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Figures
2.1 Nikolaus Ludwig Count von Zinzendorf, 1700–1760. (Artist: Balthasar Denner, 1731, scanned from Die großen Deutschen im Bilde by Michael Schönitzer, 1936) 36
2.2 Anna Nitschmann as a Single Sister, 1715–1760. (Moravian Church Archives, Bethlehem, PA) 39
2.3 August Gottlieb Spangenberg, 1704–1792. (Unitätsarchiv, Herrnhut, Germany) 43
2.4 First Fruits by Johan Valentin Haidt, 1700–1780. (Moravian Church Archives, Bethlehem, PA) 49
5.1 “Working the Pulaski Banner in the Costume of that Day,” photograph of a group of Moravian women in historic dress sewing a banner for General Pulaski, 1865. (Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, GriderColl.f.29.1) 130
7.1 List of orchestra personnel for the 1811 performance of The Creation in Bethlehem. Rufus A. Grider, Historical Notes on Music in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania from 1741 to 1871 (1873), p. 6 153
7.2 Johann Friedrich Peter, signature on a copy of the score for Haydn’s Creation (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Haertel, 1803), cover page. Bethlehem, Moravian Music Foundation, Philharmonic Society of Bethlehem (PSB), 17.1a, Supp. Reproduced with permission of the Moravian Music Foundation 154
7.3 Newspaper Advertisement, Weekly Gleaner, Salem, North Carolina, 1 June 1829 159
7.4A–B Watermarks in J. F. Peter’s parts for The Creation: 4a. “vase and flower,” violino primo part, Winston-Salem, Moravian Music Foundation, SCM 12. 4b. “E S G”; violin secondo part, idem. Reproduced with permission of the Moravian Music Foundation 161
7.5A–B Joseph Haydn, The Creation (Die Schöpfung), violino primo parts, p. 1. 5a. Bethlehem, Moravian Music Foundation, PSB 17.1a. 5b. Winston-Salem, Moravian Music Foundation, SCM 12. Reproduced with permission of the Moravian Music Foundation 162
8.1 Drawing of Salem Square, showing the Gemeinhaus on the center left, where the Single Sisters first lived. Illustration courtesy of Salem Academy and College Archives 179
8.2 Picture of the 1786 Single Sisters House with later addition on the right. Courtesy of Salem Academy and College Archives 180
10.1 Depiction of a Fourth of July picnic on Sand Island in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Pen and Wash on Paper by Bruno von Gersdorf, Bethlehem 1841; Edmund de Schweinitz Papers, No. 8.130. B, Moravian Archives, Bethlehem 216
11.1 Detail from Salem Territory, April 1777. Drawn by Philip Gottlieb Reuter. Map reproduction courtesy of Moravian Archives, Southern Province, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA 253
11.2 ‘Project A-Ideal plan.’ Drawn by Philip Gottlieb Reuter. 1759. Map reproduction courtesy of Unity Moravian Archives, Herrnhut, Germany 254
11.3 Sanborn fire insurance map of area around Fries Mill. Salem, NC, April 1907 (page 30). Sanborn Fire Insurance Company, Teaneck, New Jersey, 1907 257
11.4 Dr. Benjamin Vierling House, built in 1800. Photo by author (2020) 259
11.5 Half timbered houses (from left to right First house, 3rd House, 4th House, and 5th House). Photo by author (2022) 261
11.6 Plan for First house. Illustration reproduced courtesy of Moravian Archives, Southern Province, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA 261
11.7 Illustration of clay tile roof. From Lorenz Johann Daniel Suckow, Erste Gründe der Bürgerlichen Baukunst [The Principal Basis of Civil Architecture] (Jena: C. H. Cuno, 1763) 262
11.8 Elevation of Salem’s Gemeinhaus. Illustration reproduced courtesy of Moravian Archives, Southern Province, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA 265
11.9 Single Brothers’ House, built 1769 with 1786 brick addition. Photo by author (2020) 266
11.10 Fredric William Marshall elevation for Home Church. Illustration reproduced courtesy of Moravian Archives, Southern Province, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA 269
