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increases energy intake, pursuing and subduing large prey requires more energy and therefore results in an increase in energy expenditure. Consequently, carnivores have developed several behavioural and ecological strategies to optimise energy intake and expenditure (Carbone et al., 2007). African wild dogs

In: Behaviour

increased display frequency (Zuk & Kolluru, 1998). This is because the lower energy reserves of low-quality individuals cause them to easily become exhausted during a contest. In a predatory environment, where exhausted prey are at high risk to be eaten (Yachi, 1995), such low-quality individuals face

In: Behaviour

noise, or have no alternative habitat to choose. The near- and far-distance highway noise recordings used in this study did not only differ in amplitude but also in their spectral characteristics. Overall, the far-distance highway noise has less energy at 1–4 kHz than the near-distance noise. This is

In: Behaviour

colourless. The great breakthrough in physiology made by Johannes Müller’s theory of “specific energies” in the early nineteenth century was the realisation that all sensation, whatever its modality or character, is the product of identical electrochemical impulses travelling through the nervous system

In: Art & Perception

strong natural selection to maximise intake while minimising costs (Hassell & Southwood, 1978), including such relevant costs as time and energy expended. The spatial structure of an environment is one factor that will influence the efficiency of search and this is particularly true for predatory insects

In: Behaviour

crisis because of its efficient production of food energy, year-round availability, tolerance to extreme stress conditions and suitability for small holder systems in Africa (Hahn, 1996). Among starchy staple crops, cassava provides a carbohydrate production approximately 40% higher than rice and 25

In: Nematology

fusion societies and variation in group size can influence social thermoregulation (Willis & Brigham, 2007; Kuepper et al., 2016). For individuals roosting in larger groups, predicted energy expenditure is significantly lower than for bats roosting alone or in small groups (Willis & Brigham, 2007). We

In: Behaviour

P. , Guo Y. ( 2017 ). Proteomic analysis reveals a role of melatonin in promoting cucumber seed germination under high salinity by regulating energy production . Sci. Rep. 7 : 503 . Zhu W. , Smith J.W. , Huang C. ( 2010 ). Mass spectrometry-based label

In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

behaviours in populations of three spined sticklebacks . — Anim. Ecol. 77 : 229 - 235 . Careau , V. , Thomas , D. , Humphries , M.M. & Réale , D. ( 2008 ). Energy metabolism and animal personality . — Oikos 117 : 641 - 653 . Chase , I.D. , Tovey , C. , Spangler-Martin , D

In: Behaviour

of low level motion-energy and velocity detection mechanisms (Seiffert and Cavanagh, 1999). This points toward the dynamic double flash being processed by the first possible mechanism described above, in this case by a low-level illusory motion generator. If the first (bottom up) mechanism generates

In: Multisensory Research