Tepexi de Rodríguez in Puebla ( Ramírez et al . 2000 ; Ramírez & Cevallos-Ferriz 2002 ). The record of anacardiaceous fossilwoods is rich, with approximately 78 wood types reported worldwide ( e.g. , Awasthi 1966 ; Gregory et al . 2009 ). The majority of the records are from Cenozoic sediments of
et al. 2010 ), Malvaceae ( Rodriguez-Reyes et al. 2014 ), Chrysobalanaceae ( Jud et al. 2016 ), Calophyllaceae ( Nelson & Jud , in press), and Fabaceae (Rodriguez-Reyes et al., under review). In the present paper we describe a new fossilwood type from the Miocene of Panama, which further
Wood of Connaroxylon dimorphum (Connaraceae, Oxalidales) from the Deccan Intertrappean Beds of India (KPg Boundary 65–67 MY BP) is described. It is characterized by parenchyma-like fiber bands alternating with normal fibers, septate and nonseptate fibers, vessel-ray pits with strongly reduced borders, uniseriate rays of square and upright cells, and radial tubules in the center of ray cells that are arranged in a herringbone pattern. The overall wood anatomy strongly resembles Melastomataceae p. p., Lagerstroemia p. p. (Lythraceae) and Connarus (Connaraceae). However, the shared radial tubules of Connarus and the fossil strongly tilt the evidence of botanical affinities towards this genus. This would represent the second and by far the oldest fossil wood record of the Connaraceae, also considerably older than the earliest fossil records of the family’s other plant parts, and one of the oldest fossils of the order Oxalidales.
Silicified woods from near the town of Ocú on the Azuero Peninsula, Panama were first reported by Stern and Eyde in 1963; however, the significance of these fossils has been largely overlooked. Well-characterized fossil floras from Central America can be used to test hypotheses related to the historical biogeography and paleoclimate of the Neotropics. We describe 10 new wood types and one palm based on 22 samples from Oligo-Miocene deposits. Affinities at the family/order level include Fabaceae, Lauraceae, Moraceae, Sapotaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Arecaceae, Sapindales, Ericales, and Humiriaceae. The fossil woods are fragmentary and have not been found in-place, but the size and angularity of the specimens suggests minimal transport from the site of growth. We compared these woods with calcareous woods from the Lower Miocene Cucaracha Formation and silicified woods from the upper Miocene Alajuela Formation using Rare Earth Element (REE) analysis to test the hypothesis that the Ocú woods were preserved under uniform conditions and not reworked. Although the results were ambiguous with respect to the original hypothesis, we note that the REE concentrations in silicified woods are much lower than in calcareous woods. We used comparative analysis of wood anatomical features to draw conclusions about the paleoclimate from the fossil flora. All the dicot woods are diffuse porous and none have distinct growth rings; some have very wide vessels at low frequencies. These features are typical of canopy trees in tropical lowland forests. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling of wood anatomical characters from a variety of communities and ecological categories showed that the anatomy of the Ocú woods is most similar to that found in tropical rainforests. Based on the combination of taxonomic identity and functional anatomy, we interpret these fossils as evidence for humid to perhumid megathermal climate in Panama during the late Paleogene-early Neogene.
angiosperm fossilwoods have been described from its Late Cretaceous ( i . e ., Milanez 1935 ; Torres & Rallo 1981 ; Nishida & Nishida 1987 ; Mourier et al. 1988 ; Nishida et al. 1990 ; Franco et al. 2015 ; Egerton et al. 2016 ). In particular, the fossil record of angiosperm woods in central
; Bhandari & Colin 1999 ; Whatley & Bajpai 2000 ; Bajpai & Whatley 2001 ; Dogra et al . 2004 ) and plant megaremains ( Guleria & Srivastava 2001 ). The fossilwoods of five taxa were described systematically from near Anjar, Kutch district ( Guleria & Srivastava 2001 ). Keeping in mind the poor
was thought that the Deccan Traps were younger (Eocene) and so, not surprisingly, the woods were identified by their general similarity with present-day Indian woods. Almost all Deccan woods were assigned either extant generic names or fossilwood generic names formed by adding - oxylon to an extant
We describe a new species, Gleditsioxylon jiangsuensis (Leguminosae), a new record of Robinia zirkelii (Platen) Matten, Gastaldo & Lee (Leguminosae), and a new record of Moroxylon xinhuaensis Yin, Liu & Cheng (Moraceae) from the early Miocene strata of Sihong County in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Gleditsioxylon jiangsuensis sp. nov. is the first report of Gleditsioxylon fossil wood from China. These fossil woods, combined with paleontological records, may indicate that the boundary between the subtropical and the temperate zones in eastern China during the early Miocene was located north of its modern location.
chemical characterization of the Galatean Andesite Massif, Pontus, Turkey . Acta Vulcanologica
2 : 267 – 276 .
. 2015 . New fossilwoods from the Paleogene of Doupovské Hory and Ceské Stredogori Mts. (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic). Acta Musei Nationalis
The wood of Oleoxylon deccanense, reported informally in 1981 from the Deccan Intertrappean Beds of central India, is re-examined. We provide a formal diagnosis for the species and a more detailed description. The similarity to wood from species groups of the modern genera Chionanthus and Olea leads us to infer that this fossil taxon probably belongs to the monophyletic drupaceous subtribe Oleinae of the olive family, Oleaceae (Lamiales), although affinities with Rhamnaceae and Rutaceae cannot be wholly excluded. Since the fossil is from a late Maastrichtian-Danian horizon (65–67 MY BP) this would imply that a member of the Oleaceae was part of the flora that inhabited India several million years prior to the tectonic impact of India with Asia. The seemingly modern appearance of this and other Deccan fossil woods is briefly discussed.