As the global need for energy is increasing, the oceans are attracting unprecedented attention as a potential source of both traditional and renewable forms of energy. The offshore energy sector is expanding and economic activities related to energy production at sea are
1 Introduction The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) is a multilateral investment agreement negotiated in the early 1990s. With more than 50 Contracting Parties in primarily Europe and Asia, it is arguably the most important international investment agreement (IIA) in existence. The ECT does not only
Atomic Energy Community and Their Member States, of the One Part, and the Republic of Moldova, of the Other Part  OJ L260/1, Article 365 of the Trade and Sustainability chapter states that the EU and Moldova ‘reaffirm their commitment to promote the development of international trade in a way that
factories for the production of goods, companies for the provision of services, or infrastructure projects for the production of energy – tended to have a physical presence and clear territorial foothold on foreign soil. Expanded notions of investment and increasingly diversified investment activities put
Green Party, the socialist party Die Linke , as well as labor unions and various non-governmental organizations; but also the Social Democrats, whose party leader Sigmar Gabriel is, as Federal Minister for Economic Affairs and Energy, in charge of international economic agreements, are critical of
African Customs Union (SACU), 47 and ECOWAS. 48 Similar to TIFAs, these agreements are largely hortatory and impose only loose obligations upon the parties, primarily with regard to the establishment of consultative joint councils.
2.2.4 Sector Agreements (Energy ECOWAS)
In 2003, ECOWAS members
settlement tribunals established by international agreements to which the European Union is party, OJ L 257, 121 (28 August 2014).
21 An example is contained in the Statement submitted by the European Communities to the Secretariat of the Energy Charter pursuant to Article 26(3)(b)(ii) of the Energy
that developed countries, which traditionally did not host investments from their counterparts in BITs, found their own policies subject to challenge through ISDS. The two treaties that provided the basis for the largest number of investment arbitrations – the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), with 97 cases