1 Introduction * For many decades, the fast growth in China’s power sector has been characterised by sizeable investment in coal-fired generation, and escalating energy sector greenhouse gas emissions ( GGE s). 1 In response to mounting pressure to mitigate GGE s and reduce air pollution caused
journal, Revue project . 15 A special moment for ceras was the 2014 international conference, “Quelle Justice Sociale à l’Heure de la Transition Énergétique?” (Which social justice at the time of energy transition?), an occasion that gathered more than one hundred people to discuss the technical
Since the introduction of the renewable energy directive ( red ) in 2009, the Member States of the European Union are bound to mandatory renewable energy targets.
Under this directive Member States must encourage the production of energy from ‘all types of renewable
Ocean energy resources—not only petroleum and natural gas, but the untapped, infinite, renewable, and non-polluting energy resources of the sea itself; the energy of tides and waves and currents, of thermal or salinity gradients, or of the huge and incredibly fast-growing biomass (kelp) of the sea
As the global need for energy is increasing, the oceans are attracting unprecedented attention as a potential source of both traditional and renewable forms of energy. The offshore energy sector is expanding and economic activities related to energy production at sea are
Arctic and energy policies when compared to previous policy documents. The interest of the EU in the Arctic has always been manifold and has progressively increased in the last fifteen years. The Arctic region remains one of the major suppliers of energy, mainly oil and gas, for the EU . The strategic
1 Introduction The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) is a multilateral investment agreement negotiated in the early 1990s. With more than 50 Contracting Parties in primarily Europe and Asia, it is arguably the most important international investment agreement (IIA) in existence. The ECT does not only
. The EU’s framework for climate and energy policies from 2020 to 2030, the 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework (2030 Framework, for short), lends itself to such complementary theory testing as arguably a most-likely case of LI, HI and ACF . Stakeholders and mechanisms identified in the
Entrepreneurs are often envisioned as small private start-up firms operating against all odds. Here, we investigate how in the context of the Triple Helix various entrepreneurs form communities and drive institutional and technological change. To theoretically shape a socialized view of entrepreneurship, we use the Triple Helix approach. Our empirical basis is a highly regulated sector driven by various agents, i. e. the Dutch energy system. As it depends very much on natural gas and relies less on renewables compared to similar countries, we analyse two cases where entrepreneurs drove the uptake of renewable energy sources.
In our paper, we investigate how entrepreneurs from the private, public and academic sectors drive the evolution of the Triple Helix. From our results, two general features of entrepreneurship in the Triple Helix emerge. First of all, private stand-alone enterprises do not mirror entrepreneurs at large. Second, networks of various entrepreneurs are much more common and much more complex than usually anticipated. More specifically, we find that there are rather divergent developments in Dutch energy systems. Whereas in the case of Aardwarmte Den Haag, a number of key players collaborated in order to realize one specific technology, in the LochemEnergie case, we see a project-to-project approach supported by subsidies. In both cases, a variety of entrepreneurs from the private, public and academic sectors with different roles, goals, incentives, resources, knowledge and policy levers drive the development of their energy system. It depends on the actual situation on who has the incentives and resources to be in charge and act and to include others when it seems necessary.
Entrepreneurs in such a set-up require particular skills including the ability to engage with their (knowledge) network, identify gaps, attract new participants and motivate the new and existing participants. Entrepreneurs managing these networks handle a whole range of semi-unpredictable actors and environmental factors that also influence each other; therefore, they can be defined as truly complex sociotechnological systems. As the development of local energy initiatives unfold along the way, entrepreneurs have to be flexible and open to organizational change. While large organizations such as municipalities or large multinational companies are usually less flexible, they might create space for smaller entrepreneurial activities by supporting individuals, start-ups or academics in finding novel solutions. At the same time, a major role for public entrepreneurs lies in stimulating and subsidizing entrepreneurs and their networks.
The analytical framework provided here can be used to study the principles of the Triple Helix concept in a dynamic environment in which technological innovation requires the expertise and capabilities of multiple types of actors. Its function is not only to identify roles and types of entrepreneurs and their incentives, but to also assess which resources (knowledge, skills, subsidies) they can contribute to the initiative.
This research reveals how small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can enable innovation and contribute to a reduction in the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in offshore wind farms. The research provides findings from a longitudinal qualitative study of 10 SMEs for the understanding of the impact from integrating SMEs in a triple helix context.
The triple helix approach with government, university and industry participants typically include larger organisations. The research indicates that SMEs could join the triple helix and both contribute and receive benefit from their presence. The findings show that SMEs need access to market and industry stakeholders to understand, learn and select among business innovation opportunities. Universities, governmental bodies and industries can create a knowledge space for organisational reciprocal learning between SMEs and larger enterprises to enable innovation for the reduction of the LCOE in the wind farm industry. This knowledge space also provides important insight and understanding for the governmental and university helices for active contribution to offshore wind energy.
The governmental policy impact stresses the need for a more strategic long-term support of industry knowledge spaces for offshore wind energy. Governmental bodies would actively enhance political growth strategies regulating competition and collaboration. Universities can contribute actively towards knowledge creation and dissemination. All three helices could benefit from this approach to SMEs. Further research needs to be conducted on SMEs in the triple helix context.