This article analyzes the role played by the 1940s discovery of dawn redwood (Shuishan , Metasequoia glyptostroboides) in the construction of a modern Chinese national identity, as manifested in Chinese intellectual and popular discourse from the second half of the twentieth century to the present day. As the shuishan was transformed from a distinct biological species into an iconic national species, modern China as an ‘imagined community’ was forged in three dimensions. Spatially, the emerging national space was anchored in the world of nations; the temporal scale was redefined, and Chinese history projected back into deep time; and through the attribution of moral qualities to the tree, the ressentiment arising from the late development of nationalism was reaffirmed but also countered.
Compared with prototypical universal quantifiers in other languages of the world, dou in Mandarin Chinese presents more complicated semantic behaviors. One of the most disputed issues is what are the relations between dou expressing “universal quantification” (uq) and dou expressing “scalar trigger” (sca). First-hand data that comes from 40 languages demonstrates that Mandarin Chinese is the only language that employs the same form for “universal quantification” and “scalar trigger”. The empirical evidence strongly suggests that uqdou and scadou are different, and the two functions uq and sca lack universal conceptual correlations. The special polysemous behavior of Mandarin dou, is proved to come from two language-specific reanalysis processes in dou’s diachronic development which also supports the two-dou claim. The study thus instantiates how a cross-linguistic perspective provides insights to explain long-standing language-particular issues. Besides, it is also argued that the cross-linguistic approach is promising in predicting if a future research is on a right track as it can steer us through overgeneralization and undergeneralization.
The proliferation of social media in China has provided traditional religious authorities with multifarious digital features to revitalise and reinforce their practices and beliefs. However, under the authoritative political system different religions pick up the new media to varying degrees, thereby showing different characteristic and style in their social media use. This paper examines the public discourse about Buddhism and Christianity (two of the great official religions in China) on China’s largest microblogging platform-Sina Weibo, and seeks to reveal a distinct landscape of religious online public in China. Through a close look at the social media posts aided by a text analytics software, Leximancer, this paper comparatively investigates several issues related to the Buddhism and Christianity online publics, such as religious networks, interactions between involved actors, the economics and politics of religion, and the role of religious charitable organizations. The result supports Campbell’s proposition on digital religion that religious groups typically do not reject new technologies, but rather undergo a sophisticated negotiation process in accord with their communal norms and beliefs. It also reveals that in China a secular Buddhism directly contributes to a prosperous ‘temple economy’ while tension still exists between Christianity and the Chinese state due to ideological discrepancy. The paper further points out the possible direction for this nascent research field.
In the nineteenth century, classical liberalism originated from Britain. Nearly all the countries across the globe had benefited from the liberal international economic order (LIEO) under the Pax Britannia. However, the United States has never taken in classical liberalism. Rather, it regards international trade as a “zero sum game” and upholds “fair trade” through the international institution of WTO/GATT. From the British free trade to the U.S. fair trade, from the WTO to the fragmented PTAs, and from free trade to protectionism, classical liberalism has been gradually fading away. The higher standards on the various non-tariff issues in the TPP have reached a new altitude against classical liberalism. In face of the high-standard trade rules in the 21st century, China should not follow them recklessly but give due consideration to the status quo of its economic development when negotiating FTAs in the future.
This paper argues that failure to deeply understand various existing organizations of university-industry technology transfer in China impedes the progress of both practice and research on technology transfer between university and industry in that country. In response, it attempts to categorize different types of university technology transfer organizations in China in over a 30-year time span and analyze the relations between these organizations. In so doing, Tsinghua University is taken as an example for analysis, because technology transfer at Tsinghua University can be seen as a microcosm of university-industry technology transfer in China with pioneer practices and successful experience to be followed by other universities in China. The analysis is guided by an analytical framework, constructed by integrating the insights from relevant literature. The framework distinguishes between different forms of university technology transfer organizations by focusing on six dimensions of the organizational characteristics. After identifying eight types of university technology transfer organizations in Tsinghua University with detailed descriptions of their respective organizational characteristics, the paper further groups them into a four-category typology. Besides its contribution in constructing a framework to understand university technology transfer organizations in the Chinese context, the paper also solicits suggestions for Chinese and international stakeholders who may potentially cooperate with Chinese research universities in research, development, and innovation.
To improve the effectiveness of science teacher training, with regard to the impact of Chinese culture on teachers’ views on the nature of science (VNOS), a nationwide survey of primary science teachers was performed in China in 2013. The primary findings showed that the participants could be classified into four groups through cluster analysis according to their characteristics of classic VNOS and modern VNOS among the groups: the Ambiguous group (AG), Post-modernist group (PG), Classic group (CG) and Modern group (MG). Despite slight uncertainty between the CG and MG, the scores of VNOS knowledge application in both daily life and classroom teaching increased largely from the AG, PG, and CG to the MG, and the differences in these scores among the four groups were statistically significant. These findings seem to imply that the post-modernist stage occurs prior to the classic stage in certain Chinese teachers’ VNOS development, which notably contrasts with the historical processes of both science and science teacher training practices in developed countries. Moreover, the AG and PG had the longest training times among the four groups, which might indicate that science teacher training programmes in China were ineffective for these teachers. Unlike in Western countries, Chinese traditional culture lacks basic elements of scientific concepts. The society has not experienced the entire process of the development of science. Thus, Chinese teacher training programmes should pay attention to the progression from the classic VNOS to the modern VNOS and should be cautious of the “step-over development” approach.
Following decades of fast growth in China’s power sector, underpinned by considerable investment in coal-fired generation, in recent years there has been a decisive move towards increasing energy supply that is climate and environmentally friendly. In order to meet this policy agenda, a number of regulatory mechanisms have been established to support and further the implementation of China’s Renewable Energy Law. A key feature of these regulatory developments has been increased regulation and enforcement of the obligation to ensure priority access of renewable energy to the power grid and full purchase of renewable energy generation. In practice, however, utilising electricity generation from renewable sources has been significantly curtailed. This article analyses whether the law and policy frameworks provide sufficient support and protection to ensure priority access of renewable energy in China. By considering relevant Chinese law cases, this article also provides insights into the judicial and regulatory practices in relation to curtailment disputes, particularly the limited transparency of the mediation process and the challenges faced by renewable energy generators in bringing cases to court.