy Hill, Winston-Salem) 359n130
Alexander family (Salem) 361
Alleghany mountains (West Virginia) 80
Ältesten Conferenz Elders’ Conference
American, definition/term 194
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) 429n41, 445
American Christianity 431, 433
Christianity of Christ vs. 433, 435 White God
American citizenship 147149, 246, 247, 406
American Civil War (1861–1865) 21, 208, 217, 255, 256, 287, 357
American Colonization Society 248
American culture
Moravian impact on shaping 2 musical tastes ; national holidays
American dream/ideals 193, 404
American freedom/liberty 3, 2425, 185, 194, 198, 224, 245
American identity 194, 195, 202, 224, 237, 241, 245, 252, 394, 418n1, 431 American Moravian identity
Americanism 26, 309, 323, 324, 403
Americanization 21, 193195, 202
of Black communities/enslaved people 205, 444
of Cherokee/Indigenous peoples 421, 424, 426, 433, 443, 444
dimensions of Americanization 419, 430431
of Methodists 87n52
of Moravians 1, 3, 510, 23, 26, 27, 58, 87, 140, 149, 163, 199, 203, 218, 223, 308309, 419
architecture 26, 251, 260, 272, 278, 279, 344
Easter Morning/Sunrise Services 394, 401, 403
pottery 26, 311, 323
Single Sisters’ Choir 173
Wachovia Moravians 1314, 18, 19, 65, 7578, 219 Salem
of music 284305 American identity ; American Moravian identity
American liberty American freedom/liberty
American Moravian identity 4, 6, 8, 18, 21, 4546, 130131, 202, 217, 219, 236, 243, 244, 252, 308309, 394, 401 Americanization
American national heroes national heroes/figures
American national holidays national holidays
Americanness 194, 202
American Plan/ambitions (Atlantic ambitions of Zinzendorf and Spangenberg) 35, 4951, 68, 69, 87
American Revolution (1765–1791)/Revolutionary War (1775–1783) 1, 6, 29, 87, 130n30, 131, 389
274, congregations during/after, Bethabara 145
artisan protests 192
attempts for neutrality/(competing demands for) loyalty 16, 22, 75, 77, 137138, 137n2, 140, 141, 144, 145, 146, 147, 196197, 218219, 223224, 404, 410, 411
commemoration of 221, 223, 225, 246
congregations during/after 8788, 137149, 146, 218, 274, 404
Antigua 390
Bethania 145
Bethlehem 404
North Carolina 55, 57, 71, 75, 138, 140, 167
Salem 17, 75, 77, 137138, 142, 144, 167, 180
separation between European and North American congregations 1617, 52
Wachovia 27, 76, 138
enslavement after 17, 340359
historiography (Traugott Bagge) 23, 137149, 137n1
Methodists during/after 87
property claims/land confiscation 22, 6465, 7578, 146147
ancestral reverence/spirituality 205206
Afro-Caribbeans 109113
Anderson, Benedict 220
Andreas, Brother 183184
Anglican Church/Anglicans
enslaved people and 108, 373, 377
position of Methodists within 68, 86, 87
position of Moravians within 68, 8687
retreat from 7879
Wachovia as Anglican parish/protectorate 5455, 6871, 74, 75
Anna (enslaved woman, wife of Christian, also known as “Nancy”) 343n50, 350
Antigua
agricultural/cultivation practice 374, 375, 376, 384
ancestral reverence/spirituality 110, 113
Black congregation 96, 98, 99
burials 114, 116
churches 105, 110
church membership 100tab.
colonization 9397
cultural purification in 102109, 110, 116
during/after American Revolution/Revolutionary War 390
education/schools 105107
European music education 116
enslaved people,
conversion and baptism 27, 112113, 378379, 379, 380382, 384
ethnic African identity 97
labor conditions 374, 378, 384
move to Sauratown (Virginia) from 27, 372, 382, 383384, 385, 390
geography 93
hurricanes and drought 380381, 383
independence 93
missions to/in 22, 91, 101, 104, 339, 351n104, 372, 373, 377
background/education of missionaries 102
mission strategy/approach 102103
population 93
Black/white ratio 94, 94tab., 390
origins 9495, 95tab., 96
rhythmic celebrations 114115, 116 sugar plantations (Antigua)
Antigua and Barbuda 93
anti-Moravian polemics 23, 38, 41, 51, 7174, 123
Apostle’s Creed 41
archaeology
definition 309
entanglement and 309310, 310n8
architecture/architectural design
Americanization of Moravian 26, 251, 260, 272, 278, 279, 344
building rules 252, 260
clay tile roofs 262, 262ill., 263, 267
Federal 26, 251, 268, 272
floor plans 261ill., 262263, 264
Greek Revival 26, 251, 273, 275278, 275278ill.
half-timbered (fachwerk) houses/buildings 260262, 261ill., 263, 264, 266, 266ill., 267, 344, 344n57
individualistic building construction/design 259266
masonry buildings 263264, 266, 267, 268, 270, 271, 272
masons 266271, 278
Moravian Revival 251, 279281, 280281ill., 282
original Central/Eastern European influences in 26, 251, 260265, 261262ill., 266ill., 344
Salem Salem
as symbol of power and wealth 251, 276, 278
archivalization 23, 120, 124, 129
archival records 351
accessibility of 128
interpretation of 124
manipulation of 120121
purpose of 121
removal and destruction of 121, 122, 125, 126, 127128, 131
subjectivity of 23, 120, 123 church diaries
archives
archival selection 121, 122, 138
inclusion and exclusion/destruction of documents 124, 125129
establishment of congregational 122
objectivity of 23, 123
organically grown vs. artificial collections of materials 123
purpose of 123
archivists 125, 128, 129, 131
codes of ethics 124
interpretation of records 124
Arkansas 423
Armenian Magazine (magazine, Methodist Church) 8081
Armstrong, Colonel Martin 142, 148
Arne, Thomas 305
Arnold, Gottfried 37
Articles of Confederation 184
artisans 11, 17, 19, 20, 25, 29, 56, 192, 200, 256, 258, 259, 266, 272, 338, 388
Asbury, Daniel 8485
Asbury, Francis 52, 79, 8082, 87
Ashanti (ethnic people) 95
Atkins, Simon Green 361n134
Atwood, Craig 21, 103, 171n13
Aufseher Collegium 14, 137n1, 138, 230
building/property regulations 268, 271272
on communalism 20
manufacturing/price fixing/trade regulations 17
on owning and renting enslaved people 341
on pottery production 312313, 314, 317
Aust, Gottfried (potter) 311, 312, 313, 315, 321
Australia 308n2, 426n30
autonomy
increasing independence of American congregations from German theocratic rule 3, 16, 1617, 25, 52, 129, 167, 218, 219, 403, 404
women’s leadership and 7, 1416, 3839, 126127, 168, 169, 175, 440, 443
Bachhoff, Ludolph 176
Bachhoff, Sister. Kaske Biefel Bachhoff Schmidt, Rosina
Bach, Johann Christoph Friedrich 290, 290n15
Badham, Brother and Sister 106, 111
Bage, Elizabeth 170n12
Bagge, Antoinette 163
Bagge, Brother 338n25
Bagge, Traugott (merchant and community leader) 77, 137149, 159, 255
background/career 23, 137n1, 148, 148n45
house of 264
on land confiscation 146147
on Moravian (attempt for) neutrality in American Revolution 137, 138, 140, 141, 144, 145
on North Carolina Regulation 141
on protection of Moravian settlements 141, 142, 145
Bahnson, George Frederic (pastor) 202, 203
Bailey, Betsy 385
Bailey family 385
Bailey Hill plantation (Antigua) 385
Bailey (name) 385
Bakewell, Robert 374
Balmforth, William 377, 378
Baltimore Anacreontic Society 305
Baltimore, Lord 69
Baltimore (Maryland) 305
Methodists in 79, 87
Bank Street (Salem) 260
Banner, Henry 334, 334n10
baptism
Afro-Americans 385
Afro-Caribbeans 27, 112113, 115116, 379, 380382
alignment with African religious roots/rituals 379, 381
Cherokee 441, 443
enslaved people 89, 27, 57, 183184, 203205, 206, 314, 334, 338, 339, 340, 341, 343, 346, 378379, 385, 386, 430, 433, 436n67 Abraham (Sambo) ; Oliver, Peter ; Samuel, Johannes
Indigenous peoples 97
tribal rituals and 379
Baptism of the “Negroes” (painting, Johann Jakob Bossart) 8
Baptist Church/Baptists
camp meetings 206
schools 427, 445
Spiritual Baptism 110, 116
Barbados 351n104
Barbuda 93
Bartram, William 442n90
Bass, Christina (“mulatto” freewoman, wife of Peter Oliver) Oliver, Christina
bassoonists/bassoons 153, 153n10
Bath 55
Battle of Alamance Creek (1771) 141, 383
Battle of Brandywine (1777) 224
Battle of Guilford Courthouse (1781) 77
Battle of the Plains of Abraham (1759) 223
Beachy, Robert 3
Beaver, Emily Conrad 16
Beck, Laura 130ill., 130n30
Becoming American: Moravians and their Neighbors, 1772–1822 (conference, 2020) 1
Bedford 398
Beethoven, Ludwig van 284, 305
Belews Street Neighborhood (East Winston) 362, 362n142, 364n146
Belo, Edward 20, 276
house of 256, 274, 276, 277, 277ill.
