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Ronald Suleski

work Astrologer’s Predictions 1899 , and it measures 9½ inches (24.1 cm) high by 5¼ inches (23.5 cm) wide, giving it the typical oblong shape of traditional Chinese books. The paper is handmade and unbleached, leaving it a yellowish or tan color, and it was cut using traditional methods as shown by

L.R. Schimleck, E. Sussenbach, G. Leaf, P.D. Jones and C.L. Huang

The use of calibrated near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for predicting the microfibril angle (MFA) of Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) wood samples is described. NIR spectra were collected from the tangential face of earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW) sections cut from eleven P. taeda radial strips. The MFA of these sections was measured using X-ray diffraction. Calibrations for MFA were determined using all samples combined, EW only and LW only. Relationships were good, with coefficients of determination (R2) ranging from 0.86 (EW) to 0.91 (LW). A calibration for MFA based on NIR spectra collected from sections of 8 strips was used to predict the MFA of sections from the remaining 3 strips. Prediction statistics were strong (R2 p = 0.81, SEP= 5.2 degrees, RPDp = 2.23) however errors were greater than those reported previously for studies based on NIR spectra collected from the radial-longitudinal face. The results presented in this study demonstrate that it is possible to use tangential face NIR spectra to determine MFA variation for EW and LW within individual growth rings.

Cyriac S. Mvolo, Ahmed Koubaa, Maurice Defo, Jean Beaulieu, Martin-Claude Yemele and Alain Cloutier

The establishment of patterns of radial and longitudinal variations and the development of models to predict the wood anatomical properties, especially from juvenile wood, are of interest for both wood industry and researchers. Linear regressions were used to predict whole-tree, breast height and mature tracheid length and diameter in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and the WBE model was used to predict the variation of tracheid diameter. Tracheid length and diameter increased from pith to bark. Tracheid length decreased, while tracheid diameter increased from apex to lower heights. Cambial age was the most important predictor of tracheid length. The final tracheid length models with either a log transformation or a third-order polynomial of cambial age explained 82% of the variation in the whole-tree tracheid length. At breast height, 83% of the variation in the whole tracheid length was explained using the juvenile value at a cambial age of 3 years. Up to 87% of the variation was explained by the model, including the average value of juvenile wood. However, mature wood tracheid length at breast height could not be predicted from juvenile wood. Distance from the apex predicted the tracheid widening in outer rings but failed to predict tracheid expansion of samples collected at fixed cambial ages. The WBE explained 86% of conduit widening in the outer rings. The sampling strategy, i.e. collecting samples longitudinally at a fixed cambial age vs. at a fixed calendar year is important in predicting tracheid diameter.

D.V. Igartúa, S.E. Monteoliva, M.G. Monterubbianesi and M.S. Villegas

The aim of the present work was to analyze the associations between basic density and fibre length at breast height (BH) and of the whole tree. This study focused on the need to find a sampling point representative for the whole tree, using 35-year-old Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus plantations established under two different growing conditions in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The relationship between whole-tree and BH values was quantified using linear regression analysis. Relationships were obtained for each growing site and wood features.

Preterit Expansion and Perfect Demise in Porteño Spanish and Beyond

A Critical Perspective on Cognitive Grammaticalization Theory

Series:

Guro Fløgstad

In Preterit Expansion and Perfect Demise in Porteño Spanish and Beyond, Guro Nore Fløgstad offers an original account of the way in which the Preterit category has expanded, at the expense of the Perfect, in Porteño Spanish – a variety spoken in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Through primary sources and a large cross-linguistic sample, Fløgstad convincingly shows that the expansion of a Preterit is not rare in the languages of the world. This finding challenges the prevailing view in historical morphosyntax, and especially in usage-based grammaticalization theory, namely the alleged preference for analytic over synthetic forms, and the possibility of prediction based on the source meaning in grammaticalization.

This book is fully available in Open Access.

S.J. White, T.J. Kells and A.J. Wilson

voles ( Microtus oeconomus ) and common lizards ( Zootocai vipara ) (Lantová et al., 2011 ; Le Galliard et al., 2013 ; Gifford et al., 2014 ). A possible reason for the mixed support for the predictions of POLS is that, while most studies to date have focused on basal, resting or standard metabolic

Maomao Zhang, Guang Jie Zhao, Bo Liu, Tuo He, Juan Guo, Xiaomei Jiang and Yafang Yin

prediction accuracy was 100% ( Table 3 ), demonstrating that all the specimens were correctly classified. The variable importance in projection (VIP) was used to reflect the importance of ions in the classification model. VIP coupled with the t-test is a common method for determining the marker ions for the

Evangelia K. Asproudi

grammaticality of the produced negative interrogatives. As a result, negation is an important constraint which is operative in the acquisition of interrogatives by children. The Study The predictions stated with reference to oti , na and negation during the acquisition of interrogatives

Georg F.K. Höhn, Giuseppina Silvestri and M. Olimpia Squillaci

separate structural positions. This leads to the prediction mentioned in section 2 that nominal person marking should be able to occur in non-definite contexts in languages with this type of structural independence of person and definiteness (see also Höhn 2017: ch. 4). This is systematically attested in

Mussolini Predicted a Fascist Century: How Wrong Was He?

Third Lecture on Fascism – Amsterdam – 22 March 2019

Roger Griffin

1 The ‘National Socialism’ of Fascism 1 In the entry on ‘Fascism’ published in 1932 in the newly created Enciclopedia Italiana , Benito Mussolini made a prediction. He wrote that just because the nineteenth century was one of socialism, liberalism and democracy, there was no reason for the