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The soil food web includes three energy pathways, i.e. , root, bacterial and fungal (Moore & Hunt, 1998; Moore et al. , 2003). Energy flow via living roots through a grazing food chain depends on herbivores; energy flow via litter and detritus are through a decomposer food web depending on

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Nematology , 2000, Vol. 2(5), 551-559 Energy metabolism and its relation to survival and infectivity of infective juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae under aerobic conditions Lihong Q IU and Robin B EDDING * CSIRO Entomology, PO Box 1700, ACT 2601, Australia Accepted for publication:31 May

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eucaryote feeders (both with e = 21). Probably, bacterial feeders need remarkable strength to suck bacteria adhering to the soil granules, and also the omnivores and the animal predators need some energy to ingest big prey. Unicellular eucaryote feeders, being mostly aquatic, need less energy to ingest food

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exploited to the fullest extent rather than being deposited as unwanted material in landfill. The most effective final uses of such waste products need to be identified. In biogas energy plants, various substrates, either energy crops ( e.g. , maize silage) or waste organic matter ( e.g. , food waste or

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is well known that lipids are the main energy source of plant-parasitic nematodes until they reach and infect their host (Lee & Atkison, 1977; Van Gundy, 1985). Stored energy, as measured by lipid content, is extremely important to nematode parasitism and life cycle completion. Therefore, to

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the eggshell in combination with microwave fixation to study the cuticle of unhatched second-stage juveniles (J2). However, a typical kitchen microwave lacks the control of energy levels, and a very sophisticated scientific microwave oven would be needed to provide sufficient control of energy levels

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-feeding communities. The CI assesses the primary decomposition pathway of soil, where a value of 100 is being completely fungal and a value of 0 is completely bacterial. Similar information provides the Nematode Channel Ratio (NCR) as defined by Yeates (2003), where the relative activity of the bacterial-based energy

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crisis because of its efficient production of food energy, year-round availability, tolerance to extreme stress conditions and suitability for small holder systems in Africa (Hahn, 1996). Among starchy staple crops, cassava provides a carbohydrate production approximately 40% higher than rice and 25

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reduces the fresh root mass of plants (Chinnasri et al ., 2006). This can be explained by the fact that every attempt at inducing resistance has a metabolic cost to the plant. When the plant undergoes a treatment to induce resistance against a particular pathogen it mobilises part of its energy, destined

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.N. ( 2011 ). Effect of temperature and time on the survival and energy reserves of juveniles of Meloidogyne spp. Agricultural Science Research Journal 1 , 102 - 112 . de Mendiburu , F. ( 2016 ). Statistical procedures for agricultural research. Package ‘agricolae’. http

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