Belo, Louise 163
Belview (house on Sauratown plantation, North Carolina) 387
Benade, Rev. Andrew 155, 226
Bender, Margaret 428n38
Benzien, Rev. Christian Ludwig 166, 187, 188, 230, 231232, 291, 346n71, 431
Benzien, Wilhelm Ludwig 159
Bergstone, David 26, 363n145, 365n148, 388
Berkeley, Norborne (4th Baron Botetourt, Governor of Virginia) 379
Bernasconi, Robert 410
Berthelsdorf (Saxony) 127, 129, 395
Besuchende (visitors) 255, 394, 400401, 400n18, 402403, 404, 406n35, 413414, 415, 425, 435, 442n90
Bethabara (North Carolina) 1, 56, 252n1, 373, 387, 403
architectural design 263, 267
Black congregation 184, 200, 346, 351, 413
choir system/Single Sisters’ Choir 12, 48, 54, 56, 175, 181, 184
communalism/communal economy 48, 54
community store 137n1
during/after American Revolution 75, 141, 145
Easter Morning/Sunrise services 398, 399, 414
enslavement/enslaved people 184, 200, 314, 334, 335n16, 337, 337338n24, 338, 341, 346, 347, 351, 385, 420
baptism 340
slave ownership regulations 314315
foundation 54, 179, 193, 331, 331n1, 393
land ownership 75, 141
married missionary couples 173
Methodists 79, 86
racial segregation 12, 351352
Bethania AME Zion Church 353
Bethania Freedmen’s Community 354n110
Bethania (North Carolina) 252n1, 387, 403
Black congregation/congregants 201, 352, 353, 407, 413
celebration of national holidays 237, 241
during/after American Revolution 145
Easter Morning/Sunrise services 414
enslavement/enslaved people 348, 353354n110, 385
slave ownership regulations 18
farming 199
foundation 331, 331n1
Methodists 8283, 8384, 85, 86
racial segregation 201, 346, 352, 407, 408
Single Sisters’ Choir 181
Bethel (name) 385
Bethlehem Collegium Musicum 152, 153
Bethlehem Female Seminary 223, 225, 226
Bethlehem Manuscript Book Collection 296
Bethlehem (Pennsylvania) 2122, 53, 55, 5657, 74
archival records/church diary 121, 123, 124, 131, 235
Black congregation 12, 13, 184, 199, 414
(boarding) schools 38, 225, 235, 287, 293, 405
celebration/commemoration of national heroes 224, 225
celebration of national holidays 130n30, 215, 216ill., 221, 223, 230, 233, 234, 236, 238, 244, 246, 248
choir system/Single Sisters’ Choir 43, 48, 130n30, 179, 181, 183184
communalism/communal economy 48
cosmopolitanism/internationalism 218
during/after American Revolution 76, 130n30, 131, 216ill., 218, 404
Easter Morning/Sunrise services 398
enslavement/enslaved people 184, 199
foundation 35, 47, 184, 193
Gemeinfest (Moravian memorial day) 220
Home Congregation vs. Pilgrim Congregation 4748
missionaries,
married missionary couples 173
training of missionaries 50
music collection 284, 290, 291, 293
pastors 154, 295296
performance of The Creation in 151155, 153ill., 156, 157, 159, 160161, 163164
racial segregation 12, 414
as seat of authority 49
Betsey (enslaved woman, wife of Sam) 347, 348, 349, 350, 350n98
Beulah (enslaved woman, wife of Andreas, “Magdalene” upon baptism) 183184
Beyer, Hans 394
Bible/Biblical texts
Hebrew vs. Greek concept of neighbor in 4
on military service 231
for replicating and challenging political hierarchies 431
translation into Indigenous languages 37, 50
Biefel, Heinrich 173, 176
Bight of Benin 94
Bight of Biafra 94, 95
Biko, Steve 100101
Billings, William 303
biographies (Lebenslauf) 204, 219
Single Sisters 173178
Spangenberg 44n30
Zinzendorf 23, 126, 127
Bischoff, Anna 173
bishops, succession of 69, 87
Bishop, Sir Henry Rowley 304
Black Africans 10n28
education 405
in Single Sisters’ Choirs 183184 Afro-Caribbeans ; Black congregations/congregants ; Black people/communities ; enslaved people
Blackborn, James 334
Black Caribbeans Afro-Caribbeans
Black congregations/congregants 23, 13, 2829
attendance of Easter Morning/Sunrise Services 406407, 406n35, 411, 412, 413415
balance between Black and white Church members 4546
Black converts as leaders and mentors 90
Black female missionaries 183
Black preachers 82, 206207, 438
churches 255, 352353, 352n106, 353, 353354ill., 357, 358ill., 363, 363n145 St. Philips Moravian Church
first generation of Black congregants 337340
freedom of 24, 27 Oliver, Peter
graveyards/burial 200, 201, 339, 343, 347, 349, 350, 361, 361362n136, 362, 365, 386, 407
“Negro” God’s Acre (Salem) 255, 350, 352, 356, 361, 407408, 408n39, 414
hymns and 115, 200, 426n27
identity/African cultural heritage 25
Black “inferiority” 9, 10, 27, 100101, 410, 431
Methodists 82, 207
property ownership/housing 359360, 362n138
self-determination 92, 100101, 351n104, 362 Afro-Caribbeans ; Black people/communities ; enslaved people ; racial segregation ; St. Philips Moravian Church ; under individual congregations
Black Lives Matter 29, 90
Black neighborhoods 362363, 363n143
Happy Hill (Winston-Salem) 27, 352ill., 352n106, 355, 355n114, 359360, 359n131, 360361ill., 360n132, 362, 365
Blackness 78, 10n28
Black people/communities 4, 401, 444
Americanization of 444
connection with Judeo-Christianity 92
definition/term 91, 107
education 405406, 446
housing 18, 362 Happy Hill (Winston-Salem)
multilingualism 430
rejection of missionaries 420, 438
self-determination 92, 100101, 351n104, 362
spiritual equality 334, 340
suppression of identity and culture 91 Afro-Caribbeans ; Black congregations/congregants ; enslaved people
Blair, Marion 116
Blandwood (Greensboro) 275
Blech, Pastor Carl Gottlieb 241
blood sacrifice 381
blood and wounds theology 72, 103, 168, 171, 172n19, 174, 175, 177, 181, 189, 207, 381
Blum, David 26, 271
Blum, Heinrich 347n75
Blum, John C. 159, 162
Blum’s Mill (Salem) 362n138
Boarding School for Girls (Salem) Salem Female Academy/Boarding School for Girls
boarding schools 2
Australia 426n30
Bethlehem 38, 225, 235, 287, 293, 405
curricula 288, 405
music education 289
Nazareth Hall 156, 240, 287, 295
Salem 28, 240, 347, 349, 394, 404406, 415, 420, 425
Böckel household (Bethlehem) 224
Bodney (enslaved man) 346, 347, 347n71–72, 352
Bohemia 11
Böhler, Peter (Moravian bishop) 47, 67, 122n7
Bon Air Avenue (Winston-Salem) 363, 365
Bonn, Brother 338n25
Book of Order 220
Bossart, Johann Jakob 89
Boston 24, 293, 305
Botetourt, 4th Baron (Norborne Berkeley, Governor of Virginia) 379
boys’ schools
Nazareth Hall 156, 240, 287, 295
Salem 26, 83, 157, 255, 265, 268, 287
Brainerd Mission schools (AMCFM) 429, 429n41, 440, 445
Brandywine, Battle of (1777) 224
Braun, Peter Brown, Peter
Breitkopf & Härtel 154, 284
brickwork masonry buildings
brides of Christ mystical marriage
Brietz, Charles 20
British colonization, Antigua and Tobago 9397, 99
British Empire 22
attachment/loyalty to (during American Revolution) 137, 144, 145, 196197, 224 American Revolution/Revolutionary War
evangelical rivalries in 6568
British law, status of Moravians in Moravian Act
British Parliament 55, 68, 6970, 74, 75, 103, 137, 383
acknowledgement and protection of Moravian Church by 69, 70, 71, 74, 75, 79, 103, 141, 144, 145146, 425
Broad River (Rutherford County) 335n16
Brookstown (Winston-Salem) 255, 257, 274, 355
Brothers’ Spring (Salem) 359, 359n130
Brown, Catherine (Cherokee missionary) 429n41, 440
Brown, David (Cherokee missionary) 422, 429n41, 440
Brown, Johanna (curator) 322
Brown, Maria 378, 390
Brown, Peter 98, 104, 151, 372, 378, 380, 381, 385, 390
“Buckra” (slang for slaves’ masters) 373, 373n4, 378
Builders’ House (Salem) 255
Building Regulation (Salem, 1788) 260
buildings architecture/architectural design
Burckhardt, W. 398
burial practices/rituals 41, 200
African 114, 116, 208
in Antigua and Tobago 114, 116
burial of Black congregants 200, 201, 339, 343, 347, 349, 350, 361, 361362n136, 365, 386, 407
“Negro” God’s Acre (Salem) 255, 350, 352, 356, 407408, 408n39, 414
racial segregation 19, 41n18, 201, 208, 349, 407408
Burkholder, Jared 218
Burney, Charles 304
businesses, church-owned 199, 311n8, 322
Butler, Dr. Elizur 445
Butner, Adam, house of 273, 273ill., 274
Butrick, Daniel Sabin (ABCFM missionary) 445446n97
Butrick, Elizabeth 446n97
Byerly, John 350n98
Byhan, Gottlieb 161162, 430, 432, 436n67, 436n69
Byhan, Sister 430, 436n67, 436n69
Byrd, Elizabeth Hill 380, 383, 386387, 390
Byrd III, William 376, 376n13, 379, 386387
Byrd II, William 376, 377
Calvary Moravian Church (Winston) 279, 280ill.
