work Astrologer’s Predictions 1899 , and it measures 9½ inches (24.1 cm) high by 5¼ inches (23.5 cm) wide, giving it the typical oblong shape of traditional Chinese books. The paper is handmade and unbleached, leaving it a yellowish or tan color, and it was cut using traditional methods as shown by
A Critical Perspective on Cognitive Grammaticalization Theory
Through primary sources and a large cross-linguistic sample, Fløgstad convincingly shows that the expansion of a Preterit is not rare in the languages of the world. This finding challenges the prevailing view in historical morphosyntax, and especially in usage-based grammaticalization theory, namely the alleged preference for analytic over synthetic forms, and the possibility of prediction based on the source meaning in grammaticalization.
This book is fully available in Open Access.
S.J. White, T.J. Kells and A.J. Wilson
voles ( Microtus oeconomus ) and common lizards ( Zootocai vipara ) (Lantová et al., 2011 ; Le Galliard et al., 2013 ; Gifford et al., 2014 ). A possible reason for the mixed support for the predictions of POLS is that, while most studies to date have focused on basal, resting or standard metabolic
Evangelia K. Asproudi
grammaticality of the produced negative interrogatives. As a result, negation is an important constraint which is operative in the acquisition of interrogatives by children. The Study The predictions stated with reference to oti , na and negation during the acquisition of interrogatives
Georg F.K. Höhn, Giuseppina Silvestri and M. Olimpia Squillaci
separate structural positions. This leads to the prediction mentioned in section 2 that nominal person marking should be able to occur in non-definite contexts in languages with this type of structural independence of person and definiteness (see also Höhn 2017: ch. 4). This is systematically attested in
Third Lecture on Fascism – Amsterdam – 22 March 2019
1 The ‘National Socialism’ of Fascism 1 In the entry on ‘Fascism’ published in 1932 in the newly created Enciclopedia Italiana , Benito Mussolini made a prediction. He wrote that just because the nineteenth century was one of socialism, liberalism and democracy, there was no reason for the
C. Anton Rytting
connection between hiatus and formality ( contra Nyman 1981), and that this awareness may play a role in favoring hiatus not predicted by declensional class for less frequent items, consistent with Petrounias’ (1987) predictions. Keywords: yod, hiatus, synizesis, word frequency, syllabiﬁcation, register
Larissa C. Dória, Diego S. Podadera, Rivete S. Lima, Frederic Lens and Carmen R. Marcati
Edited by Marcelo R. Pace
prediction of a large dataset testing the relationship between basal and tip vessel diameters and stem length, showing that taller plants ( Tabebuia aurea in our study) have wider conduits at both the base and the tip ( Fig. 3A ; Suppl. Fig. S1 ) ( Olson et al. 2018 ). Since theoretical hydraulic
Wei-Ming Chen, Ya-Fu Lee, Chi-Feng Tsai, Cheng-Te Yao, Yung-Hsiu Chen, Shou-Hsien Li and Yen-Min Kuo
Edited by V. Nijman
Many birds in breeding seasons engage in vigorous dawn singing that often turns to a prominent chorus. We examined dawn chorus variation of avian assemblages in a tropical montane forest in Taiwan and tested the hypothesis that onset sequence is affected by eye sizes, foraging heights, and diet of birds. Chorus onset and duration varied between sampling months, but generally peaked in the prime breeding season. Overall dawn chorus length increased with, but mean duration per species was negatively correlated with, species richness. The inter-correlation among trait variables in phylogenetic independent contrasts was calculated and examined. Both foraging height and relative eye size were selected as positively explanatory factors, but no dietary effects were detected, for chorus onsets. Dawn singing onsets also tended to delay as decreasing log (eye sizes) that, however, was not selected with enough explanatory power. The positive relationship of chorus onsets versus relative eye sizes contradicts our prediction, yet the negative correlation of relative eye sizes with log (eye sizes) indicates an allometric constraint on eye sizes along with increasing body sizes. Lowerlayer species initiated singing earlier than upper-layer species, which complies with the positive correlation of onsets with foraging heights and supports our prediction. This pattern may be condition-specific and more likely occurs in forests lacking a sufficient canopy height and layering and a distinct light difference among forest layers. Foraging heights were additionally found negatively correlated with canopy coverage and slightly positively correlated with ground coverage of perches. Our results concord that foraging height is a relevant factor as eye size in determining the onset and sequence of dawn chorus, yet, suggest that forest settings and vegetation structure may likely complicate the prediction.
Pasquale Ciliberti, Herman de Jong, Marieke A. Schouten, Pita A. Verweij and Wijnand R.B. Heitmans
Edited by J.W. Arntzen
This paper aims at modelling the spatial distribution of the cockroach species Capraiellus panzeri, Ectobius lapponicus, Ectobius pallidus and Ectobius sylvestris within the Netherlands and comparing the habitat preferences of these species. Maxent was used to calculate habitat suitability and to identify environmental variables underlying the differences in observed distribution patterns. A sub-sampling procedure was employed to test model stability. Models were evaluated by calculating the Area Under the Curve (AUC). The analyses show that except for the costal dune area, the western part of the Netherlands is unsuitable for the species. Suitability predictions for C. panzeri, E. lapponicus and E. sylvestris are very similar, with suitable areas concentrated in the eastern and the north-eastern parts of the country and along the western coast. The prediction model for E. pallidus is somewhat more restricted, especially in the northern part of the country. Soil type, land cover and altitudinal range are most important in predicting the distribution of all species. A correspondence analysis was performed to identify the association between the species distribution and the most influential environmental variables. Correspondence analysis indicated that the species distributions are comparably associated with soil type and land cover while species appear to have different preferences with respect to altitudinal range.