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Communication and Conversion in Northern Cameroon

The Dii People and Norwegian Missionaries, 1934-1960

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Tomas Sundnes Drønen

Was modern Christian mission to Africa primarily a colonial project and a civilizing mission or was it a spiritual revival spreading to new areas? This book tells the tale of the Dii people in northern Cameroon and describes their encounter with Norwegian missionaries. Through archival studies and through fieldwork among the Dii, an intriguing scenario is presented. Whereas the missionaries describe their mission as one of spiritual liberation, and the Dii highligt the social liberation they received through literacy and political independence, the author shows how both spiritual and social changes were results of captivation, miscommunication and constant negotiations between the two parties.

Disputed Desert

Decolonization, Competing Nationalisms and Tuareg Rebellions in Mali

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Baz Lecocq

This book deals with the relation between the Malian state and the Tuareg people in the late 20th century, which has been characterized by three violent uprisings against Malian authority by Tuareg nationalists: between 1963 and 1964, between 1990 and 1996, and again between 2006 and 2009. In presenting a detailed history of this conflict between an African state and a people inhabiting it involuntarily, a number of social and political tensions are brought to the fore which haunt all of the Sahel today: the heritage of slavery, local and European concepts of race and the racialisation of social and political relations, colonial rule, the inchoate process of decolonisation, and the presence of competing nationalist forces in one postcolonial state.

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Emma Wild-Wood

Christianity and migration have greatly influenced society and culture of sub-Saharan Africa, yet their mutual impact is rarely studied. Through oral history research in north eastern Congo (DRC), this book studies the migration of Anglicans and the subsequent reconfiguring of their Christian identity. It engages with issues of religious contextualisation, revivalism and the rise of Pentecostalism. It examines shifting ethnic, national, gender and generational expressions, the influence of tradition, contemporanity, local needs and international networks to reveal mobile group identities developing through migration. Borrowing the metaphor of 'home' from those interviewed, the book suggests in what ways religious affiliation aids a process of belonging. The result is an original exploration of important themes in an often neglected region of Africa.

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Edited by Eric Morier-Genoud

This book brings together new research on the subject of nations and nationalisms in Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique. It explores the history and politics of diverse nationalist discourses and ideologies, and it revisits the formation and contemporary developments of national imagined communities in Portuguese-speaking Africa. It does so by drawing on several disciplines and by exploring themes as diverse as Frelimo’s liberation literature, UNITA’s moral economy and the disaggregation of Guinea-Bissau. The authors provide novel insights in the hope of contributing to the academic and public debate on the subject, not least in those countries where, in the face of liberalisation, ruling parties and their opponents have been arguing intensively over, and have sometime struggled to re-invent, a sense of national community. Through their engagement with the subject, authors also make a contribution to the general discussion of the concepts of nations and nationalism.

African Brain Circulation

Beyond the Drain-Gain Debate

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Edited by Rubin Patterson

In this book, discussions on African brain circulation and transnational society provide new insights and point to fertile research and policy agendas. Today, a globally important dilemma concerns citizens who either depart from their homeland to enhance their life chances in a rich society - but possibly contribute to a brain drain for their homeland - or stay home and work - but possibly contribute to a brain waste since conditions at home will not allow them to contribute commensurately with their capability. Increasingly, scholars on the subject of global South-to-West emigrants argue that it is not just a possibility of a brain drain occurring when citizens emigrate or brain waste occurring when they stay home, but rather a brain gain when they emigrate strategically and contribute to development in the homeland.

Landscape of Memory

Commemorative monuments, memorials and public statuary in post-apartheid South Africa

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Sabine Marschall

Under the aegis of the post-apartheid government, much emphasis has been placed on the transformation and democratisation of the heritage sector in South Africa since 1994. The emergent new landscape of memory relies heavily on commemorative monuments, memorials and statues aimed at reconciliation, nation-building and the creation of a shared public history. But not everyone identifies with these new symbolic markers and their associated interpretation of the past. Drawing on a number of theoretical perspectives, this book critically investigates the flourishing monument phenomenon in South Africa, the political discourses that fuel it; its impact on identity formation, its potential benefits, and most importantly its ambivalences and contradictions.

Livelihoods and Landscapes

The People of Guquka and Koloni and their Resources

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Edited by Paul Hebinck and Peter Lent

Drawing on original data, secondary literature, aerial photographs and archives, this book analyzes changes in the use of the landscape and the nature of rural livelihoods in two South African villages. Taking an interdisciplinary approach on how livelihoods and landscapes in the Eastern Cape link the text provides a comprehensive study of the patterns of land use over time. Three separate chapters focus on cropping and cultivation practices, livestock and foraging as well as the gathering of wild plants. The book gives a vivid picture of the social dynamics and the interaction between ‘urban’ and ‘rural’. It depicts the steady deterioration in agricultural production and the corresponding increase in dependence on social grants and wages. Despite this trend remnants of a peasantry do exist.

Development and Equity

An Interdisciplinary Exploration by Ten Scholars from Africa, Asia and Latin America

Edited by Dick Foeken, Ton Dietz, Leo de Haan and Linda Johnson

A quarter of a century ago His Royal Highness Prince Claus of the Netherlands (1926-2002) formulated his statements on ‘development and equity’. To honour him and his work, a professorial chair in ‘development and equity’ was established in 2003: the ‘Prince Claus Chair’. On the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the Chair, a conference was held in The Hague in November 2012. Each of the ten chair holders presented a paper written from his/her own perspective. These papers have been brought together in this book and show the diversity and richness of the theme. The volume also includes three essays by the promising young scholars who were judged to be the top three in a competition for the best Master’s thesis in ‘development, equity and citizenship’.

Transforming Innovations in Africa

Explorative Studies on Appropriation in African Societies

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Edited by Jan-Bart Gewald, André Leliveld and Iva Peša

Africa abounds with examples of material and immaterial innovations that were envisaged, developed and designed elsewhere yet came to be innovatively and sometimes unexpectedly transformed in Africa. The authors in this volume explore how external innovations (products, technologies, services, institutions and processes) have been appropriated in African societies in order to be acceptable and relevant to local conditions, expectations and demands. Written from different disciplinary perspectives, the chapters demonstrate the depth and richness of innovation in Africa with, in some cases, surprising outcomes. The case studies presented are on subjects as diverse as the wine industry, trading stores, land reforms, washing powder, M-Pesa, cassava, weddings, international borders, guest houses, urban water supply, car technology, shallow wells, and railways and blacksmithing.

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Cleo Cantone

This book constitutes a seminal contribution to the fields of Islamic architectural history and gender studies. It is the first major empirical study of the history and current state of mosque building in Senegal and the first study of mosque space from a gender perspective. The author positions Senegalese mosques within the field of Islamic architectural history, unraveling their history through pre-colonial travelers’ accounts to conversations with present-day planners, imams and women who continually shape and reshape the mosques they worship in. Using contemporary Dakar as a case study, the book’s second aim is to explore the role of women in the “making and remaking” of mosques. In particular, the rise of non-tariqa grass-roots movements (i.e.: the “Sunni/Ibadou” movement) has empowered women (particularly young women) and has greatly strengthened their capacity to use mosques as places of spirituality, education and socialization. The text is aimed at several specialized readerships: readers interested in Islam in West Africa, in the role of women in Islam, as well as those interested in the sociology and art-history of mosques.