Cammerhof, John 50
camp meetings (Methodists/Baptists) 8486, 206
Canada 64, 67, 88
Cantata (Johann Friedrich Peter) 240
Canton, John 183
Cape Fear 263
Cape Fear Bank Building (Salem) 258
Cape Fear River (North Carolina) 389
capitalism 8, 58, 424
communal life vs. 2021, 88
Capps, Gene 363n145
Caribbean
African ethnicities/origins of enslaved people in 94, 95
ancestral reverence/spirituality 109113
colonization 97
German-centered Moravianism in 102, 103, 107
indigenous population 93, 97
missions to/in 3, 6n10, 22, 27, 41n18, 97, 334, 351n104, 437
religions 96
slave trade/enslavement 45, 94, 95, 97, 420n5
term/definition 92 Afro-Caribbeans ; Antigua ; Tobago
Caribbean Calling (newsletter, Moravian Church) 102
Caribs (Kalinagos) 93
Carr, Benjamin 303
Carteret, Sir George Granville, Earl of
Carter, Stewart 2324
caste system, religious Cherokee/Moravian 433, 436, 439
Catawba (Indigenous tribe/nation) 4
Catawba River (North Carolina) 386
Catholics, discrimination and persecution of 47, 69, 426
Caty (enslaved child of Bodney) 346n71
Cedarhyrst (Salem) 258n7, 277278, 278ill.
celebrations
American/national heroes 221, 223
American/national holidays 216217, 220, 223 Independence Day/Fourth of July ; Washington’s Birthday Celebration
Cherokee festivals 442, 443
gun firing/shooting at festivities 230, 231, 232, 233, 236, 238, 241, 246
Moravian memorial days/Gemeinfeste 102, 220, 239
participation/involvement by non-Moravians in 241243
rhythmic celebrations (Afro-Caribbeans) 113117
role of numbers in 238239 national heroes/figures ; national holidays ; religious holidays
cemeteries graveyards
Central Africa 94, 96
Central/Eastern European architecture 26, 78, 251, 260265, 261262ill., 266ill., 344
chamber music 288
Champion (freedman) 340
chanting, African 113, 114, 115 rhythmic celebrations
Charleston 137n1
Charlotte (North Carolina) 240
Charters of the Colonies 145
chattel slavery 17, 20, 25, 44
“compatibility” with/justification by Christianity 45, 432435
indentured servitude vs. 910, 10n28 enslavement
Cherokee American Wars (1776–1794) 445
Cherokee (Indigenous tribe/nation)
acculturation 442
Americanization 421, 424, 426, 428, 433, 443
baptism,
Cherokee 441, 443
enslaved people 430, 433
Black enslaved vs./and Cherokee heathens 437438
civilization/civilization program (US government) 203, 419, 421422, 421n12, 426, 432, 443
entrepreneurship 25, 423424, 423n16
festivals 442, 443
genealogy/mixed race family relations 424425, 425n24
intelligence of 431n47
kinship-based multigenerational religious networks 440, 442, 444
land loss/removal 422, 445, 446n97
military defense 441
military raids by US 422
mission schools,
Cherokee on 287, 287n6, 426430, 432, 439440, 445446
English education 28, 203
enslaved people on 443
gender distribution 439440
missions to/in 4, 28, 37n7, 40, 58, 155, 162, 203, 346, 418420, 439, 443, 445
failed mission among Black African community 435, 439, 443
Methodists missions 438439, 443
other Protestant missions 440
relation with missionaries 420, 422, 422424, 423n16, 432, 441, 445
planters/plantations 422424, 425, 430, 432, 436, 438, 444446 Vann, James ; Vann, Joseph “Rich Joe” ; Vann plantation
racial segregation 420n8
religious caste system 433, 436, 439
slaveholders/enslavement 420, 423, 424, 432, 433, 441, 443
technological innovation 423, 444
women,
female converts/congregants/missionaries 439444
marriage 441, 442443
position/social role of women 421, 427, 441n85, 442443, 442n90 Oothcaloga ; Springplace
Cherokee (language) 442 Tsalagi Gawonihisdi
Cherry Street (Salem) 277
Chief Elder of Moravian Church, Christ as 35, 35n3, 5152, 56, 57, 176, 196, 206, 222
children
enslaved 341n45, 346n71–72, 430 Michael
illegitimate 112113
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) 195
Chisholm, John 441
Chisholm, Lydia 440, 441
choirs/choir system (segregated living/worshiping groups) 12, 14, 38, 48, 54, 206
choir houses/buildings 48, 54, 169, 171
leadership/supervision 38, 168, 169
opposition 184188
origins and evolution 57, 166, 169173, 175
race/racial segregation 12, 183184 married persons’ choirs ; Single Brothers’ Choir ; Single Sisters’ Choir
choirs (group of singers) 158
Christ
as Bridegroom (mystical marriage) 42, 168, 171, 172, 174, 175176, 178, 181182, 189
as Chief Elder of Moravian Church 35, 35n3, 5152, 56, 57, 176, 196, 206, 222
as Creator and incarnation of Jesus 4142
slave owners assigned place of 434
suffering of,
blood and wounds theology 72, 103, 168, 171, 172n19, 174, 175, 177, 181, 189, 207, 381
suffering of enslaved people compared to 206, 207
Christ, Anna Keeler 163
Christ the Chief Elder (festival) 57
Christian (enslaved man, “Frank/Franck” before baptism) 335n16, 340, 343n50, 350
Christianity
American 431, 433, 435
Christianity of Christ, American Christianity vs. 433, 435
colonialism and expansion of 97, 98
compatibility with enslavement 45, 103104, 432435
origins,
brown/Black origins 92
European religion 93
reconciliation with African religious expression 116
Christiansbrunn (Pennsylvania) 54
Christmann, Anna Johanna 188
Christmann, Benigna Elisabeth 188
Christocentric theology 102, 103104, 117, 222 blood and wounds theology
Christ, Rudolph (potter) 311, 313315, 316ill., 317, 320, 321, 322, 323
church administration 14
church control/authority
personal freedom vs. 192, 198, 199, 219
youth vs. 167, 198, 233
church diaries
Bethlehem 121, 123, 124, 131, 235
Herrnhut 122
Nazareth 223
Salem 160, 161, 181, 181182, 185187, 188189, 291, 338, 347n75, 372, 400, 411412, 414 archival records
Church of England Anglican Church
churches (buildings)
embellishments 237239
Salem/Winston 255, 265, 268271, 269270ill., 275n23, 277, 279281, 280ill., 344, 344n57
log churches 255, 352353, 352n106, 353354ill., 357, 358ill., 363, 363n145 St. Philips Moravian Church
church finances
centralization of 14
debt crisis 14, 16, 56, 57, 73, 73n16, 74, 172
financial disorders 72, 73, 79, 88
church-owned businesses 199, 311n8, 322
church-owned enslaved people 18, 57, 199, 334, 335n16, 337, 339, 346, 347, 348, 356, 356n119, 357
church services/worship
racial segregation 1819, 201, 324, 343, 346, 352, 407, 426n27, 439
Easter Morning/Sunrise Services 406407, 406n15, 408, 411, 412, 413415
Church Street (Salem) 337
Churton, William 70
city congregations town-congregations
civilization programs 426n30
relation with enslavement 423n18
of US government for Indians/Indigenous peoples 8, 28, 203, 419, 421422, 421n12, 426, 432, 436, 443 cultural purification
Clari, or the Maid of Milan (opera, John Howard Payne) 304
Clauder, Brother and Sister 443n92
Clemens, Brother/s 101, 105, 106, 111
Clemens, Theodore 102
Clementi, Muzio 303, 305
Clifton, Arthur (Philip Anthony Corri) 305
Cobb Research Institute (Howard University) 372, 372n1
cockades, wearing of 233
Codrington, Christopher (Governor of Antigua) 374n6
Cofer, Betty (freedwoman) 207
Cokesbury School (Methodist school) 81
Coke, Thomas (Methodist bishop) 8082, 87
Coleman, Lethia 364n146
collective identity 217, 218, 220
colonial Christianity, Moravian theology vs. 103104
colonialism 93
definition 97
expansion of Christianity and 97, 98
Moravian evangelism and 22
colonialists, colonists vs. 91
Colonial Music Institute 284n1
colonists/settlers
British 4, 80, 103, 401
colonialists vs. 9192
conflicts with Indigenous peoples 54
definition/term 91
poor whites vs. 92
relation with European 51 planters/plantation owners
colonization 4, 7, 7n13, 103
of Antigua and Tobago 9397, 99
Colored School House (Salem) 360ill.
