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Jianying Bai, Xin He, Yi Jiang, Tao Zhang and Min Bao

Wiese, 2008). However, recent studies argue that the MAE can also be anchored in spatiotopic (Mikellidou et al ., 2017; Turi and Burr, 2012) and hand-centered coordinates (Matsumiya and Shioiri, 2014). In the spatiotopic MAE (aka ‘positional MAE’ or ‘PMAE’), adaptation to motion within a window

Thomas Hesselberg, Daniel Simonsen and Carlos Juan

recognised as natural ecological and evolutionary laboratories due to the isolation of their organisms, the fewer and more simple biotic interactions due to low species richness and abundance and the number of similar morphological adaptations found in a range of organisms (Poulson & White, 1969; Pipan

Loukia Taxitari, Maria Kambanaros and Kleanthes K. Grohmann

and growing range of languages, dialects, and varieties—63 to date (March 2014). A constantly updated list can be found on the CDI website ( However, the majority of these adaptations are designed for monolingual children, in a single language

June McDaniel

This article discusses the challenges of adaptation for Indonesian religion. It describes the ways that the major Indonesian religions have changed to fit the requirements of being recognized religions, and focuses as an example on the ways that Balinese Hinduism has changed to become Agama Hindu Dharma Indonesia. It also examines the traditional theological problem of “faith and works” in the Indonesian context, and the concerns used to balance modernization and religious freedom.

Adrianus L.G. Waworuntu, Zeffry Alkatiri and Fuad Gani

This article is a further discussion of previous research which is a pilot project to observe patterns of cultural interaction within the Chinese community in Indonesia as a part of a project to understand the phenomenon of the multicultural society during the New Order Era. The specific target of this research is to study the socio-cultural interactions within the Chinese community in Manado during the Reform Era (2000-2014). This research aims to study the strategic adaptation of the Chinese in Manado, by analysing the obstacles and opportunities in their socio-cultural interaction with the locals. Using data from field research and literature studies, this qualitative research applies an ethnographic approach by observing various actions in their socio-cultural interactions.

John W. O’Malley

adaptation and accommodation has roots in this document, with its fundamental principle as stated in Annotation 18, “The Spiritual Exercises must be adapted to the condition of the persons engaging in them, that is, to their age, education, and talent.” The Exercises are a spiritual classic because they

Thosaeng Chaochuti

It has been widely acknowledged that translation played an important role in the process of colonization. Colonizers often used it to reinforce their hegemony over the colonized who, in turn, employed it to encourage either submission to or resistance of that hegemony. Focusing on Vajiravudh’s translation, or more precisely adaptation, of Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Murders in the Rue Morgue,” this article illustrates how the story reflects not only the desire to be civilized like Westerners but also the strategies that the Siamese elite employed in order to achieve the trappings of civilization, namely the construction of a primitive Other and the imitation of Europeans. These strategies were, however, inherently problematic. Imitation did not, for example, pave the way towards acceptance but reinforced instead the stereotype of the mimicking natives. The article shows, however, that the Siamese elite were able to use the tactic of adaptation, both literary and otherwise, to navigate through these problems and negotiate their relationship with the West.

Cleopatra M. Loza, Oliver Reutimann, Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra, Alfredo A. Carlini and Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández

Edited by A. van der Geer

The systematic value of the middle-ear ossicles, in particular the malleus, has been long recognized for diverse groups. We present systematic work on the characters of the middle-ear ossicles of pinnipeds, focusing on until now poorly studied Southern Hemisphere species. Mallei were extracted from 16 specimens of pinnipeds belonging to five austral and one boreal species of Phocidae and two austral species of Otariidae. Several characters used in this study have been described previously, and some were here modified. Three new characters are here defined and analysed. All characters were mapped onto the phylogeny. Our character analysis shows the transformations that have occurred in the evolution of middle ear ossicles in pinnipeds and identifies diagnostic features of many of its clades. Beyond the identification of specific changes within eachclade, our study of pinniped ossicle evolution documents the occurrence of anatomical convergences with other groups of mammals that live in an aquatic environment, as has occurred in other organ systems as well.

Edward Gaten

This paper addresses the use of eye structure and optics in the construction of crustacean phylogenies and presents an hypothesis for the evolution of superposition eyes in the Decapoda, based on the distribution of eye types in extant decapod families. It is suggested that reflecting superposition optics are symplesiomorphic for the Decapoda, having evolved only once, probably in the Devonian. Subsequent loss of reflecting superposition optics has occurred following the adoption of a new habitat (e.g. Aristeidae, Aeglidae) or by progenetic paedomorphosis (Paguroidea, Eubrachyura).