1 Introduction: Animal Voices in Context
In any language, the description of sounds and their mutual relations is a complex cultural construction. Sounds cannot be described as objective and neutral realities since they involve human perception: hence they are constantly screened through
This article contains a publication of a dedication by strategoi to Augustus, his heir Gaius Iulius Caesar and to the People, which was found in Olbia in 2006 and dates from the period between the year 1 bc and the year ad 4. It is the earliest inscription from post-Getic Olbia to have been discovered. Analysis of it makes it possible to suggest that Olbia was rebuilt after the rout by Burebistas in the last years bc under Roman control. The state organization of Olbia, which took shape after the city had been restored, reproduced certain features of the Roman constitution. Despite suggestions often voiced to the effect that Scythians or Sarmatians were included among its citizens, they were only granted the status of Olbian citizens later on – in the years 50-80 ad. The city was restored by Greeks who, at least in part, had come from Asia Minor and Thrace.
archaic hexameter in particular there is no shortage of terms available to denote different voices, noises, and acoustic effects, whether musical or not. 2 Even in portrayals of musical performances, poets often invoke this broader vocabulary of sound in order to communicate the acoustic qualities of
οἵαν ὑµετέροις ποτὶ χείλεσι γῆρυς ἄειδεν.
εἴπατε δ’ αὖ κούραις Οἰαγρίσιν, εἴπατε πάσαις
Βιστονίαις Νύµφαισιν, ‘ἀπώλετο Δώριος ’Ορφεύς’.
Swans from the Strymon, cry your dirge by the waters
and sing your mourning song with plaintive mouths
as the voice from your bills used to
texts written down using this system of writing, with capital letters denoting the sign used both for the voiced and voiceless consonant (thus, Ko[isis] in her reading). This is also a problem in her conventions for transliterating several other vernaculars, particular those using variants of the
After the anapaestic prelude, a stage direction (παρεπιγραφή) indicates by αὐλεῖ a solo of the aulos-player, replacing the voice of the nigthingale, which is enthusiastically welcomed by the Athenians. Then they notice that the Hoopoe is preparing a new song, an extended monody (227-62), which can be
distances from their herdsman. The use of brass instruments in this context is not unexpected, as similar to their use in military signalling, the sound of brass instruments would have carried over much larger distances than the human voice or even other instruments associated with the Roman pastoral
claims that at least for accompaniment of the voice, one instrument is better than multiple ones (19.9).
The most important exception to this tendency within Athens appears to have been the Panathenaia. Pollux includes συναυλία among styles of playing the aulos (4.83):
Ἀθήνησι δὲ καὶ συναυλία τις
guiding spirits long ago sent by Cronos. Those spirits within (714a) I would liken to the one Socrates referred to as his δαιμόνιον: the voice that, like a good law, tells us not what we are supposed to do, but what we are supposed to avoid doing. As for what to do , we still have to follow the way of
reason for his choice is likely that the first two options may well weaken the city in the face of potential enemies. The Athenian’s conclusion is that laws are made in this case not for the sake of war, but for the sake of peace, to which Kleinias voices agreement, which may seem odd given what I just