11.11 Home Church, built in 1800. Photo by author (2020) 270
11.12 John Vogler House, built in 1819. Photo by author (2020) 272
11.13 Nineteenth century view of east side of S. Main Street, Butner in center; note porches over sidewalk on other buildings. Photo reproduced courtesy of Moravian Archives, Southern Province, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA 273
11.14 Francis Fries House, built in 1840. “E.F. Small View of Salem, 1882.” Photo reproduced courtesy of Old Salem Museums & Gardens, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA 275
11.15 Main Hall, built 1856. Photo by author (2020) 276
11.16 Belo House, built 1849 with alterations through 1859. Photo by author (2020) 277
11.17 Cedarhyrst, built 1895. Photo by author (2020) 278
11.18 Calvary Moravian, 1889 sanctuary. Photo reproduced courtesy of Old Salem Museums & Gardens, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA 280
11.19 Calvary Moravian, built 1926. Photo by author (2020) 280
11.20 Davis Center, Moravian Archives, Southern Province, built in 2004. Photo by author (2020) 281
12.1 First edition Beethoven 6th, Moravian Music Foundation 285
12.2 First Edition Star Spangled Banner, Moravian Music Foundation 286
13.1 Lot 38. Aerial view of Lots 38, 39, 48, and 49. Aerial photograph and tax parcel data set from Open Winston-Salem wsoic.cityofws.org 316
13.2 1811 Kiln. The 1811 kiln bisected during archaeological fieldwork. Photo by author 320
14.1 Wachovia Tract in 1773. Grundriss von der Wachau in North Carolina Philip Christian Gottlieb Reuter, 1773, Unity Archives, Herrnhut, Germany 332
14.2 Wachovia in Forsyth. City/County Planning Board Basemap, 2001, with overlays and color by the author and M.O. Hartley, 2003. The Wachovia Tract is shown within Forsyth County, and the Moravian land is the core of the county structure established in 1849. Wachovia developed into the city of Winston-Salem, and the city limits (in pink) nearly fill the Wachovia Tract. 333
14.3 Salem Town Lot, 1774. Daz ganze Territorium von Salem Philip Christian Gottlieb Reuter, 1774, Moravian Archives, Winston-Salem 336
14.4 Activity “out of town”. Salem Town Lot, Nov. 1771, Tracing by Archivist Adelaide L. Fries Copied from A.F. Scrapbook D57C, Moravian Archives, Winston-Salem; indicated locations by author 342
14.5 Wachovia growth by 1804. Wachovia Frederic Christian Meinung, 1804, Unity Archives, Herrnhut, Germany 345
14.6 View to Kreuser’s farm from Schumann’s farm. Salem from the Southeast Daniel Welfare, oil on board, 1840, Wachovia Historical Society 353
14.7 Salem Landscape in the 1830s. Salem from the west watercolor (detail), unknown artist, 1832, Moravian Archives, Winston-Salem 354
14.8 Salem landscape in the 1860s. Henry Lineback, ca. 1865, Wachovia Historical Society 358
14.9 Freedmen’s School. Unknown photographer, ca. 1870, Old Salem, Inc. 359
14.10 Liberia or Happy Hill across the creek from Salem in 1876. Map of Salem and Winston, North Carolina (detail) E.A. Vogler, 1876, Moravian Archives, Winston-Salem 360
14.11 Happy Hill across the creek from the African Church (St. Philips) in Salem in 1891. Bird’s Eye View of the Twin Cities Winston-Salem, NC (detail) Ruger & Stoner, 1891, Moravian Archives, Winston-Salem 361
14.12 St. Philips Moravian Church, S. Church Street, Winston-Salem, NC. Photograph by author, 2009 364
16.1 Ostern. Easter Morning service at Herrnhut. An engraving from 1757. (Moravian Archives, Bethlehem) 397
Tables
4.1 Black and White populations in Antigua and Tobago in 1775 94
4.2 African population in Antigua and Tobago by 1834 95
4.3 Moravian church membership in Antigua and Tobago, 1774–1967 100
12.1a Salem manuscript book 298
12.1b Salem manuscript book 299
12.1c Salem manuscript book 300
12.2 Moravian composers 301
Graph
4.1 Moravian church membership 100
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