1 Introduction Annual investments in the global energy sector exceed $1.5 trillion. 1 Tens of billions per year thereof are invested in oil, gas and electricity infrastructure situated above, on or under the seabed of the North Sea. In the second half of the 20th century, the investments in the
Arctic and energy policies when compared to previous policy documents. The interest of the EU in the Arctic has always been manifold and has progressively increased in the last fifteen years. The Arctic region remains one of the major suppliers of energy, mainly oil and gas, for the EU . The strategic
-based energy production and carbon neutral, or almost neutral, renewable energy sources. This, together with new gas production technologies could further increase the need for gas transport infrastructure, significant parts of which are likely to be sea based. 1 Also, if carbon capture and storage ( CCS
The International Ocean Institute-Canada has produced this collection of over 80 insightful essays on the future of ocean governance and capacity development. The book honors the work of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002), preeminent ocean advocate and founder of the IOI.
More than 90 leading experts explore future challenges and opportunities for ocean governance and capacity development. Major themes include the law of the sea, ocean sciences, integrated coastal and ocean management, fisheries and aquaculture, communication and negotiations, maritime safety and security, ocean energy, and maritime transportation.
The essay collection is aimed at professionals, students and citizens alike – covering themes that parallel those in the annual Training Program of IOI-Canada. A leading member of the International Ocean Institute's network of centers and focal points worldwide, IOI-Canada was founded by Elisabeth Mann Borgese in 1979.
With the transition to the commercial-scale exploitation of deep seabed minerals, the International Seabed Authority’s obligation to protect the marine environment is being tested. In
The International Seabed Authority and the Precautionary Principle, Aline L. Jaeckel provides the first in-depth analysis of the Authority’s work in regulating and managing deep seabed minerals.
This book examines whether and to what extent the Authority is implementing the precautionary principle in practice. This includes the development of adequate environmental protection standards as well as procedural safeguards and decision-making processes that facilitate risk assessment and risk management. In doing so, the author offers an insightful example of how the precautionary principle can be translated into a practical management tool.
site for offshore energy generation from renewable sources. The long-term effects of these large-scale projects are not clear. 28
To find the right balance between nature conservation and sustainable human use within this diverse and intensively used marine ecosystem is not an easy task. For the
. Under unclos the many uses of submarine cables besides international communication are recognized. These include cables used to exploit conventional natural resources (cabled oil and gas production platforms), alternative energy (off shore wind farms, wave and tidal current generators), marine
the import or consumption of Icelandic fish?
As for energy imports, two Arctic countries, Norway and Russia, together supply over half of the EU ’s natural gas and over 40 per cent of its oil. Russian natural gas represents such a large part of the EU ’s imports that it is often described as
–6045, paras. 10–12.
80 Air Transport Association of America and Others v Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change ( ataa ) Case C-366/10  oj C49/7.
81 Opinion of Advocate General Kokott , 6 October 2011, Case C-366/10, at I-13806–13807, para. 127.
82 Ibid ., at p. I-13807, para. 128
The Law of the Seabed reviews the most pressing legal questions raised by the use and protection of natural resources on and underneath the world’s seabeds.
While barely accessible, the seabed plays a major role in the Earth’s ecological balance. It is both a medium and a resource, and is central to the blue economy. New uses and new knowledge about seabed ecosystems, and the risks of disputes due to competing interests, urge reflection on which regulatory approaches to pursue.
The regulation of ocean activities is essentially sector-based, and the book puts in parallel the international and national regimes for seabed mining, oil and gas, energy generation, bottom fisheries, marine genetic resources, carbon sequestration and maritime security operations, both within and beyond the national jurisdiction.
The book contains seven parts respectively addressing the definition of the seabed from a multidisciplinary perspective, the principles of jurisdiction delimitation under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the regimes for use of non-living, living and marine biodiversity resources, the role of state and non-state actors, the laying and removal of installations, the principles for sustainable and equitable use (common heritage of mankind, precaution, benefit sharing), and management tools to ensure coexistence between activities as well as the protection of the marine environment.