Global energy governance has received growing attention in international affairs, and there is now widespread recognition among scholars and policymakers that the existing institutional architecture is inadequate. International relations scholars have pointed to institutional failures such as the
Human-induced climate change is primarily caused by carbon emissions from power and industry sectors. 1 Accordingly, one of the key solutions to climate change lies in the energy transition from carbon-intensive fossil fuels to carbon-neutral renewable energy (RE) sources
A great variety of energy-related activities is carried out at sea. First, one may think of the exploitation of traditional energy sources (such as oil, gas and minerals) and second, of the renewable energy sources (such as wind, solar, tidal and wave). The growing demand for
Since the conclusion of the 1985 trade and cooperation agreement between the European Community and China, a new political dynamic has been set in motion between two emerging entities: industrializing China and integrating Europe. It is reflected in, among others, European Commission policy strategy papers and, probably more importantly, in numerous sectoral dialogues and agreements. Europe has become China’s largest export destination. For the E.U., China has become its second largest trading partner and its most important source of imports.
The book edited by Mehdi Parvizi Amineh and Yang Guang studies the fueling of this Eurasian production and trading system. This is the policy area of energy supplies and energy security. Cooperation on the basis of complementarity is rather easy. Cooperation in the competition for access to, and share in, non-renewable stocks of oil and gas is more challenging. This book studies a series of bilateral energy relations (Part One) in a global-level, geo-political framework. Policy outcomes in bilateral relations are impacted by multi-lateral networks. Part Two surveys the quest for renewable energy, which is the core of supply security. China has created the largest solar panel production facility. It is capable of producing light-weight magnets used in, among others, wind-power generators and hybrid car engines. This year China is expected to overtake the U.S. as the largest producer of wind turbines. China’s step-by-step reduction of the gap in wealth and power with countries that overran it in the past has so far been remarkably peaceful. We know in both Europe and China all too well that trend-driven change in capability ratios between great powers does not by necessity harmonize well with leadership responses to it. By charting the domain of the energy competition, this book marks an important contribution to the rationalization of energy policy as an area of competitive cooperation.
— Henk Houweling, Instructor at the
Europe Institute of the University of Macao
Contributors are Mehdi Parvizi Amineh, Robert M. Cutler, Chen Mo, Eva Patricia Rakel, Daniel Scholten, Philip Sen, Raquel Shaoul, Frank Umbach, Eduard B. Vermeer, Shi Dan, and Yang Guang.
Energy lies at the core of every human activity and can be described as having a pervasive influence on all aspects of development—social, economic, and environmental—including livelihoods, access to water, agricultural productivity, health, population levels, education, and
Energy trade is an essential economic component of the relationship between the European Union ( eu ) and Russia. Russia is the eu ’s main external supplier of fossil fuels, providing approximately 30 percent of the Union’s oil and coal imports and over one third of its natural gas imports.
The soil food web includes three energy pathways, i.e. , root, bacterial and fungal (Moore & Hunt, 1998; Moore et al. , 2003). Energy flow via living roots through a grazing food chain depends on herbivores; energy flow via litter and detritus are through a decomposer food web depending on
else to blame, all errors are exclusively mine.
The regulation of energy in international law is extremely fragmented and its study admittedly in its youth. 1 The reasons for this are manifold, and can inter alia be sought in: 1) the lack of cohesiveness of the energy governance