colored (term) 91
Colossians
1:15 41
3:22–24 434
Colston, Daniel 445
Columbian Heights (Black neighborhood, Salem) 361n136
Columbus, Christopher 93
Colver, Johanna Elizabeth 180, 182
Comenius, Jan Amos (Moravian bishop) 285
commerce 16, 83, 314
regulations 17, 20
Salem 16, 258, 338, 387388
Commonplace Book (Johann Friedrich Peter) 291293, 295296
breakdown of songs by language 293, 297
composers/compositions 292, 304, 305
dates of compositions 296297
purpose 292
Salem Manuscript Books vs. 296
communal economies 14, 15, 21, 47, 48, 54, 251
communalism 13, 21, 41, 193, 220, 251
Bethabara 54
influence of capitalism 2021
shift toward individualism 20, 88, 308
Communion
drawing lot for 17
suspension/exclusion from 44, 187, 199, 215, 233
community of the cross (Kreuzgemeinschaft) 103
competition, between missionaries’ and enslaved people’s businesses 386
composers
American 303, 305
English, Irish, Scottish 304305
female 304305
German 288, 293, 297, 298300tab., 303
Moravian 297, 301302tab., 303
Confederate States of America 58
Confederation Period (1781–1787) 223, 246
Confiscation Act 7576
Congregational Council
exclusion of women 351n103
on purchase and rent of enslaved people 18
on racial segregation 17, 18, 19, 413
congregations
Americanization and 19
civic life 11
dismantling of 20
self-reliance and independence 16 autonomy
social structure choirs/choir system under individual congregations
conjury Obeah
Connecticut 50, 53, 83, 406
Conspectus Fungorum (David von Schweinitz) 410
Constitution
North Carolina 426
US 184, 231, 246
contact zones 420
definition 420n7
Continental Congress 389, 423
contrabasses 159
conversion
enslaved people 22, 204205, 206, 338, 377, 380382, 435, 437
enslavement as barrier to 437
from Islam 57, 204
to Methodism 80, 81, 8283, 85, 86
singing 85 baptism
converts
massacres 51, 441
protection of Indigenous 51
Cooper, Charles 258
Cooper, James 188
Coppage, Rev. Jeff 365n147
copybooks 2, 26, 291293
copyright, copying of music 289
Cornwallis, Lord 77
Coromantee (Asante, ethnic people, Africa) 96, 374n6
correspondence, removal from archives 125, 126, 127128
Corri, Domenico 305
Corri, Philip Anthony (Arthur Clifton) 305
cosmopolitanism 218, 297, 338 transnational Kingdom of God
cotton plantations/trade 424 Vann plantation (Cherokee)
counties, parishes vs. 55
country congregations (Landgemeinen) 18, 24, 49, 50
Covid-19 393
crafts/craft production 198, 308, 387388
Cramer, Johann Baptist 305
Cranz, David 397398
Craton, John 96, 109, 115
Crazy Jane (song, Harriet Abrams) 305
The Creation (Joseph Haydn) 8586, 151, 240
copies/manuscripts 151, 152, 154, 154ill., 160161, 161162ill.
performances 24
Bethlehem 151155, 153ill., 156, 157, 159, 160161, 163164
Nazareth 156
New York 152
Pennsylvania 151, 156, 159
Philadelphia 151, 152, 155, 161, 163
Salem 24, 151, 152, 155163, 159ill.
tensions between performers and church authorities 156, 157, 158, 160, 163
score 154, 154ill.
Creative Corridors Coalition 344n63
Creole 96, 381
definition/term 91
creolization 205n29
Crèvecoeur, Hector St. Jean de 194, 198
Crews, C. Daniel 170, 229230
Crompton, Louis 7n14
Cross Creek 340
Crump (name) 385
Crutchfield, Margaret Ann (Cherokee convert/missionary) 427n36, 440, 441n85, 442, 443, 446
Cugoano, Ottobah 433n59
cultural equality 109
cultural immersion 108109
cultural purification
Afro-Caribbeans 2223, 91, 102109, 110111, 112, 115, 116, 117 civilization programs
cultural superiority 50
culture
blending of European Christianity with Native language and 51
Moravian impact on shaping American culture 2 musical tastes ; national holidays
Curry, Myrtle LeEsther Dillard 365
Czechs/Czech refugees 37, 55
Dahomey Fon-Ewe
The Daily Gleaner (newspaper, Salem) 162
Daily Texts (daily practical usage of selected scripture texts) 168
dancing 437
African 113, 114, 115, 116, 438
enslaved people 437, 438
Sabbath dances 114 rhythmic celebrations
Danes 37
Danish Moravian Church 6n10
Danish West Indies 44, 98, 103, 105, 373
Dan River (North Carolina, Virginia) 339, 372, 376, 378, 385 Sauratown
David, Christian (enslaved man) 356, 356n119
David, Rose (enslaved man) 356
Davidson College (North Carolina) 275
Davis, A.J. 275
Davis Center (Salem) 281ill.
Davis, Kortright 97
Davy (enslaved man) 356n119
Day of Humiliation and Prayer 2n2
Day, Mary Ann 287288
Day, Thomas (freeman) 287288
de-Africanization cultural purification
death
as homegoing and mystical union 175 mystical marriage
death penalty 7n14
debts/debt crisis 14, 16, 56, 57, 73, 73n16, 74, 172
Declaration of Independence (August 14, 1776) 75, 197, 236237
de-culturization cultural purification
Delamotte, Charles 66, 67
Delaware (language) 50
Democratic Party (North Carolina) 361
Denke House (Salem) 274
deregulation, of trade and commerce 17, 20
Diamond Hill (Vann Plantation, Cherokee/Georgia) 423, 430, 436, 438, 444, 445
diaries church diaries
Diary of the Small Negro Congregation in and around Salem 351352
Dismal Swamp Company 375
Divine Oratorium (Joseph Haydn) [The]Creation
Dobbs Parish 5455, 71 Wachovia
Dober, Johann Leonhard 5, 6, 6n10, 8, 9
Dober, Martin 395
domestic labor/skills 341, 347348, 427, 436
Donegal (Pennsylvania) 296
Doub, John 82
Doub, Michael (Methodist preacher) 85
Doub, Peter (Methodist preacher) 85
Doub’s Chapel (Bethania) 82, 84, 85, 86
Douglass, Frederick 433, 435
Douthit, James (Methodist minister) 82
Douthit, John (Methodist minister) 82, 338n24
Douthit’s Chapel 82, 85
Dow, Lorenzo (Methodist preacher) 8385
dress 13n41, 130ill., 233
drinking 114, 199, 431, 437
drumming, African 114, 115, 351n104
Dunbar, John (Irish Anglican priest) 390
Dunkers/Dunkards (German sectarian group) 78, 196
Dunmore, Lord (John Murray, Governor of Virginia) 386, 387
Dussek, Jan Ladislav 305
Dutch 37
Dutch Board of Trade 44
Early American Republic 29, 35, 418, 421
Easter 17, 394
Easter Morning/Sunrise Services 393416
Americanization of 394, 401, 403
gender segregation/role of women in 395, 396397n7
at God’s Acre (Salem) 242, 393, 399400, 402, 403, 403n26, 406, 414
hymns 395, 396, 400
languages used 400, 401, 406407, 415
non-Moravian/foreign participation in 242, 400403
origins (Herrnhut) 28, 394399, 397ill.
