The coral-eating barnacle Hoekia monticulariae (Gray, 1831), the only internal parasite among the Thoracica described to this day, is characterized by an irregularly-shaped shell nestled cryptically between the polyps of the hermatypic coral Hydnophora Fischer, 1807, which occurs throughout most of the Indo-West Pacific. Because of its protean form, cirripedologists have failed to appreciate the diversity of taxa related to Hoekia, a presumed monotypic genus. We describe seven new species divided between Hoekia and three new genera, Eohoekia, Parahoekia, and Ahoekia for which the Tribe Hoekiini is proposed. As in other pyrgomatids, calcareous overgrowth by the coral is inhibited around the edge of the wall and aperture. But in Hoekiini a pseudopolyp, upon which the barnacle feeds with modified trophi, covers the wall and aperture. Furthermore, rather than articulating with a calcareous basis, the wall is suspended in coral tissue. Its hypertrophied lateral margin ( = basal margin), in contact with the host’s tissue, is the site where metabolic activities are inferred to take place. In Hoekia and Ahoekia, the wall develops simple or connecting tubes that lead to openings in the margin, which serve as circulatory pathways. A hypertrophied margin and elaborated circulatory system suggests that the Hoekiini may not be wholly dependent on feeding directly on host tissue and/or coelenteronic material, but may also be absorptive parasites. Although other pyrgomatids, in the tribes Pyrgopsellini nov. and Pyrgomatini nov., exercise some control over their hosts by an apertural frill and through discontinuities between the shell and basis, they are still planktotrophic.
Arnold Ross and William A. Newman
Edited by William A. Pettigrew and David Veevers
James Zhan, Hafiz Mirza and William Speller
William Thomas Worster
This submission challenges the presumption that uk nationals will lose eu citizenship following Brexit. Until now, the dominant narrative has been drawn from the law on treaties or international organizations, and this article adds the human rights perspective to Brexit. Firstly, eu citizenship can be assimilated to nationality. While eu citizenship is unique, the status protected under international law is a legal bond a person has with a political entity. This protection certainly covers nationality, and this paper argues it can be understood to also protect eu citizenship. Secondly, international law prohibits arbitrary withdrawal of this legal bond with a person. The uk does not have jurisdiction over eu citizenship, so it is doubtful the uk can terminate eu citizenship unilaterally. Even if the eu were to withdraw eu citizenship on its initiative, it would still constitute retroactive law, discrimination, and infringement of sovereignty. It is also disproportionate, because the loss of eu citizenship is not necessary for Brexit. When Greenland withdrew from the eu, its residents retained eu citizenship. For these reasons, the revocation of eu citizenship would be arbitrary. A distinction must be made between the membership of a state in the eu which can be terminated, and the direct legal bond formed between a person and the Union, which is far harder to revoke. On this basis, any uk national who has acquired eu citizenship prior to Brexit, should not be divested of it following Brexit.
William Shear, Jean-Claude Gall and Paul Selden
William R. Fowler and Jeb J. Card
The Conquest-period and early colonial site of Ciudad Vieja, the ruins of the first villa of San Salvador, El Salvador, affords a view of material culture encounters and indigenous transformations in northern Central America. Archaeological research on Ciudad Vieja has focused on material culture evidence of encounters between Spanish and indigenous populations including landscape, architecture, technology, economy, society, and religion. Ciudad Vieja was settled during the Conquest and occupied through the mid-sixteenth century. We evaluate subsequent developments from investigations of the indigenous town of Caluco, in the Izalcos region of western El Salvador, during the last quarter of the sixteenth century. A theoretical framework inspired by Bourdieu’s structural theory of practice allows for intepretation of differing strategies of practice during the Early Spanish Colonial period. The early “Spanish” community of San Salvador, potentially located on an already ancient Mesoamerican ritual site, was an incubator of experimentation and transformation of Mesoamerican roles and identities. By the time of Caluco’s colonial community in the late sixteenth century, practices and structures found in later Latin American communities, built on tensions between indigenous communities and state extraction, were increasingly apparent.