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increased display frequency (Zuk & Kolluru, 1998). This is because the lower energy reserves of low-quality individuals cause them to easily become exhausted during a contest. In a predatory environment, where exhausted prey are at high risk to be eaten (Yachi, 1995), such low-quality individuals face

In: Behaviour

noise, or have no alternative habitat to choose. The near- and far-distance highway noise recordings used in this study did not only differ in amplitude but also in their spectral characteristics. Overall, the far-distance highway noise has less energy at 1–4 kHz than the near-distance noise. This is

In: Behaviour

strong natural selection to maximise intake while minimising costs (Hassell & Southwood, 1978), including such relevant costs as time and energy expended. The spatial structure of an environment is one factor that will influence the efficiency of search and this is particularly true for predatory insects

In: Behaviour

fusion societies and variation in group size can influence social thermoregulation (Willis & Brigham, 2007; Kuepper et al., 2016). For individuals roosting in larger groups, predicted energy expenditure is significantly lower than for bats roosting alone or in small groups (Willis & Brigham, 2007). We

In: Behaviour

behaviours in populations of three spined sticklebacks . — Anim. Ecol. 77 : 229 - 235 . Careau , V. , Thomas , D. , Humphries , M.M. & Réale , D. ( 2008 ). Energy metabolism and animal personality . — Oikos 117 : 641 - 653 . Chase , I.D. , Tovey , C. , Spangler-Martin , D

In: Behaviour

increases energy intake, pursuing and subduing large prey requires more energy and therefore results in an increase in energy expenditure. Consequently, carnivores have developed several behavioural and ecological strategies to optimise energy intake and expenditure (Carbone et al., 2007). African wild dogs

In: Behaviour

. ( 2010 ) found that domesticated dog breeds that were more trainable and obedient lived longer than more aggressive breeds that had higher metabolisable energy intakes. Bird species exhibiting riskier flight behaviour have higher metabolic rates (Møller, 2009 ). Populations of Trinidadian guppies

In: Behaviour

) sound pressure levels (dB re 1 μPa) for every pulse, and RL rms for the whole pulse train. RL rms was measured over a time window encompassing 90% of the total signal energy in the selection window (Madsen & Wahlberg, 2007 ). Following these measurements, SL was calculated from RL by compensating for

In: Behaviour

main function of the orb web is to intercept and retain flying insects (Eberhard, 1990b). To do so, the impact energy is dissipated through deformations of primarily the radii and in most cases through aerodynamic damping on the whole vibrating web (Lin et al., 1995; Sensenig et al., 2012; Zaera et al

In: Behaviour

-1800  μ A; n = 142 ). It must be noted that tube current is limited by the maximum power capability of the system (i.e. high power is not possible when using desktop systems). Filtration – Pre-filtering removes low-energy photons and offers correction for beam hardening which arises when polychromatic x

In: Amphibia-Reptilia