overcrowding 402403
racial segregation/Black participation 406407, 406n35, 408, 411, 412, 413415
regular Easter services vs. 395
remembrance of the dead 402, 403
Eastern Church, sunrise services 398
Easton (Pennsylvania) 223
eating, racial segregation 315, 324
Ebersdorf (Saxony) 398
economic equality 26, 251, 366, 418n1
economic participation 7, 198
economic status 16
economy 29
economical shift 14, 15, 20, 198, 251, 351
economic viability of enslavement 184
religious conformity vs. 251 industrialization
ecumenism 41, 55, 57, 241242 transnational Kingdom of God
Edinburgh 305
education 285
Black people 405406, 446
curricula 286, 287, 288, 405, 427
enslaved people 105107, 388, 406, 430
Moravian concept/principles of 287
non-Moravians 404, 405 Salem Female Academy/Boarding School for Girls
racial segregation 18, 358359, 359360ill., 405406
sexual 42
of teachers 105, 116 music education ; schools
egalitarianism 26, 41, 149, 224, 245 economic equality ; gendered equality ; religious equality ; social equality ; spiritual equality
Eisenberg, Carl 313314, 317, 323
Elders’ Conference 14
Bethlehem 229n56, 230, 231, 232, 234
Lititz 233
Nazareth 229n56
Salem 2, 19, 158, 167, 228, 341, 411412, 414
Unity Elders’ Conference (Germany) 127128, 129, 215, 233
Election Day 235
Ellis Island (New York Harbor) 202
Ellis, William 312313, 322, 323
Elton, Rev. Romeo 241242
emancipation 45, 95, 9899, 103, 105, 338, 344, 353, 359 freedmen/freedwomen ; Oliver, Peter
Emancipation Laws (1833) 389
Emanuel (enslaved child of Bodney) 346n71
Emmanuel/Immanuel, John (enslaved person) 347, 352
Emmaus (Pennsylvania) 228
England
agricultural practice 376
attitude towards enslavement 390
Moravian mission/congregation in 53, 55, 56, 64, 67, 7374, 222, 291
English colonists/settlers 4, 80, 103, 401
English (language)
in Easter Morning/Sunrise services 400, 401, 406407, 415
education 28, 37, 419, 428429
English-language pieces in Salem Manuscript Book Collection 294, 297
in inventories 320322
as preaching/official Church language 28, 50, 55, 419
translation of German music into 291, 293
English missionaries, German vs. 378
English (people) 37 English colonists/settlers
Enlightenment 41, 405, 406n33, 409410
enslaved people 4, 5, 2829
Americanization 205
Anglican Church and 108, 373, 377
baptism 89, 27, 57, 183184, 203205, 206, 314, 334, 338, 339, 340, 341, 343, 346, 378379, 385, 386, 430, 433, 436n67 Abraham ; Samuel, John
children 341n45, 346n71–72, 430 Michael
conversion 22, 204205, 206, 338, 377, 380, 435, 437
education 105107, 388, 406, 430
entrepreneurship 386
freed freedmen/freedwomen
housing 342ill., 346347, 348, 354356, 357, 358ill., 359360, 360361ill.
at Methodist and Baptist meetings 206207
missions to 12, 40, 4445, 9899, 103, 351, 373
attitude toward missionaries/conversion 377, 378, 386, 420, 438
mixed race/biracial 91, 385, 425, 427, 429
movement of 27, 339, 372, 382, 383384, 385, 390
number held by Moravians 18, 20, 420n5
origins of 9496, 95tab.
ownership/rental of slave ownership/rental
potters 27, 314315, 323324
relation with/treatment by enslavers 374n6, 377, 378, 378379
brutality/abuse/punishment 203, 206, 338n25, 374, 435, 443
intimate relationships between enslaved and enslavers 424
religion as tool for surviving hardship 107, 380381
sexual exploitation 436
social concern for enslaved workers 373375
reproduction 348, 349350
resistance and rebellion by 114, 374, 374n6
escape attempts 204, 337, 386, 446 Michael ; Sambo
spiritual equality 334, 340, 343, 344, 353 Afro-Caribbeans ; Black congregants/congregation ; Black people/communities
enslavement 3, 6, 26
abolition 104, 199, 357, 390 emancipation
apologies from Moravian Church 365, 434
attitude towards/involvement in 8, 910, 21, 4445, 4546, 103104, 183, 199208, 334, 377, 390, 423, 433435
as barrier to conversion 437
by Cherokee 420, 423, 424, 432, 433, 441, 443
chattel slavery vs. indentured servitude 910, 10n28
compatibility with Christianity 45, 103104, 432435
economic viability 184
evolution,
after American Revolutionary War 17, 340359
post-1822 to present 354365
labor market shortages/dependency on enslaved workers 315, 351
opposition 391
relation with civilization 423n18 civilization programs
religion as supporting tool for 9, 10, 40, 45, 108, 377, 382
Single Sisters’ Choir and 183184
(slave ownership) regulations slave ownership/rental chattel slavery ; under individual congregations
enslavers 9, 334, 420
attitude toward evangelization/ Moravian preaching 10, 40, 373, 378, 382
brutality of 435
elevation of 434, 435
Moravian 334335
ownership/rental,
church-ownership/rental 18, 57, 199, 334, 335n16, 337, 339, 346, 346n71–72, 347, 348, 356, 356n119, 357, 433
owning vs. renting enslaved persons 341
private ownership/rental 18, 199, 200, 314, 337n24, 341, 341n45, 347348, 433, 440441
regulations 17, 18, 21, 27, 314315, 331, 348, 349, 351, 353, 354, 355, 390, 408, 411
relation with/treatment of enslaved people 377, 378, 378379
brutality/abuse/punishment 203, 206, 338n25, 374, 435, 436, 443
intimate relationship with enslaved women 424
social concern 373375
start of Moravian role as 27, 334335, 420n5 planters/plantation owners
entanglement, archaeology and 309310, 310n8
entrepreneurship 350
African Americans 360, 361n134
Black congregants/freedmen 360, 385
Cherokee 25, 423424, 423n16
church-owned businesses 199, 311n8, 322
enslaved people 386
Ephesians, 6:57 434
equality economic equality ; gendered equality ; religious equality ; social equality ; spiritual equality
Era of Good Feelings (1817–1825) 237
Ernst, Juliana (deaconess) 170n12
escape of enslaved persons 204, 337, 386, 446
An Essay Upon Plantership […] (Samuel Martin) 374375
Ethiopia 92
Ettwein, Johannes/John (Moravian bishop) 16, 121, 124, 139n5, 225, 227, 410
Etzioni, Amitai 216, 237
Europe
emergence/origins of Christianity 9293
emigration from 208, 384
European colonists/settlers 4, 91, 93
relation with 51 British colonization ; planters/plantation owners
European congregation/congregants 19, 2425, 29
emigration to North America 208, 384
increasing independence/separation of American congregations from 3, 1617, 25, 52, 129, 218, 219, 403, 404
North American vs. 51
values/customs 4, 29
European/Euro-centric Christianity 51, 107
European God White God
European music
introduction of 116, 151, 288289 music education ; [The]Creation
European settlers European colonists/settlers
Evergreen Cemetery (East Winston) 365
Exodus, 13:3 245
exogamy 24, 24n76
F&H Fries Co. (Salem) 357
fachwerk houses half-timbered houses/buildings
Factory Row (Winston-Salem) 255
faience 309, 311, 313314, 317 pottery/potteries
failed missions 4647, 419, 435, 439, 443
familial relationships 14 choirs/choir system
family names, of freedmen/freedwomen 385, 385n32
Fanti-Ashanti (kingdom, West Africa) 95
Farley, Elizabeth Byrd 380, 383, 386387, 390
Farley, Elizabeth Carter 391
Farley family 379, 384
Farley, Francis 27, 339, 372, 374375, 377, 379, 382, 383, 386, 387, 389, 390 Sauratown
Farley, James Parke 339, 379380, 382, 383, 386387, 389, 391
Farley, John Simon 378n15
Farley Plantation (Antigua) 339, 376
baptism at 378379, 384
Farley, Rebecca 379
farmers 19, 20, 25, 82, 198, 374, 376, 383, 387 planters/plantation owners
The Farmer’s Reporter and Rural Repository (Salem newspaper) 162
farms/farming communities 25, 198199, 349
agricultural labor/skills 200, 341, 349350, 374, 377, 427, 436 plantations
fatherland, United States as 2, 2n2, 244, 416
Faull, Katherine 1415
Fayetteville (North Carolina) 82
Fearnly, Mr. Farley, Francis
Federal architecture 26, 251, 268, 272
Federalist Era (1788–1800) 223
Federalists 233
Federal postal service 423
Female Academy (Salem) Salem Female Academy/Boarding School for Girls
Female Teachers Training College (Antigua) 105, 116
Ferguson, Leland 41n18, 363n145, 408n39
Festival of the Mother (Mutterfest) 15
festivals celebrations
Fetter, Jacob 188
Fetter Lane Society 67, 71
Fetter, Marcus 296
Fetter, Salome 287
Fields, Lucy 443
Fifth House (Salem) 256, 316ill., 316n35
figural bottles 311, 321, 322323
finances church finances
financial status of Moravians 7
fine ware (pottery) 312, 313 pottery/potteries
First Amendment 55
The First Fruits (painting, Johann Valentin Haidt) 89, 49ill.
First House (Salem) 261ill.
First Independent Church 305
floor plans (Moravian houses) 261ill., 262263, 264, 265, 273
Flurküchenhaus 260, 261ill., 262, 268
Fogle Brothers Company (Salem) 278
Fogle Flats (Salem) 257
Foltz, Brother 347n75
Foltz, Carol, Rev. 180
Fon-Ewe (kingdom, West Africa, previously Dahomey) 9596
food production 427 agricultural labor/skills ; farms/farming communities
foot washing (pedilavium) 1819, 25, 37, 41, 181, 201, 407
Forde, Maarit 110
Forsyth County 333, 333ill., 356
(enslaved) population 357
foundation 55 Wachovia
Forsyth County Courthouse 274
Foster, Stephen 303
Founding Fathers 418n1
celebration of 221, 223224, 234 Adams, John ; Franklin, Benjamin ; Jefferson, Thomas ; Washington, George
Foundry Society 67
Fourth House (Salem) 256
Fourth of July Independence Day/Fourth of July
Fox, Pauline 286n3, 289, 290, 293, 296
Frank/Franck (enslaved man, “Christian” upon baptism) 335n16, 340, 350
Franklin, Benjamin 6465, 76, 196
Frank Stockton/Mission Society House 316ill., 316n35
Freedmen/Freedwomen 208, 344, 355, 357, 424
housing Happy Hill
land negotiations 358359 Oliver, Peter ; Samuel, Johann
Freedmen’s School (Salem) 358359, 359ill.
freedom
American 3, 2425, 185, 194, 198, 224, 245
definition 192
Indigenous peoples 25
labor market and 185
personal freedom vs. church control 192, 198, 199, 219
religious 47, 69
Single Sisters 185, 187, 189
spiritual 245
white Moravian men 7, 8, 185
women 1416, 185, 187, 189
freed slaves Freedmen/Freedwomen
freemen/freewomen 200, 287288, 340, 385, 430
legal conditions for obtaining freeman/freewoman status 425426
Free Street (Winston-Salem) 352
free villages (Tobago) 103
Fremde Strangers
French 37
French and Indian War (1754-1763) 50, 54, 74, 179, 184, 223
French occupation, Antigua and Tobago 9394
French West Indies 204
Freudenpsalm (Psalm of Joy, Johann Friedrich Peter) 229
Freundlich, Matthäus 1213, 183
Friedberg (North Carolina) 252n1
Black congregation/congregants 201, 407
celebration of national holidays/heroes 241
enslavement 18, 341
farming 199
foundation 331, 331n1
Older Girls’/Single Sisters’ Choir 181, 343
racial segregation 346, 407
Friedland (North Carolina) 252n1
Easter Morning/Sunday services 414
enslavement 341
farming 199
foundation 331, 331n1
Friedrich I (King of Prussia, r. 1701–1713) 238
Friedrich, Tobias 395396
Friedrich Wilhelm III (King of Prussia, r. 1797–1840) 238
Fries, Wilhelm 342ill., 351n101, 355
Fries, Adelaide 139n5, 399400, 400n18, 401
Fries, Francis 20, 274276, 277, 355
house of 274, 275ill.
Fries, John 277
Fries Mill (Salem) 257, 257ill.
From Greenland’s Icy Mountains (hymn) 40
Fulnek (Czech Republic) 398
Galatians, 5:13 245
Galloway, Mr. 373
Gambold, Anna Rosina 428n38, 431n47, 432, 435, 436n67, 443
Gambold, John 292, 296, 420n8, 431n47, 432, 434441, 436n67, 443
Gann, Catherina Maria 440
Gann, Thomas 441
Garden of Eden 24
Gehra, August Heinrich 291n15
Gemeinfeste 220, 239 celebrations
Gemeinhaus (Salem) 2, 57, 58, 179ill., 180, 264, 265ill., 275, 275n23, 337, 352
gender diversity 8n18
gendered equality 351n103, 440 choirs/choir system
gender segregation 48, 57, 166, 206, 259, 351n103, 395, 396397n7 choirs/choir system
General Economy system 14, 15
General Orders 32 (May 21, 1865) 357
Genesis, 3750 35
George III (King of Great Britain and Ireland, r. 1760–1820) 64, 142, 145, 197, 224
George II (King of Great Britain and Ireland, r. 1727–1760) 70
Georgia 53
Methodist missions to/in 6667
Moravian missions to/in 37n7, 40, 53, 56, 6667, 69, 155
failure of 4647, 53, 66, 419, 435, 439, 443 Cherokee ; Oothcaloga ; Springplace
Georgia Compact (1802) 422
Georgian architecture 268
German architecture 278 half-timbered houses/buildings
German-centered Moravianism 102, 103, 107
German colonization 103
German immigrants 195, 196
German (language)
in Easter Morning/Sunrise services 406, 415
in inventories 320322
as preaching language 37, 50
replacement by English in missions/schools 37n7, 419, 428429
German missionaries, English vs. 378
German music/composers 288, 291, 293, 294, 297, 298300tab., 303
German settlers 4, 195
German style houses half-timbered houses/buildings
Germanton (North Carolina) 347
Germany 68, 74, 103, 222, 290
indentured servitude in 10n28
as spiritual center 70, 90, 202 Herrnhut
Gersdorf, Bruno von 216ill.
Geschichte der erneuerten Brüderkirche (Ernst Wilhelm Kröger) 395
Ghent, Treaty of (1814) 234, 247
Gikandi, Simon 18, 411
Gillespie, Michele 3
girls’ schools 38, 287, 352 Salem Female Academy/Boarding School for Girls
Gnadenberg (Silesia) 398
Gnadenfrei (Silesia) 174, 398
Gnadenhütten massacre (Ohio, 1782) 51, 441
Gobineau, Arthur de 410
God the Father
as Creator 41
Euro-centric image/White God 92, 97, 100101, 102, 109, 117
Jesus as God Incarnate 42
godparents 206, 435
God’s Acre (graveyard, Salem) 19, 255, 337, 356
burial of Black congregants 200, 339, 343, 347, 349, 365, 386, 407
Easter Morning/Sunrise services 393, 399400, 402, 403, 403n26, 406, 414
“Negro” God’s Acre 255, 350, 352, 356, 407408, 408n39, 414
God’s Acre (Hutberg, graveyard, Herrnhut) 255, 394396, 396n7, 397ill., 398
Gold Coast 94, 95
Gollin, Gillian Lindt 218
Gothic/Romanesque Revival architecture 278, 279
Göttlich, Bibiana (second wife of Peter Brown) 381, 390
governing bodies 14 Aufseher Collegium ; Elders’ Conference ; Helfer Conferenz fürs Ganze
government positions, legal conditions for 426, 426n29
Grace (freewoman) 430, 443
Graceham (Maryland) 154, 295, 296
celebration of American/national holidays 238, 239, 241
Gracehill Church (Antigua) 105
Graff, Gertraud 170, 170n12, 171
Graff, Johann Michael (Moravian bishop) 372
Grand, Ferdinand 64
Granville, Earl of 7n13, 53, 6971, 74, 75, 76
graveyards 255, 271 God’s Acre ; Parish/Strangers’ Graveyard
Great Awakening (c. 1730–1755) 65, 78, 84
Great Philadelphia Wagon Road 334
Great Seal of the United States 239
“Great Throngs Attend Easter Services” (Winston-Salem Journal, April 16, 1922) 393, 394
Greek Revival architecture 26, 251, 273, 275278, 275278ill.
Green Books (Zinzendorf’s notebooks) 125126
Green Castle (sugar plantation of Samuel Martin, Antigua) 374, 376, 379, 380, 384
Green Corn Festivals (Cherokee) 442
Greenland 40
Green, William A. 107
Greig/Craig, William 268
Grider, Rufus A. 152, 153ill., 154, 161, 163
Griffin, Frances 295
Grosch, Brother 225
Guilford County National Military Park 279n29
Guilford County (North Carolina) 389, 404
Guilford Courthouse 77, 383
gun firing (at celebrations) 230, 231, 232, 233, 236, 238, 241, 246
Gutter, Carrie 130ill., 130n30
Gütter, Heinrich 159
Guyana 363
Hagen, Brother 353
Hagen, F.F. 288
Hahn, Hans-Christoph 217218
Haidt, Johann Valentin 89, 49ill.
Hail, Liberty, Supreme Delight (James Hewitt) 305
Haitian Revolution (1791–1804) 444
Haitian Voodoo 96
Haldeman, Eliza Jacobs 289
half-timbered houses/buildings 260262, 261ill., 263, 264, 266, 266ill., 267, 344, 344n57
Hall, Charlotte 362
Hall, Dr. George (lay pastor) 362
Halle (Saxony) 44, 46
Hall, James 152, 153ill.
Hall, Stuart 109
Hamilton Estate (Tobago) 105
Hamilton, John 98
Hamilton, J. Taylor 9, 16, 19n65
Hamilton, Kenneth G. 9, 16, 19n65
Hammond, James Henry 423n18
Hancock, John 410
Handel, George Frideric 70, 116, 151, 155, 304
Handel and Haydn Society (Boston) 155
Handlin, Oscar 193194
Happy Hill (“Negro Quarter”/Liberia, African American neighborhood, Winston-Salem) 27, 352n106, 353ill., 355, 355n114, 358ill., 359360, 359n131, 360361ill., 360n132, 362, 365 “Negro Quarter” (Salem)
Harry, Cheryl 364n146
Hartley, Martha 27, 255, 359n130, 364n146
Hartley, Michael O. 359n130, 363n145, 364n146
Hasse, C.F. 295
Haube Revolt (Nazareth, 1815) 219, 233
Haudenosaunee (Iroquois, Indigenous tribe/nation) 50
Hauser, Abraham 83
Hauser, Elizabeth 186
Hauser, George 82, 346n71
Hauser, Martin 8283
Hauser, Mary 181182
Hauser, Samuel 83
Hawaiian Islands 308
Hawkins, Benjamin 422, 422n13, 432
Haydn, Joseph 8586, 151, 240, 303, 304 [The]Creation
HCfG Helfer Conferenz fürs Ganze
headdress 130ill., 130n30, 233
Haube Revolt (1815) 219, 233
heathens/heathenism 431
Indigenous peoples 431432, 443
Satan-dominated heathenism 431433, 435, 437438
Hegel, Friedrich 410
Heidegger, Martin 309n5
Helfer Conferenz fürs Ganze (HCfG, Wachovia Provincial Elders Conference) 14, 291, 420, 421n12, 428, 437, 439
Herbst, Brother Johannes 228, 293, 296, 301tab.
Herbst, Heinrich, house of 258, 273
Herbst, Rev. John 437
heresy 41
Hermann, Brother 242
heroes national heroes/figures
Herring, Thomas (Archbishop of Canterbury) 72, 73
Herrnhaag (Hesse) 171172, 173, 398
Single Sisters’ Choir 171, 173, 174
Herrnhut Day 102
Herrnhut (Saxony) 5, 6, 10n28, 19, 44, 56, 121, 127, 231
as center of management 16
choir system 166, 175, 185, 395
church diary 122
cultural conflicts 168169
Easter Morning/Sunrise services 28, 394399, 397ill.
expansion/growth 168
graveyard 255, 394396, 396n7, 397ill., 398
history/foundation 11, 3637, 129
increasing independence of American congregations 17, 25, 129, 167, 202, 218, 219, 403, 404
language spoken 37
refugees/immigrants/residents 11, 37, 131, 173, 398
Saal (worship room) 395396
Single Brothers’ Choir 395
Single Sisters’ Choir 166, 175, 185
Herz, Henri 303304
Hewitt, James 305
Hewitt, John Hill 305
Hick, Brothers 439
Hicks, Charles 428, 428n38, 431, 439, 441
Hicks, George 443n92
Hicks, Sara Bithiah 441, 441n85
highway construction 362
Higman, B.W. 9495, 96
Hildebrand, David 284n1
Hill, Brother/Hill’s 79, 80
Hillsborough/Hillsborough Convention 23, 7778, 144, 146, 389
Historical Notes on Music in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania from 1741 to 1871 (Rufus A. Grider) 152, 153ill.
Historical Sketch of Bethlehem (John Hill Martin) 131
historic dress 13n41, 130ill., 233
historiography
manipulation of 120, 128 archival records ; Bagge, Traugott
Hobsbawm, Eric 220221
Hodder, Ian 309310, 309n5
Hoffman, Robert Hanes 363n145
Hogan, Patrick Colm 221, 235
Holder, Christina 187
holidays national holidays ; religious holidays
Holland 290
Holland, John 316ill., 316n35, 321
Holstein 173
Holy Communion Communion
Holy Spirit, theology of the 15, 168
Home Church (Salem) 265, 268271, 269ill., 269270ill., 277, 279, 281
home rule of congregations 1617
Home, Sweet Home (Henry Rowley Bishop) 304
homonyms 321
homosexuality 7n14
Hood, Walter 344n63
Hook, James 292, 304
Hoosier, Harry 82, 83
Hope (New Jersey) 291, 295296
Hope (North Carolina) 24, 154, 252n1, 347n75
Black congregation/congregants 352, 413
celebration of national holidays/heroes 226, 241
Easter Morning/Sunrise services 414
enslavement 18, 340, 341
farming 199
foundation 331, 331n1, 338n24
Methodists in 78, 80
racial segregation 346
Hopkins, Dwight 100
housekeeping domestic labor/skills
housing
enslaved people 342ill., 346347, 348, 354356, 357, 358ill., 359360, 360361ill.
freemen/freewomen 385
multi-family 257
racial segregation 342ill., 346347, 348, 348349, 359360 Happy Hill
Howard University 372, 372n1
Howe, General 224
Hughes, Geoffrey 2627, 388
human body, celebration of 42
human-thing relations 309310
Hume, David 405, 410
Hund, Wulf D. 10n28
Huntington, Samuel P. 237
Hurrah, Hurrah (Arthur Clifton) 305
hurricane season 380381, 383
Hush ev’ry breeze (James Hook) 304
Hus, Jan 11, 69, 221
Hutberg (graveyard, God’s Acre, Herrnhut) 255, 394396, 396n7, 397ill., 398
Hutton, James I. (head of Moravian Church in England) 6467, 7072, 73n16, 74, 76, 88
Hutton, Joseph E. 35
Hylehurst (Salem) 277
hymn books/hymnals 15, 131, 172173, 246, 290, 295
hymns 38, 50, 65, 108, 174, 176
Black congregation 115, 200, 426n27
celebrating missions 40, 240
Easter Morning/Sunrise services 395, 396, 400
sexual allusions in 72
Singstunde (regular communal gathering of hymn singing) 24
translation into Indigenous languages 50
by Zinzendorf 2324, 42, 54
Ibibio (ethnic people, Africa) 96
Idea fidei fratrum (August Gottlieb Spangenberg) 45
identity African identity ; American identity ; American Moravian identity ; Moravian identity ; religious identity ; transnational identity
Igbo (ethnic people, Africa) 96
Igbo (language) 95
illegitimate children 112113
illuminations 234, 236, 237, 238
Imagined Communities (Benedict Anderson) 220
Imitatio Christi 222 Christocentric theology
Immanuel/Emmanuel, John (enslaved man) 347, 352
Immigration Act (1924) 195
immigration to America 192196, 201202, 203, 208, 421
reputation of German immigrants 196
treatment of Western vs. non-Western 195, 201202, 208
indentured servitude, chattel slavery vs. 910, 10n28
Independence Day/Fourth of July, celebrations 24, 25, 28, 163, 215, 216ill., 221, 229, 233, 235, 236237, 238, 239247, 248
independence of North American congregations 3, 1617, 25, 52, 129, 167, 202, 218, 219, 403, 404
Indian Removal 7, 7n13, 422, 445, 446n97
Indians 228
“civilization” programs by US government 8, 28, 203, 419, 421422, 421n12, 426, 432, 436, 443 Cherokee ; Indigenous peoples
Indian Walk village (Tobago) 112
Indigenous languages
blending of European Christianity with 51
language skills of missionaries 50, 108, 428, 442, 445n97
translation of Bible into 37, 50
Indigenous peoples
Americanization 421
“civilization” programs of US government 8, 28, 203, 419, 421422, 421n12, 426, 432, 436
common grounds/cooperation between missionaries and 422424
conflicts with European settlers 54 French and Indian War
education 405
enslavement of 7n13
freedom 25
gender diversity 8n18
heathenism 431432, 433
mass baptisms 97
missions to 12, 44, 50, 87
removal/subjugation/genocide against 7, 7n13, 8, 97, 421, 445, 446n97 Cherokee
individualism 20, 26, 88, 217, 232, 308
industrialization 256, 308, 324, 350, 360
industry, enslaved labor 351
infrastructure 423
Ingham, Benjamin (Anglican missionary) 66, 67
Ingram, Jeannine 291293, 294, 296
Innovation Quarter (Winston-Salem) 362n142
Instructions for the Members of the Unitas Fratrum who Minister in the Gospel Among the Heathen (Brethren Society, London) 433435, 440
insularity 26, 196, 199, 218, 281, 311, 338
integrated worship 17, 19, 28, 201, 414 racial segregation
International Council on Archives 124
interracial marriage 3, 1213
intimate relationships, between enslaved and enslavers 424
Inuit 40
The Invention of Tradition (Eric Hobsbawm; Terence Ranger) 220221
inventories, language used in 320322
Ireland 374, 374n6
Irish colonists/settlers 4, 401
Iroquois (Haudenosaunee, Indigenous tribe/nation) 50
Isaac (Black multi-lingual speaker) 430
Isaiah
12:4–5 239
54:5 42n25
Islam 57, 204, 372
Isles, Molly 373, 377
Isles, Samuel 98, 373, 377
Jackson, Andrew 432
Jacob, 1:17 226
Jacob, Christian (enslaved African) 436
Jacob (enslaved man) 339
Jacobs, Harriet (enslaved woman) 426n27
Jacobson, Mary 130ill., 130n30
James River (Virginia) 379
James, William 110
Jeffersonian Era (1800–1815) 219, 247
Jefferson, Thomas 234, 234n75, 405, 410, 422
Jena University 44
Jenkinson, Hilary 123
Jennie, Mrs (wife of Joseph Vann) 425, 438
Jerusalem, New, Salem as 22, 38, 47, 56
Jesus
as incarnation of Christ/as God Incarnate 4142
as redeemer of all nations 50 Christ
Jews, discrimination of 426
Jim Crow laws 27, 362
John
1:1–14 41
8:36 245
Jones, Dr. (trustee, University of Raleigh) 404
Jones, Rev. Evan (Baptist) 445
Joseph (biblical patriarch) 35
Joseph (nickname of August Gottlieb Spangenberg) 35
Judeo-Christianity, connection with Black people 92
jumbies (mythological spirits/demons) 110
Jupiter (enslaved man, “Paul” upon baptism) 337338n24, 340
Just, Johann August 296
Kalinagos (Caribs) 93
Kant, Immanuel 405, 406n33, 410
Kaske Biefel Bachhoff Schmidt, Rosina 170n12, 173174, 176177
Kentucky, Methodists in 80
Ketelaar, Eric 124, 129
Kettner family 174
Kiel University 410
kilns 26, 309, 311, 314, 316320, 316ill., 316n35, 320ill.
excavations 317320
“Kinder-Reden” (Count Zinzendorf) 11, 11n33
Kingdom of God, transnational 8, 20, 29, 35, 37, 50, 55, 57, 108, 416
kinship-based multigenerational religious networks (Cherokee) 440, 442, 444
Kirton-Roberts, Winelle 22, 27, 351n104, 381, 390
Kiss of Peace 1819, 25, 37, 201, 407
Knox, Heather 364n146
Knox, Robert 410
Kohnova, Marie 419, 430
Kongo (country) 9596
Kongo (ethnic people, West Central Africa) 96
Kramsch, Brother 347n75, 401
Kramsch née Langgaard, Susanna Elizabeth 297, 298tab., 301tab., 303
Krause, Anna Maria 174, 175, 176, 185
Krause, Johann Gottlob 265, 267269, 271, 341n45
Krause, J. Samuel 153ill., 153n10
Krause, Mary 130ill., 130n30
Kreuser, Conrad 342ill., 348, 349, 352, 352n106, 352n107, 353354ill.
Kreuzgemeinschaft (community of the cross) 103
Krispy Kreme (donut company, Salem) 256
Kröger, Ernst Wilhelm 395
Kush 92
Kushke, Johanna Maria 188
labor/labor conditions
potteries 311316
rules controlling labor and wages 192
as spiritual practice 20 agricultural labor/skills ; domestic labor/skills ; plantations
labor market 184
freedom and 185
Salem 331, 335, 347, 360, 387388
shortages 264, 331, 335, 347
Labrador (Canada) 122, 308n2
Lafayette, Marquis de 223224
Laforey, James 379
Lancaster (Pennsylvania) 51, 296
celebration of national holidays/heroes 226227, 242, 245
land acquisition/land transactions 20, 35, 53, 68, 87, 198
Cherokee territory 422
from Earl of Granville 7n13, 53, 6971, 74, 75, 274
purchase of land as collective entity 146 Wachovia Tract
land confiscation 7n13, 25
during American Revolution 6465, 7576, 77, 146147 Indian Removal
Land of Eden (estate, Virginia) 376, 377378 Sauratown
Landgemeinen (country congregations) 18, 24, 49, 50
land lease 252, 335, 347
land owners/ownership 22, 6465, 6869, 75
Black congregation 359360, 362n138
private control of properties 256, 257, 278 land acquisition/land transactions
Langgaard, Susanna Elizabeth Kramsch née Langgaard, Susanna Elizabeth
language
bi-/multilingualism 200, 427n36, 430
blending of European Christianity with Native culture and 51
Indigenous 37, 50
language skills of missionaries 50, 108, 428, 442, 445n97
preaching 37, 37n7, 50, 55
Lanier, Robert 339
Larson, John 363n145
Lasst uns heute froh und selig sein (composition) 297
LaTrobe, Christian Ignatius 9, 289, 302tab.
Latvians 37
Laurens, Henry 410
Lawatsch, Anna Maria 171n14
Leade, Jane 37
leadership 14, 234
European-born vs. American-born Moravians 25, 29
Single Sisters’ Choirs 186, 188
women 1416, 3839, 126127, 168, 169171, 173, 175, 440, 443
Lebenslauf biographies
Leeward Islands 93, 94, 373
Lehigh River (Pennsylvania) 232
Leinbach, Edward, house of 274, 276
Leinbach, Elisabeth 188
Leinbach, Henry 5, 6, 8, 19, 20
Leipzig 50, 284
Lemly, Ned (freedman) 360
Lenape (Indigenous tribe/nation) 47, 51, 441
Lesley, Anna Elisabeth 440
Lesley, Betsy 443
Lesser Antilles 93
letters correspondence
Letters from an American Farmer (Hector St. Jean de Crèvecoeur) 194
Levering, Joseph Mortimer (Moravian bishop) 246
Lewis (Black Methodist preacher) 207
Liberia (“Negro Quarter”/Happy Hill, African American neighborhood, Winston-Salem) 27, 352n106, 353ill., 355, 355n114, 359360, 359n131, 360361ill., 360n132, 362, 365 “Negro Quarter” (Salem)
liberty freedom
Licorish, Lydia 90
Liebes Bächlein fliesse hin (Jacob Van Vleck) 297
Linden Hall (Lititz) 289
Lindsay House (London) 73
Lineback, Edward 163
Lister, William 377
litanies 15, 115, 176, 222, 397
Easter 400, 402, 402n26, 406, 415
recognition of secular authorities in 222, 246
translation into Indigenous languages 50
Litany of the Wounds 50
literacy
anti-literacy laws (North Carolina) 406
utilization of missions to acquire 441n85
Lititz Manuscript Book Collection 293
Lititz (Pennsylvania) 152, 154, 295
celebration of national holidays 223, 230, 238, 239, 240, 246
observation/celebration of national holidays/heroes 228, 233, 238
schools 287, 289
liturgical life/traditions 17, 38, 114115
loan words 321
lobbying 425
Locke, John 410
log buildings/structures 255, 263, 352n106, 353ill.
log church (Salem) 352353, 352n106, 353354ill., 357, 358ill., 363, 363n145 St. Philips Moravian Church
London 67, 73, 88, 304
London Philharmonic Society 305
Loskiel, Georg Heinrich (Moravian bishop) 8n18, 215, 233
the Lot (drawing of Scripture passages to determine major decisions) 52, 168
buying enslaved people 334
determining location of settlements 56
marriage and Communion 17, 38, 176178
Lott, R. Allen 303304
Louis XVI (King of France, r. 1774–1792) 64
Lovefeast Ode (Johann Friedrich Peter) 240
lovefeasts/Agape meals 37, 41, 44, 54, 67, 72, 116, 236, 242, 338, 357, 364, 414
Love, James 82
Lower Towns/Lower Cherokee 431n47, 445
Lowrance, Margaret 360n132
Loyalists 65, 75, 140, 148
Luckenbach, Abraham 236237
Ludwig of Denmark, Count 10n28
Lutheran Church/Lutherans 51, 55, 242
Luther, Martin 221222
McAllister, Grant 28, 242
McClinton, Rowena 440
McCorkle, Donald M. 163
McCullough, Thomas J. 25, 28
McDonald, Sally 440, 441n85
McKnight, George 8082
McKnight’s Chapel 80
McNair, David 420n8
McNair, Delila Amalia 440, 443
Magdalene (enslaved woman, wife of Andreas, “Popo”/“Beulah” before baptism) 183
magic 381
Mahican (Indigenous tribe/nation) 47
Main Hall (Salem Academy) 264, 266, 274275, 276ill.
Main Street (Salem) 256, 260, 272, 273, 273ill., 274, 276, 317, 318, 337
Mandingo/Mandinka (Malinke, ethnic people, Africa) 96, 204, 386
Maria (enslaved woman, “Iddy” before baptism) 340
Marienborn (Saxony) 177, 398
marriage 167
abusive/violent husbands 442443
arranged 38, 178
Cherokee women 441, 442443
drawing lot for 17, 38, 176178
interracial 3, 1213
mystical (Christ as Bridegroom) 42, 168, 171, 172, 174, 175176, 178, 181182, 189
to non-Moravians 24, 178, 185, 188
separation of husbands and wives choirs/choir system ; Married Persons’ Choirs
sexual intimacy 4243, 48
Single Sisters 24, 173, 176178, 183184, 185, 186, 188, 189
weddings 218
Married Persons’ Choirs 4344, 48, 54, 188, 258, 259
Marshall, Frederic William von (chief administrator of Wachovia settlements) 2, 175, 196, 332, 339
marriage 177178
Methodists and 7879
planning/construction of Salem 56, 335
building rules 260
civic planning/design 253, 268, 269ill., 344n57
on Salem pottery 314
securing land deeds 22, 7678
Marshall, Hedwig Elisabeth von 175, 177178, 177178n44, n46
Martin, Friedrich 1213
Martin, Alexander (Governor of North Carolina) 403
Martin, John Hill 131
Martin, Josiah (Governor